2ReviewHow did the impact of European imperialism on China differ from its impact on Russia and the Ottoman Empire?
3Unit 5: Industrialization and Global Integration (1750 – 1900)
4Essential learning: Africa, India, and the New British Empire (1750-1870)
5ObjectivesDescribe how different African leaders and peoples interacted with each other and how European nations’ relationship to African peoples changed during this period.
6Essential QuestionsHow did different African leaders and peoples interact with each other and how did European nations’ relationship to Africa? peoples change during this period.
7Map 26.1: Africa in the Nineteenth Century. Expanding trade drew much of Africa into global networks, but foreign colonies in 1870 were largely confined to Algeria and southern Africa. Growing trade, Islamic reform movements, and other internal forces created important new states throughout the continent.Map 26-1, p. 689
8Target: Changes and Exchanges in Africa Before 1870 – changed politically and expanded foreign trade.New African StatesClusters in sub-Sahara
9Shaka Zulu (r. 1818-1828) Zulu kingdom expanded by aggression. Lesotho and Swaziland states created to resist.
10Zulu in Battle Dress, 1838.Elaborate costumes helped impress opponents with the Zulus’ strength. Shown here are long-handled spears and thick leather shields.p. 686
11Islamic reform movement created another cluster in West African savannas. Hausa states.Sokoto Caliphate ( )
12Modernization in Egypt and Ethiopia Ismail (r )European advisers, revenues, and exports.Railroad and canal system.Debts led to partial occupation by France and Britain.
13Ethiopia 1840s –purchased modern weapons, created strong armies. Emperor Tewodros II (r ) – local weapons manufacturing.Yohannes IV (r ) – most highland regions under imperial rule.
14Europeans in Africa France’s conquest of Algeria. French failure to repay grain debt for Napoleon’s 1798 invasion of Egypt led to disputes.French attacked Algeria in 1830 and won.
15Adventurous explorers traveled to Inner Africa. Assess mineral wealth, convert Africans to Christianity.Traced course of rivers.
16Abolition and Legitimate Trade Increased trade between West Africa and Europe.Great Britain and the US made importing slaves from Africa illegal.Transatlantic slave trade ended in 1867.
17Cloth, metals, etc. in exchange for slaves. Expanded “legitimate” trade.Altered social structure of coastal trading communities.
18Spread of Western cultural influences in West Africa. Sierra Leone – Christian missionaries.1821 – free black Americans founded Republic of Liberia.Free blacks from Brazil and Cuba brought Roman Catholicism, architecture, clothing.
19Secondary Empires in Eastern Africa Slavers moved to eastern Africa.Ivory caravans under direction of African and Arab merchants.Europeans supplied weapons, major consumers of ivory and cloves.“Secondary empires.”
20Essential QuestionsHow did different African leaders and peoples interact with each other and how did European nations’ relationship to Africa? peoples change during this period.
22ReviewHow did different African leaders and peoples interact with each other and how did European nations’ relationship to Africa? peoples change during this period.
23Unit 5: Industrialization and Global Integration (1750 – 1900)
24Essential learning: Africa, India, and the New British Empire (1750-1870)
25ObjectivesDescribe how Britain secured its hold on India, and the colonial policies that led to the beginnings of Indian nationalism.
26Essential QuestionsHow did Britain secure its hold on India, and what colonial policies led to the beginnings of Indian nationalism?
27Map 26.2: India, 1707–1805.As Mughal power weakened during the eighteenth century, other Indian states and the East India Company expanded their territories.Map 26-2, p. 693
28Target: India Under British Rule – nearly all of India under British rule.Company MenMid 1700s – Maratha Confederation.Nawabs.
29British, Dutch, and French companies eager to expand trade into India in the 18th century. “Company men” established trading posts.Trained sepoys (Indian troops) to protect warehouses.
301691 – British East India Company (EIC) established fortified outpost at Calcutta. “Black Hole of Calcutta” (1756)
31Raj and Rebellion (1818-1857) India on a British model. EIC’s main goal – powerful gov’t backed by military.Christian missionaries.
32Private property.Bolstered “traditions.”Economic reform created new jobs, but drove many Indians out of handicraft textile industry.
33Sepoy Rebellion (1857)1856 law required new recruits to serve overseas.High caste Hindus objected
341857 – Cartridges of Enfield rifles greased with animal fat. Rebellion in May 1857.Muslim sepoys, peasants, discontented elites.Not yet a nationalist revolution.Little sense of a common national identity.
35Political Reform and Industrial Impact – New centralized gov’t, rapid economic growth, new national consciousness.1858 – end of Mughal and Company rule.1858 – equal protection of law and freedom of religion and social customs.
36Powerful and efficient bureaucracy controlled India. Members of the elite Indian Civil Service (ICS) held senior administrative and judicial posts.
37Delhi Durbar, January 1, 1903.The parade of Indian princes on ornately decorated elephants and accompanied by retainers fostered their sense of belonging to the vast empire of India that British rule had created.p. 698
45ReviewHow did Britain secure its hold on India, and what colonial policies led to the beginnings of Indian nationalism?
46Unit 5: Industrialization and Global Integration (1750 – 1900)
47Essential learning: Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism (1800-1870)
48ObjectivesEvaluate the role the abolition of slavery and the continued growth of British overseas trade played in the immigration to the Caribbean and elsewhere of peoples from Africa, India, and Asia.
49Essential QuestionsWhat role did the abolition of slavery and the continued growth of British overseas trade play in the immigration to the Caribbean and elsewhere of peoples from Africa, India, and Asia?
50Map 26.3: European Possessions in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific, 1870. By 1870 the British controlled much of India, were settling Australia and New Zealand, and possessed important trading enclaves throughout the region.Map 26-3, p. 702
51Target: Britain’s Eastern Empire Colonies and CommerceBritain took over Dutch possessions overseas in 1795.– Cape Colony, Malacca, and Ceylon.Dutch Guiana and Trinidad.
52Cape Colony – supply station for voyages between Britain and India. Descendants of Dutch and French settlers on farms and ranches in the hinterland.“Afrikaners”Alienated by British decision to prohibit their expansion.Great Trek ( )
53Singapore – center of trade and shipping between the Indian Ocean and China. Burma
54Imperial Policies and Shipping Goal of most British imperial expansion – trade.Most of the new colonies – ports or centers of production and distribution.
55Lands provided raw materials in return for manufactured goods. Clipper ships.
56Colonization of Australia and New Zealand British settlers displaced the indigenous populations.AustraliaPortuguese mariners had sighted (early 1600s).James Cook explored ( ).Expanding shipping networks brought visitors and settlers.
57Hunting-and-gathering people. Isolation – vulnerable to diseases. First permanent British settlers – convicts (1788).Slight contact with the indigenous (“Aborigines”)1851 discovery of gold brought hastened their end.
58New ZealandMaori hunted, fished, practiced simple forms of agriculture.Seal pelts, whaling.Brief gold rush attracted more British immigrants after 1860.
59Britain encouraged the settlers in Australia and New Zealand to become self-governing.
60New Labor Migrations– thousands of Indians, Chinese, and Africans went overseas to work, especially on sugar plantations.Asians and Pacific islanders after 1870.In part, linked to abolition.Recruitment of laborers.Larger, faster ships.Spread of disease.
61Indentured labor trade reflected unequal commercial and industrial power of the West But those who signed contracts were trying to improve their lives by emigrating.
62Essential QuestionsWhat role did the abolition of slavery and the continued growth of British overseas trade play in the immigration to the Caribbean and elsewhere of peoples from Africa, India, and Asia?