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Monocots I.. Monocotyledons (Monocotyledonae, Monocots) Monophyletic group Comprise 22% of all angiosperms Relationships to other “basal” angiosperms.

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Presentation on theme: "Monocots I.. Monocotyledons (Monocotyledonae, Monocots) Monophyletic group Comprise 22% of all angiosperms Relationships to other “basal” angiosperms."— Presentation transcript:

1 Monocots I.

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3 Monocotyledons (Monocotyledonae, Monocots) Monophyletic group Comprise 22% of all angiosperms Relationships to other “basal” angiosperms unclear at present

4 Apomorphies of the Monocots Different stem vasculature Parallel leaf venation Single cotyledon NOTE: a trimerous flower merosity is not a Monocot apomorphy

5 Apomorphies of the Monocots Atactostele stem vasculature

6 Apomorphies of the Monocots Parallel leaf venation (penni-parallel in some)

7 Apomorphies of the Monocots Single cotyledon

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9 Liliaceae - Lily family Perennial Usually bulbous herbs, lacking an onion- like odor Basal or cauline leaves Inflorescence a raceme, umbel or of solitary flowers 16 genera / ca. 600 species

10 Liliaceae

11 Liliaceae – herbaceous perennials

12 Bulbs

13 Lillium

14 Tulipa

15 Loculicidal capsule – common fruit type in the Lilliaceae

16 Maianthemum – False Solomon’s Seal

17 Eremocrinum albomarginatum (Sand Lily)

18 Lilium philadelphicum (Wood Lily)

19 Orchidaceae - Orchid family Mycorrhizal, mostly perrennial, terrestrial or epiphytic herbs having trimerous flowers Showy labellum Androecium and gynoecium adnate Pollinia - pollen grains fused into a 1-several masses genera / ca. 20,000 species

20 Caladenia longiclavata Australia

21 labellum column

22 Cattleya sp.

23 Cymbidium sp.

24 Cypripedium sp. Lady’s Slipper

25 Dendrobium phalaenopsis

26 Dracula chimaera Dracula vampira

27 Encyclia sp. Cockleshell Orchid

28 Epidendrum sp.

29 Oncidium lanceanum

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31 Pseudobulb

32 Stanhopea trigrinum

33 Thelymitra antennifera Australia

34 Vanilla planifolia Vanilla Orchid

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36 Commelinid Monocots Apomorphy: UV-fluorescent organic acids (including coumaric, diferulic, and ferulic acid) that impregnate the cell walls.

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38 Arecaceae (Palmae) - Palm family Rhizomatous, lianous, or usually arborescent stem Large, sheathing, plicate leaves Fleshy, usually drupaceous fruit, and seeds lacking starch The plicate leaves is an apomorphy for the family. 190 genera / ca. 2,000 species.

39 Arecaceae – Palm Family

40 Fruit a drupe

41 Archontophoenix cunnighamiana King Palm

42 Syagrus romanzoffianum Queen Palm

43 Calamus Rattan Palm

44 Chamaerops humilis Mediterranean Palm

45 Licuala peltata

46 Nypa fruticans - a rhizomatous palm

47 Phoenix canariensis Canary I. Palm

48 Phoenix dactylifera Date Palm

49 Sabal urseana

50 Washingtonia filifera Desert Fan Palm

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52 Washingtonia robustaZombia antillarum

53 Bromeliaceae - Bromeliad family Perrenial terrestrial or epiphytic herbs or shrubs with surface peltate scales, Colorful bracts Trimerous flowers with typically twisted stigmas. P 3+3 or (3)+(3) A 3+3 G 3, superior or inferior. 59 genera / 2,400 species

54 Peltate scales

55 fr. Pierce, 2006

56 Twisted Styles

57 Aechmea

58 Ananas comosus Pineapple

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63 Dyckia dawsonii

64 Neoregalia

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66 Tillandsia fasciculata

67 Tillandsia usneoides Spanish moss


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