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Fostering Teamwork Through Organization Structure or Policy (cont’d)

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1 Fostering Teamwork Through Organization Structure or Policy (cont’d)
Selecting team-oriented members Using technology that facilitates teamwork Developing a team book

2 Cooperation Theory … a belief in cooperation and collaboration rather than competitiveness as a strategy for building teamwork.

3 Open-Book Management In open-book management every employee is trained, empowered, and motivated to understand and pursue the company’s business goals. Employees become business partners and perceive themselves to be members of the same team.

4 Outdoor Training and Team Development
Outdoor training is a form of learning by doing Participants acquire leadership and teamwork skills by confronting physical challenges and exceeding self-imposed limitations

5 The Leader-Member Exchange Model (LMX)
Proposes that leaders develop unique work relationships with group members Two subsets of employees result: The in-group is given additional rewards, responsibility, and trust in exchange for their loyalty and performance The out-group members are treated in accordance with a more formal understanding of leader-member relations

6 Figure 9-2 The Leader-Member Exchange Model

7 Motivation and coaching skills

8 Expectancy Theory The amount of effort people expend depends on how much reward they expect to get in return It is cognitive because it emphasizes the thoughts, judgments, and desires of the person being motivated It is a process theory because it attempts to explain how motivation takes place

9 Figure 10-1 The Expectancy Theory of Motivation

10 Implications Determine what levels and kinds of performance are needed to achieve organizational goals Make the performance level attainable by the individuals being motivated Train and encourage people Make explicit the link between rewards and performance

11 Implications (cont’d)
Make sure the rewards are large enough Analyze what factors work in opposition to the effectiveness of the reward Explain the meaning and implications of second-level outcomes Understand individual differences in valences Recognize that when workers are in a positive mood, high valences, instrumentalities, and expectancies are more likely to lead to good performance

12 Goal Theory Behavior is regulated by values and goals
A goal is what a person is trying to accomplish People desire to behave in ways consistent with their values

13 Figure Goal Theory

14 Successful Recognition
Has symbolic meaning Inspires pride of ownership Helps to reinforce the philosophy or identity of the giver


16 Figure 10-3 Coaching Versus the Traditional Way of Thinking about Management

17 Fallacies About Coaching
Coaching applies only in one-to-one work Coaching is mostly about providing new knowledge and skills If coaches go beyond giving instruction in knowledge and skills, they are in danger of getting into psychotherapy Coaches need to be expert in something in order to coach Coaching has to be done face-to-face

18 Coaching Skills and Techniques
Communicate clear expectations to group members Build relationships Give feedback on areas that require specific improvement Listen actively Help remove obstacles

19 Coaching Skills and Techniques (cont’d)
Give emotional support Reflect content or meaning Give some gentle advice and guidance Allow for modeling of desired performance and behavior Gain a commitment to change Applaud good results

20 Executive Coaching An executive coach (or business coach) is an outside or inside specialist who advises a person about personal improvement and behavioral change

21 Communication and Conflict Resolution Skills

22 Communication and Leadership
Effective leaders are also effective communicators To be effective, the leader must synchronize verbal and nonverbal behavior Technology has had a meaningful impact on leaders’ communication and coordination

23 Inspirational Speaking and Writing
Be credible Gear your message to the listener Sell group members on the benefits of your suggestions Use heavy-impact and emotion-provoking words

24 Inspirational Speaking and Writing (cont’d)
Use anecdotes and metaphors to communicate meaning Back up conclusions with data (to a point) Minimize language errors, junk words, and vocalized pauses Write crisp, clear memos, letters, and reports, including a front- loaded message Use a power-oriented linguistic style

25 Principles of Persuasion
Liking: People like those who like them Reciprocity: People repay in kind Social proof: People follow the lead of similar others

26 Principles of Persuasion (cont’d)
Consistency: People align with their clear commitments Authority: People defer to experts Scarcity: People want more of what they can have less of

27 Principles of Supportive Communication
Problem oriented, not person oriented Descriptive, not evaluative Based on congruence, not incongruence Focused on validating, rather than invalidating, people Specific, not global

28 Principles of Supportive Communication (cont’d)
Conjunctive, not disjunctive Owned, not disowned Requires listening as well as sending messages

29 Overcoming and Preventing Communication Barriers
Be sensitive to the fact that cross-cultural communication barriers exist Challenge your cultural assumptions Show respect for all workers Use straightforward language, and speak slowly and clearly

30 Overcoming and Preventing Communication Barriers (cont’d)
Look for signs of misunderstanding when your language is not the listener’s native language When the situation is appropriate, speak the language of the people from another culture Observe cross-cultural differences in etiquette

31 Overcoming and Preventing Communication Barriers (cont’d)
Do not be diverted by style, accent, grammar, or personal appearance Avoid racial or ethnic identification except when it is essential to communication Be sensitive to differences in nonverbal communication Be attentive to individual differences in appearance

32 Figure 12-1 Conflict-Handling Styles According to the Degree of Cooperation and Assertiveness

33 Conflict Management Styles
The competitive style is a desire to win one’s own concerns at the expense of the other party, or to dominate The accommodative style favors appeasement, or satisfying the other’s concerns without taking care of one’s own The sharing style is halfway between domination and appeasement

34 Conflict Management Styles (cont’d)
The collaborative style reflects a desire to fully satisfy the desires of both parties The avoidant style combines unassertiveness and a lack of cooperation

35 Negotiating and Bargaining
Conflicts can be considered situations calling for negotiating and bargaining, or conferring with another person in order to resolve a problem Two approaches to negotiation: Distributive bargaining (zero sum) Integrative bargaining (win-win)

36 Negotiation Techniques
Begin with a plausible demand or offer Focus on interests, not position Search for the value in differences between the two sides Be sensitive to international differences in negotiating style

37 International and Culturally Diverse aspects of leadership

38 Multicultural Leader A leader with skills and attitudes to relate effectively to and motivate people across race, gender, age, social attitudes, and lifestyles

39 Figure 14-2 Dimensions of Individual Values

40 European Styles of Management
French managers (who are typically part of an elite class) behave in a superior, authoritarian manner. German middle managers tend to avoid uncertainty, are assertive, and are not terribly considerate of others

41 Malaysian Managers Emphasize collective well-being (collectivism) and display a strong humane orientation The culture discourages aggressive, confrontational behavior, preferring harmonious relationships

42 Culturally Sensitive Leader
Willing to acquire knowledge about local customs Willing to learn to speak the language Patient Adaptable Flexible Willing to listen and learn

43 Cultural Intelligence (CQ)
… an outsider’s ability to interpret someone’s unfamiliar and ambiguous gestures the way that person’s compatriots would.

44 Facets of Cultural Intelligence (CQ)
Cognitive CQ (head) Physical CQ (body) Emotional/motivational CQ (heart)

45 Global Leadership Skills
Behavioral complexity that allows the leader to attain corporate profitability and productivity, continuity and efficiency, commitment and morale, and adaptability and innovation Stewardship Ability to satisfy three metavalues including: community, pleasure, and meaning

46 Global Leadership Skills
Cultural sensitivity Culturally adventurous Good command of a second language


48 Cultural Diversity Initiatives
Hold managers accountable for achieving diversity Establish minority recruitment, retention, and mentoring programs Conduct diversity training

49 Cultural Diversity Initiatives (cont’d)
Conduct intercultural training Encourage the development of employee networks Avoid group characteristics when hiring for person-organization fit

50 Inter-Cultural Training
A set of learning experiences designed to help employees understand the customs, traditions, and beliefs of another language

51 Figure 14-4 The Multicultural Organization

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