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 Republican  Won election in 1920  “return to normalcy”  Nothing but “normal”  Increase in efficiency of production  Climb in wages  Decline in.

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Presentation on theme: " Republican  Won election in 1920  “return to normalcy”  Nothing but “normal”  Increase in efficiency of production  Climb in wages  Decline in."— Presentation transcript:


2  Republican  Won election in 1920  “return to normalcy”  Nothing but “normal”  Increase in efficiency of production  Climb in wages  Decline in hours worked  Weaknesses in the economy helped bring about the great depression

3  Technological innovations increased industrial output  Electric replaced steam  1914-30% of factories were electrified  1929-70% relied on electric motor  Unskilled and semi-skilled workers  Mass production techniques  Consumer durable goods: automobiles, radios, washing machines, telephones

4  Steady growth for building of residential and non-residential housing  Growth of automobile led to demand for new housing  Suburban living became more attractive  Expanded credit by savings and loan companies made housing affordable  Residential mortgage debt jumped $8 billion in 1919 to 27 billion in 1929

5  New corporate ideal: Sloan of GM, Young of Radio Corporation of America  Salaried executives, plant managers, engineers= new elite  Psychology tests, scientific management made business more efficient  1920-200 largest corporations owned ½ the nations corporate wealth  OLIGOPOLY- the control of a market by a few larger producers

6  Challenge the power and appeal of trade unions and collective bargaining  Large employers promoted programs to improve worker well-being and morale  Corporate strategy  Example: encourage workers to acquire property through stock purchase plans  Example: Workers insurance policies  Anti-union campaigns- “The American Plan”

7  Union membership dropped from 5 million in 1920 to 3.5 million in 1926  Remaining union members-skilled craft

8  Postwar automobile explosion  Rise to prominence  American made approx. 85% of worlds cars  Most productive industry in the US during the 1920’s  New wage scale for workers  Workers were consumers as well as producers  2/3 of Ford’s workforce were immigrants  Employed more African Americans

9  General Motors vs Ford  Chevy vs Model T  Cars made exploration possible  Church on Sunday  Visit neighbors  Vacations  Leisure activities  Young people-more freedom “dates”

10  Urban growth on steady increase  New York grew by 20%  Detroit doubled population  Cities offered jobs, culture, freedom  Great Migration  Skylines-cities grew vertical and horizontal  Suburban communities grew 2x the rate of core cities

11  Wartime=prosperity for farmers  Demand is less after WWI  Farmers acquired heavy debt  Farm mortgages & machinery  Stiff competition from Europe  Relief came by way of supermarkets but farmers still struggled to make ends mee t

12  Stabilize farm prices  Government purchased farm surpluses  Oil & gas led to decrease in coal industry  Textiles decreased


14 Observation: Organized labor declines in power.  The cause?  The effect?

15 The Ford Assembly Line

16  “Roaring Twenties”  Movies, Radio, new journalism  New media altered the way of life  New mass culture helped redefine the ideal of “the good life”  Movie Industry-centered in New York  Cheap storefront theatres-Nickelodeons  1914-18,000 “movie houses”

17  1927- The Jazz Singer  Introduced sound to movies  New genres: musicals, gangster films, screwball comedies became popular  “talkies”-higher cost  Stars became vital to the fantasy life of millions of fans  Movies emphasized social themes, youth, athleticism  Government censorship-Will Hays  Movie Industry Czar

18  Live broadcasts  First radio stations footed the bill for the broadcasting but by the late 1920’s advertising took it over  NBC & CBS led the way  Sports broadcasts, daily programing, music


20  New kind of newspaper=tabloid  New York Daily News  Photographs  Emphasized sex, scandal and sports  Discovered an audience who never read newspapers before  Most readers were poorly educated, working class and immigrants  Gossip columns

21  Between 1920 and 1929 daily newspaper circulation rose from 28 million to almost 40 million.  By 1929 Americans were buying 200 million copies of magazines.  Saturday Evening Post, Readers Digest, Ladies Home Journal, and Time were popular.


23  Advertising jumped from 1.4 billion in 1919 to 3 billion in 1929  Larger ad agencies welcomed psychology to advertising  Began to focus on the needs, desires and anxieties of the consumer  Most popular advertisement “Listerine”

24  Records transformed the popular music busisness  Dance crazes: fox trot, tango, grizzly bear  Records provided music for new polular dances like the Charleston and the black bottom  1921 more than 200 companies produced some 2 million records and annual record sales exceeded 100 million  Country music was put on records for the 1 st time

25  Spectator sports enjoyed an unprecedented growth  Athletes took their place alongside movie stars  Image of the modern athlete: rich, famous, glamorous, a rebel against social convention came into its own  “Babe Ruth”-made baseball popular  Ruth was a larger than life figure off the field- embraced the New York culture  Excluded from major league baseball = African Americans

26  Negro National League  Organized by Andrew “Rube” Foster  Played exhibitions against white teams often winning


28  Radio broadcasts and journalism made sports popular  College football=big time sport  Notre Dame-coached by Knute Rockne  “the Four Horsemen of Notre Dame”  Shifted from Ivy league schools to big universities  Other athletes: Jack Dempsey, Gene Tunney, Helen Wills, Gertrude Ederle became household names

29  Charles Lindbergh – 1927 NY to Paris  Amelia Earhart – 1932 CA to Hawaii  Jack Dempsey- Heavyweight Champ  Babe Ruth – 60 HR in 1927, Yankees  Gertrude Ederle – Gold medalist 1924


31  Flapper: portrayed on screen and in novels  Young, sexually aggressive woman with bobbed hair, rouged cheeks and short skirts  Loved to dance to jazz music, enjoyed smoking cigarettes and drank bootleg liquor  Competitive, assertive and a good pal  Embodied the “new morality”  Not as widespread as the image would suggest  Jazz=sexual experimentation/spread to college campuses


33  A set of standards granting greater sexual freedom to men than to women  Women were required to observe stricter standards of behavior than men did  Women were pulled back and forth between new standards and the old

34  Troops during WWI exposed to sex education  Sigmund Freud stressed the central role of sexuality in human experience  Sex is positive and healthy  Birth control review after WWI  Advertisers used sex to sell products  Number of virgins before marriage dropped in the 1920’s  “morals” loosened


36  15% of wage earning women became professionals, although businesses remained prejudice towards women.  Only 35% of women voted in 1920.  Progressive women did lobby the Shepard –Towner Act which aided women and children. (Infant/Pre-natal care.)  Jeanette Rankin WY, US House of Reps.

37  The Birth Rate dropped during the 1920’s  Birth Control information was widespread  Margaret Sanger ( First BC Clinic 1916)  Some 1920’s women juggled work and career  Leisure Time increased

38  Republican party dominated national politics  Relationship between national government and business changed  Republicans: Harding, Coolidge, Hoover  Harding understood his own limitations  Surrounded himself with his cronies or friends “Ohio Gang”  No problems with enemies but his friends “Kept him walking the floor at night”

39  Harding favored a limited role for government in business affairs and social reform  Herbert Hoover- Secretary of Commerce  Andrew Mellon-Secretary of Treasury- cut taxes and reduced debt-one of richest men in US  Mellon’s policies succeeded in rolling back much of the progressive taxation associated with Wilson

40  OHIO GANG- president’s poker playing cronies  President did not understand many issues  Corrupt friends used power to gain wealth  Charles R. Forbes- head of Veterans bureau was caught illegally selling government and hospital supplies to private companies

41  TEAPOT DOME SCANDAL- government had set aside oil rich public lands at Teapot Dome, Wyoming and Elk Hills, California for U.S. Naval usage  Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall- got oil reserves transferred to the Interior Department  Leased the land to two private companies  Received more than $400,000 in loans, bonds and cash  Became the first American to be convicted of a felony while holding a cabinet position

42  August 2, 1923 Harding died of a heart attack or stroke or ?????  Americans mourned good natured president  Calvin Coolidge took over presidency  Restore nation’s hope in Republican party  Next year elected president

43  Temperamental opposite of Harding  Raised in Vermont-Governor of Massachusetts  “Silent Cal” was a new England Yankee  Coolidge won election in 1924  Benefitted from prosperity  Coolidge showed most interest in reducing federal spending, lowering taxes, and blocking congressional initiatives  Primary function was clearing the way for American businessmen

44  Secretary of Commerce  Became president in 1929  Hoover believed that the government need to only advise private citizens financially not control  Trusted individualism  Government encourages voluntary cooperation among corporations, consumers, workers, farmers, and small businessmen  Government provided an ideal climate for concentration of corporate wealth and power

45  1929, the 200 largest American corporations owned almost half the total corporate wealth  Vertical Combinations: large, integrated firms that controlled the raw materials, manufacturing and distribution for the products.  Vertical integration became common in the automobile, electrical, radio, motion picture and other new industries

46  U.S. emerged from World War I the strongest economic power in the world  War transformed the nation from the worlds largest debtor to the largest creditor  European governments owed the US about $10 billion  New York replaced London as the center of international finance and capital markets  Germany's War reparations set at $33 billion deprived them of their economy and means to repay

47  Germany was experiencing terrible inflation  Germany failed to make a payment and French troops marched into Germany  To avoid war Charles G. Dawes-American banker negotiated loans

48  Dawes Plan- American investors loaned Germany 2.5 billion to pay back Britain and France  Countries then paid the U.S.  The United States arranged to be repaid with its own money  U.S. benefited from the defeat of Germany without risking millions of lives

49  1928-the US and 62 other nations signed the Pact of Paris (Kellogg-Briand Pack)-renounced war in principal  Nations were disarming  Formally outlawed war  Pact was meaningless because it lacked powers of enforcement-relied on moral code  Within weeks the US had approved $250 million for new battleships

50  Throughout the 1920’s Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes pursued policies designed to expand American economic activity abroad  Capitalist economies must be dynamic  Expand markets to thrive  British tried to drive up the cost of rubber  American retaliated but threatening to take back loans  American investment in Latin America more than doubled

51  Prohibition-18 th amendment: banning the manufacture, sale and transportation of alcoholic beverages  January 1920  Associated drinking with the degradation of the working class family life and the worst evils of urban politics  Supporters: a coalition of women's temperance groups, middle class progressives, and rural protestants

52  Only about 1500 agents to police the entire country  Public demand for alcohol especially in cities led to widespread law-breaking  Drinking was a routine part of life  Bootlegging became a big business  Illegal stills and breweries, liquor smuggled in from Canada supplied the needs of Americans  “speakeasy”-people could drink and enjoy entertainment  Law enforcement was bribed

53  Prohibition led to organized crime  Smaller operations gave way to larger more complex combinations  Al Capone-Chicago-”called himself a businessman”  21 st amendment-repealed Prohibition  Organized crime was a permanent feature in life  Excitement associated with speakeasies and law- breaking contributed to increased drinking during prohibition

54  “New Immigrants” –southern and eastern Europe  Between 1891 and 1920 roughly 10.5 million immigrants arrived from southern and eastern Europe  2x as many arrived in the same years from northern and western Europe  “New immigrants” mostly catholic and jewish  They were darker skinned and generally poor and more exotic-less willing to assimilate

55  Anti-Catholic American protective association  Supported restriction on immigration  Postwar depression coincided with massive immigrations  Immigration Act of 1921-set a maximum of 357,00 new immigrants each year  Limited immigration from any European country to 3 percent  Immigration Act of 1924 maximum immigrants was cut to 124,000

56  100% Americanism  White Supremacy  Supporter enforcement of prohibition  Attacked birth control and Darwinism  Righteous defender of embattled traditional values  Native, White, Protestant Supremacy  Violence-whippings, arson, lynching (African Americans, Catholics, Jews)  Popular social movement

57  Fundamentalists emphasized a literal reading of the bible  Rejected the tenets of modern science as inconsistent with the revealed word of god  Theory of Evolution: Charles Darwin (fossil evidence) directly contradict the fixed creation in the Book of Genesis (Religious theory)  John T Scopes-broke Tennessee law in 1925 to challenge it in court  Scopes defense team: American Civil Liberties Union and Clarence Darrow (most famous trial lawyer in America)

58  Nicknamed the “monkey” trial  The prosecution led by William Jennings Bryan (fundamentalist and anti-evolutionist)  Scopes found guilty but later overturned on a technicality  Struggle over the teaching of evolution continues today  “Fundamentalism” a religious creed and cultural defense against the uncertainties of modern life

59  Prosperity was unevenly distributed  Unfulfilled promises in American Life  Feminists sought to redefine movement  Mexican immigration to the US shot up  African Americans disappointed in their treatment during and after the war

60  Mexican immigration increased  Economic and social conditions were difficult  African Americans disappointed at their treatment  FEMINISM  Women's movement split into two:  Should they stress differences in men or emphasize the ways women were like men

61  Should they stress differences in men?  Vulnerability?  Double burden of work and home  Should they emphasize the ways that women were like men-sharing similar aspirations and push for full legal and civil equality?  Women has a special role to play in society  National Women Suffrage Association-League of Women voters  Improve working conditions, abolish child labor, humanize prisons and mental facilities, serve the urban poor

62  League of Women voters  Represented mainstream of the women’s movement  Women had a special role to play bettering society, improving conditions, abolishing child labor, humanizing prisons and serving the urban poor  More militant group: National Woman’s Party (Alice Paul)  Did not believe in “protecting women”

63  “Men and Women should have equal rights…”  What does that mean?  Equal protection under the law but also…  No protection from exploitation  Drafted into military  No child care or maternity leave FAILED TO PASS 1921 Sheppard-Towner Act-established the first federally funded healthcare (prenatal and child health centers)

64  Mexican immigration was not included in the immigration laws of 1921 and 1924  Agricultural expansion=more jobs  More Mexican Immigrants stayed and settled in cities  Housing conditions generally poor  Disease and infant mortality rates were high  Long struggle to bring economic, social and racial equality to Mexican Americans

65  Migration to northern cities grew rapidly  New York City=Harlem  Demographic and cultural capital of black America  Overcrowded and unsanitary

66  What were the causes and results of the Great Migration of African Americans to Northern cities in the early 1900’s?  What was the prolific African – American artistic activity of the Harlem Renaissance ?

67  NYC’s Harlem was a cultural center for African Americans.  The Renaissance is known as a cultural and literary awakening as well as a time of black pride.  Authors:  Alan Locke - The New Negro (1925)  Zora Nele Hurston -Their Eyes are Watching God (1937)

68  Famous Poets:  Claude McCay – Harlem Shadows (1922)  Countee Cullen – Color  Langston Hughes – The Weary Blues, I Too (1926)

69  Paul Robeson – Major Dramatic Actor Ex. Othello Ethal Waters – Africana

70  Jelly Roll Morton  Benny Goodman  Louis Armstrong  Duke Ellington  Ma Rainey  Bessy Smith  Cab Calloway

71  The Great Migration saw 500,000 African Americans move North  NAACP -1909 – WEB Du Bois  Du Bois wrote The Crisis an NAACP magazine to highlight racial violence and to form a platform in the civil rights fight  1920’s – Executive Secretary of the NAACP James Weldon Johnson fought for anti-lynching laws

72  Marcus Garvey an immigrant from Jamaica believed African Americans should build a separate society.  In 1918 the UNIA was moved to Harlem  It promoted black owned businesses  He founded the “Black Star” Shipping Line  He inspired Black Pride  Proposed “ Back to Motherland Africa” Movement

73  Famous Artists: Edward Hopper, Rockwell Kent, Georgia O’Keeffe.  Famous Authors:  Sinclair Lewis -Babbit  F. Scott Fitzgerald –”JAZZ AGE”  Earnest Hemingway  Edna St. Vincent Millay - Youth  “ The Lost Generation ” –authors disconnected from the US and its values. (Critical of US Culture)

74  Election represented tensions in society:  Protestant vs catholic  Prohibition vs legal drinking  Small town life vs cosmopolitan life  Fundamentalism vs modernism  Traditional vs new mass media  Al Smith (Democratic) vs Herbert Hoover (Republican)  Hoover won easily-sucessfull and looking forward America

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