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Chapter 9 The Transformation of American Society: 1815-1840.

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1 Chapter 9 The Transformation of American Society:

2 Westward expansion To the west most Americans within 100 miles of Atlantic Coast % between Appalachians and Mississippi river Typically families made the move (security/farm labor needs) Generally near rivers at first (crops to market) Society and customs Work combined with social life “Bees”, etc Clear division of labor male/female Men - cut trees/plow Women milk/cook/sew/raise kids Unusual amt of equality assumed (I can borrow yr stuff because you have enough and I need some!)

3 De Toqueville ( Democracy in America) writes of social equality to a degree far surpassing France (and in fact, Europe) read notated quote, p. 49 French political thinker and historian. His most famous works is Democracy in America (appearing in two volumes: 1835 and 1840) and and The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856). His work based on his travels in the United States, Democracy in America, is frequently used in courses in 19th century United States Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel de Tocqueville (July 29, 1805–April 16, 1859)

4 Way out West Traders/trappers/mountain men Pike, Smith, Kit Carson, etc Government involvement in settling the West States ceded lands to government (“ The Public Domain”) under “Articles of Confederation” Land Ordinance of 1785 ( plans for surveying, sales) Northwest Ordinance of 1787 (orderly transformation from territories to states) Land promised to War of 1812 volunteers (6 million acres!) Funding westward extension of the National Road (1816) Now US route 40 Reached Mississippi river by 1838 Beginning of the end for Indians claims to land

5 Indian Removal Huge problems in southwest (modern MS, AL, and N.W. GA, TN) Large areas held by the 5 “Civilized Tribes” (Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, Cherokee and Seminole) Many half bloods among tribal groups half bloods influential farmed, prayed, owned slaves like whites full bloods more likely to cling to tribal lands 1820s - AL, MS, GA white legislatures pressure Indians survey tribal lands, allow “squatters” on them pass laws discriminating against Indians, keeping them from legal recourse

6 The southern gold rush, the first in U. S
The southern gold rush, the first in U.S. history, reached Georgia with the discovery of the Dahlonega Gold Belt in The Georgia gold fields, however, lay in and around Cherokee territory. In 1830 the State of Georgia extended its authority over the area, and two years later the land was raffled off in a lottery. Although they resisted this land grab through the courts, the Cherokees were eventually driven west along the Trail of Tears into what is today northeastern Oklahoma Discovery of gold In Georgia in 1829, made Cherokee land desirable to miners, 10 years later the Cherokee and others were deported to Indian Territory (Oklahoma)

7 President Jackson, Indian hater, approves
pushed passage of Indian Removal Act of 1830 authorized exchange of western public lands (Oklahoma territory) for Tribal lands allocated $500,000 to pay for the move (grossly insufficient) Results during Jackson’s administrations ( ) 100 million acres of Indian land exchanged for 32 million of public land Seminole war (they didn’t want to leave) cost $20 million alone, 1500 lives

8 Born in a backwoods settlement in the Carolinas in 1767, he received sporadic education, but in his late teens he read law for about two years, and he became an outstanding young lawyer in Tennessee. According to Daniel Webster, Thomas Jefferson in retirement said of Jackson in December of 1824 during a meeting with Webster: "I feel much alarmed at the prospect of seeing General Jackson President. He is one of the most unfit men I know of for such a place. He has had very little respect for laws or constitutions, and is, in fact, an able military chief. His passions are terrible. When I was President of the Senate he was a Senator; and he could never speak on account of the rashness of his feelings. I have seen him attempt it repeatedly, and as often choke with rage. His passions are no doubt cooler now; he has been much tried since I knew him, but he is a dangerous man." Andrew Jackson Seventh President “Old Hickory”

9 New Echota State Historic Site
In 1825, the Cherokee national legislature established a capital called New Echota. A thriving town, this new governmental seat became headquarters for the small independent Indian nation that once covered present-day northern Georgia, western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee and northwestern Alabama.

10 Cherokees, Andrew Jackson and John Marshall
Cherokee proclaim independent republic in NW GA GA legislature claims state jurisdiction over same territory Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) denies claim of an independent republic, instead they are a “domestic dependent nation” Worcester v. Georgia clarifies Cherokees to be a “distinct political community” entitled to Federal protection - Jackson ignored the ruling Treaty of New Echota (1835) all Cherokee lands in the US sold for 5.6 million, and a free trip to the new “Indian Territory” (modern Oklahoma) Congress ratifies , almost all Cherokees denounce it US Army forcibly relocates almost all Cherokees (some remain in western NC hills, still there today) of all removed west, 1/3 to 1/4 die on the way “The Trail of Tears”

11 Jackson’s hatred of Indians was a matter of record, and led to his being willing to defy the U.S. Supreme Court and order the removal of the Cherokee from Georgia to Oklahoma Jackson

12 Northwest Indians Same final result as Cherokee Red Bird leads Winnebago rebellion, crushed Black Hawk’s War Chief of Sac and Fox tribes, resists removal moves 1831 across Mississippi, but returns following year 1832, Illinois militia (including young Abraham Lincoln) and federal troops attack, annihilate Black Hawk and followers, as they tried to recross into Iowa most others got the “message” went to Indian Territory 1832 to 1837 US took 190 million acres in the “Old Northwest” Paid $70 million in gifts and annual payments Typically, there was little relationship between which tribal groups had control of the land and those chiefs who signed the treaties. (“they all look alike??”)


14 Keokuk, Sac/Fox chief, refused to support Black Hawk
Keokuk, Sac/Fox chief, refused to support Black Hawk. Took money and gifts from Americans, went to Indian territory Black Hawk Sac/Fox chief Leader of Black Hawk’s rebellion, killed Red Bird, Winnebago Resisted deportation, killed



17 Agricultural Boom Post war of 1812 farm prices high Move west for better farm land Brisk demand in Europe for corn and wheat Urbanization builds dependence on commercial farms Mississippi natural highway from midwest to Gulf Cotton Gin 1793, Eli Whitney from 1 slave cleaning 1 pound per day to 50 pounds per hour! Large demand in Europe for cotton cloth MS and AL half nation’s cotton production By 1836 cotton 2/3 of all US exports. “Cotton was King”

18 From 1820-1860 world cotton production increases 5% per year
From world cotton production increases 5% per year. US production keeps up the pace, growing almost logarithmically By 1850, cotton represents 2/3 of all US exports. Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1794

19 Growth of The Market Economy
Cash crops - crops raised for market, vice family consumption In South, cotton, slave dependent for production Risks Frequently had to borrow to get crop in ground or to buy the “ground” Long wait till harvest Weather dependent

20 Land Policy Early preference for orderly settlement of Public Domain Ordinance of orderly procedures for survey and sales Federalists wanted to slow westward movement (eroded their northeastern powerbase) Federalists encouraged sales to speculators Republicans (Jefferson) reduced minimum purchase amount from 640 acres (a section) which most farmers couldn’t afford to 320 in $2/acre 160 acres in $1.64/acre 80 acres in 1820, 40 acres in $1.25/acre

21 Speculators bought sections, subdivided as small as 40 acres could clear only 10 to 12 acres annually anyway US Bank recharter spurred bank note production Plethora of speculation 1819 Panic crashed the economy Squatters settled on unimproved land regardless of ownership generally gained right of “preemption” (allowed to purchase and register land at minimum $ that they had settled and improved) only before land was sold to speculators Had to forgo subsistence crops to pay off debts forced to produce cash crops to make money, exhausted land, moved on

22 Panic of 1819 Land boom collapsed
State banks poor management caused much of it Proliferation of bank notes, farmers borrowed heavily to buy more land US Bank insisted on specie vice paper to repay loans to state banks Land prices from $69/acre to $2/acre!! Farm market prices bottomed Farmers couldn’t repay loans, went bust Horribly bad press for US Bank, (A. Jackson lost money in the crash too!!) The panic was frightening in its scope and impact. In New York State, property values fell from $315 million in 1818 to $256 million in In Richmond, property values fell by half. In Pennsylvania, land values plunged from $150 an acre in 1815 to $35 in In Philadelphia, 1808 individuals were committed to debtors' prison. In Boston, the figure was 3500.

23 Transportation revolution
Midwest rivers north/south Need for waterway improvement 1807- Robert Fulton’s Clermont first successful steamboat in world Gained monopoly from NY to run a ferry service to NJ Challenged in fed. Court in Gibbons v Ogden (John Marshall ruled Fed. Power to regulate interstate commerce overruled NY state legislature) Causes numerous state granted monopolies to collapse

24 Robert Fulton, ( ) American painter and inventor The Clermont, Robert Fulton’s first steamboat, sail up the Hudson on its first run from New York City, 1807


26 Various scenes of the Erie Canal
Various scenes of the Erie Canal. Lower left is the Seneca Chief, first barge through the canal in 1825, the painting is contemporaneous. The Canal still operates today over much of its 360 mile length. It has 83 locks and at minimum is 40 feet wide and 4 feet deep!

27 Steamboat cause revolution in Mississippi/Ohio transportation
Caused decrease in interest in turnpikes, interest shift to canals Thought of connecting Great Lakes/Mississippi by canal (actually done today) Erie Canal completed links Hudson River to Lake Erie Brief canal building boom in North, ended as panic of 1837 and rise of cheaper railroads (beginning in 1830) After 1830s Railroads attract far more investment, track cheaper than canal digging

28 Steamboat on Mississippi ca 1855
Steamboat on Mississippi ca Design hadn’t changed much since 1820s. Flat bottom and stern wheel were essential for navigating the shallow and treacherous Mississippi

29 Railroads - First (Baltimore and Ohio) chartered 1828
easier than canal to go through mountains slow growth non-standard track gauges cheap construction still cheaper for bulk cargo by water east coast to Great Lakes by rail by 1850 Growth of cities Accelerated by transportation revolution Most intense NYC from 124,000 (1820) to 800,000 in 1860 towns on canals boomed (ex Rochester NY, from sleepy town to Flour City by 1830) River cities thrive more than landlocked

30 Decorated plate commemorating the B&O railroad

31 Modern reproduction of an early type of engine
A steam locomotive called the Dewitt Clinton hauled carriages on railroad tracks in the early 1830s

32 Industrial Beginnings
New England and textiles lead as agriculture in region wanes in importance Lowell Mills in Mass, 10 times capacity of previous cotton mills By 1836, 8 mills, 9000 workers (Lowell) More complete than Slater’s Rhode Island mills Raw cotton in one end, cloth out the other Hired young, unmarried women carefully supervised as to living, working conditions nasty working conditions, hot, lint in air, humid self contained , vice other industries which still used “outwork” piecework done in domestic settings finishing/assembly done in factories

33 Mid Atlantic cities NY, Philadelphia also dependent on outwork Lacked New England’s falling streams Small shops, piecework Artisans begin to form craftsmen groups, late 1820s Attempting to gain better wages, working conditions Many workers falling into poverty, in a laissez -faire workplace and market place

34 Why is it difficult for the industrial revolution to come to America?
people wanted to be farmers, plenty of land had raw materials but not machines a lot of people had technological ingenuity, but very little specialized knowledge most people didn't have money or leisure to worry about luxuries England wanted to prevent industrialization in America negative attitude about impact of factories on society people invested their money in trade

35 Thomas Jefferson didn't think factories were a good idea, even though he liked gadgets
The new nation was to be a republic, which required a balance of power, liberty, and virtue Who makes a good voter? a yeoman farmer--independent, self-respecting. “ You can't have republic without a virtuous citizenry.” ( Jefferson quote) The workers in British factory cities were clearly degraded The trade embargo by the British in 1807 that led eventually to the war of 1812 convinced Jefferson to change his mind The new nation couldn't afford to be dependent on England for imported goods


37 Factory Floor at Slater Mill Historic Site


39 Equality and Inequality
Widening rich-poor gap in early 1800s Small % control majority of wealth Rich Exhibit conspicuous consumption, flaunt wealth Live among peers, isolated from poverty Many Attempt to look ordinary in public, keep appearances of equality paying minimal wages inadequate for male workers to provide sufficiently from factory work for family Poor Close to poverty More affected by panics - laid off, wages reduced Paupers (aged, sick) considered the “deserving” poor Drunks, loafers considered the “undeserving” poor

40 Immigrants Numerous, increasing in number as century progressed Irish poorest, evicted by English landlords, many came to US most canal diggers on Erie were Irish Five Points district in NYC horrible slum, predominately Irish (See “Gangs of New York”) Catholic as well as poor, double whammy for the Irish widely discriminated against (“dogs and Irish keep off the grass”, “Help wanted Irish need not apply”)


42 Free Blacks in North Bottom of non slave social scale Many discriminative laws in North Most lost vote between , or had restrictions which didn’t apply to whites segregation widely practiced in schools, hospitals, etc barred from many municipal facilities open to whites forced into lowest paying jobs paid less than whites for same work in most cases Churches Blacks form own churches African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Founded 1816, in Philadelphia by Richard Allen (first A.M.E. bishop)

43 “Middling” classes Professionals, small merchants, landowner farmers Artisans moved into this sphere in some cases Some moved into greater business (contractors, sales, entrepreneurship) Much higher degree of mobility. Transience than earlier generations, by steamboat, rail

44 Changing Social relationships
Principal motives questioning authority more than any other world culture spirit of 1776, and all that stuff notion of women’s “separate sphere” in the home no social rights to speak of outside home more authority inside home, family circle Attacking the professions decrease in respect for educated professionals among middle, lower classes value of training, degrees minimized by many value of the “self made” man emphasized made ministers more transient, subject to dismissal by congregations frontier respected authority little, titles assumed by anyone who cared to, “judge”, “colonel”, “squire”

45 Family authority questioned
more choice of spouses by women working outside home by choice longer engagements women who remained single rather than forfeit independence Wives and husbands Separate spheres mothers expected to be the experts in child rearing father provider role unchanged, mother role increased in scope Idealized home, provider father, expert child rearing mother in a safe haven away from trials and evils Women’s issues birthrate gradually decrease - farming becomes less prevalent in northeast Various forms of pregnancy prevention, including unnamed abortions in many cases separate spheres seen by many (mostly men) as an alternate to real equality of rights.

46 Architect A.J. Downing designed single family, ideal homes with comfortable rooms and wide windows

47 Horizontal allegiances and Voluntary associations
Vertical Allegiances - typical “chain of authority” top to bottom employee or individual identifies self interest with superiors in chain of command family hierarchy, apprentice-journeyman-foreman-boss relationship Horizontal allegiances workers organizations, for example more in common with each other than with the boss fraternal organizations, debating societies All these voluntary associations, not government ordained or even sanctioned encouraged sociability many gender specific some moralistic in nature Generally any workingman’s organization that even looked, smelled or acted remotely like a union was met with hostility by businessman and government alike.

48 Quick Review!

49 Government and Markets
14th Congress (1815) Chartered national bank Enacted a protective tariff Debated federally funded system of roads and canals Many argued that national independence would be achieved through subsidies to commerce and manufactures 2

50 The American System: The Bank of the United States
Henry Clay Second Bank of the United States (1816) (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved 2

51 The American System: Tariffs and Internal Improvements
Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun Tariff of 1816 Internal Improvements Presidents Madison and James Monroe oppose internal improvements State government and internal improvements Erie Canal 3

52 Markets and the Law Courts prioritize legal principles desired by merchant class John Marshall Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1816) McCulloch v. Maryland (1816) Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) State courts: right to develop property for business purposes more important than neighborhood wishes 4

53 The Transportation Revolution
After 1815: dramatic improvements in transportation: Roads Steamboats Canals Railroads Tied communities together Made a market society physically possible 2

54 Transportation in 1815 Land transport very expensive compared to water
flatboats Keelboats Earliest steamboats 5

55 Improvements: Roads and Rivers
Transportation revolution National Road Robert Fulton Clermont (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved 6

56 Improvements: Canals and Railroads
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Erie Canal DeWitt Clinton Model for canal boom across country New York Central 9

57 Rivers, Roads, and Canals, 1825-1860

58 Time and Money Freight costs went down Speeds improved
Market revolution Foreign trade continued to expand Growing internal domestic market 13

59 Markets and Regions Market-driven economy: “market revolution”
Farmers trade their surpluses for urban products Until 1840 markets more regional than national North will become unified market in 1840s and 1850s 15

60 From Yeomen to Businessmen: The Rural North and West
Many young people of Northeast left for cities and factory towns, or headed West Remaining generations began new forms of agriculture Northwest was transformed from wilderness into cash-producing farms 2

61 Shaping the Northern Landscape
New England farmers could not compete with western, frontier farmers Livestock raising replaced mixed farming for many New Englanders – transformed the woodlands into open pastures Factories and cities of Northeast provided Yankee farmers a market for their meats and perishables More pasture, less cropland 18

62 The Transformation of Rural Outwork
Position of outworkers declines Manufacture began to concentrate in factories Outworkers were reduced to dependence on merchants, who began to control the labor of outworkers 20

63 Farmers as Consumers New England farmers became customers for necessities that they had once either produced or acquired through barter Coal, cotton cloth, straw hats, shoes 1820s: storekeepers increased their stock in trade by 45% Material standards of living rose Increased dependence on and vulnerability to markets 21

64 The Northwest: Northern Migrants
1830: northeasterners migrated to the Northwest via the Erie Canal and on Great Lakes steamboats Wisconsin and Michigan Immigrants from Germany and Scandinavia New settlers: receptive to improvements in farming techniques and intensive agriculture 23

65 Households 19th Century: Americans begin to limit the size of their households Commercialization of agriculture closely associated with the new concept of housework: Male work vs. female work New expectations of female tasks New notions of privacy, decency, domestic comforts Emergence of separate kitchens and bedrooms 24

66 The Industrial Revolution
: American cities grew faster than ever before or since Seaport cities gain more from commerce with interior than overseas Beginnings of industry and the greatest period of urban growth in U.S. history The Industrial Revolution 2

67 Factory Towns: The Rhode Island System
Jeffersonians—factory towns are bad and overcrowded with dependent masses Neo-Federalists: U.S. can make decentralized factories Richard Arkwright Samuel Slater Rhode Island (or family) system 27

68 Urban Businessmen Acceptance of urban class divisions:
Seaport merchants and wealthy men of finance new middle class impoverished producers, laborers Commercial classes transformed the look and feel of American cities Downtown business offices Main Street storefronts Shopping markets in Boston, Philadelphia, Rochester 29

69 Metropolitan Industrialization
Growth in amount of laborers who made consumer goods Pre-1850s: few goods were made in mechanized factories – most were made by hand Urban working class Clothing and shoe manufacturing Men skilled labor, women unskilled Social distinctions between manual and non-manual labor 30

70 The Market Revolution in the South
Cotton belt extended into Mississippi, Texas, Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana 1840s: cotton accounted for one-half to two-thirds the value of all U.S. exports South produced three-fourths the world’s cotton supply 2

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