Presentation on theme: "SPEECH ACTS “Action speak louder than words” is a well-known proverb. However, it is not completely correct because speech is action and language can."— Presentation transcript:
1 SPEECH ACTS“Action speak louder than words” is a well-known proverb. However, it is not completely correct because speech is action and language can actually be used to do things.When a speaker makes an utterance containing referring expression, he carries out a certain act, an act of referring. Referring is a linguistic act, but we shall see that it is possible to carry out all sorts of other acts using language .we will start with another linguistic act which is the act of assertion.
2 ACT of ASSERTION Example Definition An act of assertion is carried out when a speaker utters a declarative sentence (can be true or false), and undertakes a certain responsibility, to the hearer, that a particular situation exists in the world.DefinitionIf I say, “Simon is in the kitchen”, I assert to my hearer that in the real world a situation exists in which a person named Simon is in a room identified by the referring expression the kitchen.Example
3 Page 140. DESCRIPTIVE FALLACY Comment Example Comment Definition DESCRIPTIVE FALLACY is the view that the sole purpose of making assertion is to describe some state of affairs.DefinitionAccording to the Descriptive Fallacy view, my only purpose in uttering “Simon is in the kitchen” would be to describe a particular state of affairs, and nothing more.ExampleThe Descriptive Fallacy view is not wholly wrong. An element of description is involved in many utterances. But it is not the only purpose behind an utterance.Comment
4 PracticeWould the main purpose of making the following assertion normally be simply to describe some existing state of affairs in the world? If not, what is the main purpose?1- “There is a wasp in your left ear” Yes / No2- “This gun is loaded” Yes / No“You are a fool” Yes / No 3-
5 Quite contrary to the popular belief that actions and words are entirely different, many actions can actually be performed with words. A lot of actions can be performed either by physical means, such as a gesture, or by making an appropriate utterance.Practice1- Can you congratulate someone by a pat on the back,or a hug? Yes / No2- Can you congratulate someone by uttering “Well done”? Yes / No
6 PERFORMATIVE UTTERANCE A PERFORMATIVE utterance describes the act that it performs, i.e. it performs some act and simultaneously describes that act.Definition“I promise to repay you tomorrow” is performative because in saying it the speaker actually does what the utterance describes, i.e. he promises to repay the hearer the next day. That is, the utterance both describes and is a promise.ExamplePage 143.Practice
7 Perfomative Utterances are Opposed toPerfomative Utterances areConstative Utterances which can be defined very simply.
8 CONSTATIVE UTTERANCE Page 143. Page 144. Practice Example Comment CONSTATIVE utterance is one which makes an assertion (i.e. it is often the utterance of a declarative sentence) but is not performative.Definition“I’m trying to get this box open with a screwdriver” is a constative utterance, because it makes an assertion about a particular state of affairs, but is not performative, i.e. the utterance doesn’t simultaneously describe and perform the same act.ExamplePracticePage 143.CommentPage 144.
9 PERFORMATIVE VERB Practice Example Definition It is one which, when used in a simple positive present tense sentence, with a 1st person singular subject, can make the utterance of that sentence performative.DefinitionSentence is performative verb because, for example, “I sentence you to be hanged by the neck” is a performative utterance.Punish is not a performative verb because, for example, “I punish you” is not a performative utterance.ExamplePracticeAre the following performative verbs, or not?1-apologize Yes / No2-authorize Yes / No3-argue Yes / No4-condemn Yes / No5-squeal Yes / No
10 Practice 1- “I object” in the court. 2- “I name this ship Titanic”. Many good examples of performative verbs occur in standardized and stereotyped formulae used in public ceremonies, such as pronounce in “I pronounce you man and wife” in a marriage ceremony.PracticeThink of three or more examples of performative verbs used in the formulae of conventionalized public and social occasions.1- “I object” in the court.2- “I name this ship Titanic”.3- “I declare this bridge open”.
11 Performative utterances contain a performative verb, and many have 1st person singular subjects(I) and are in the present tense. But there exceptions to this pattern.PracticeSome of the following utterances are exceptions to the statement that all performative utterances have 1st person singular subjects. Which utterances are the exceptions? (Indicate your answer by underlining the exception.)1- “You are hereby forbidden to leave this room”2- “All passengers on flight number forty-seven are requested to proceed to gate ten”.3- “I suggest that you see a psychiatrist as soon as possible”.4- “This ship is called Titanic”.5- “We thank you for the compliment you have paid us”.
12 Page 145. Page 146. Practice Practice The most reliable test to determine whether an utterance is performative is to insert the word hereby and see if the modified utterance is acceptable.PracticePage 145.If a sentence can be accompanied by hereby without seeming odd, then the utterance of that sentence (in normal circumstances) constitutes a performative utterance.PracticePage 146.
13 SummaryWords and sentences when uttered are used to do things, to carry out socially significant acts. In addition to merely describing aspects of the world. The notion of a performative illustrates this point in some rather special cases.
14 Made by Eman Al-Sadhan And ليلى القاضي, فريدة العنزي,هديل الفارس,عبير النزهة, سارة البقمي , رقية العيدي