# Tutorial 4 Analyzing and Charting Financial Data

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Tutorial 4 Analyzing and Charting Financial Data

Objectives Use the PMT function to calculate a loan payment
Create an embedded pie chart Apply styles to a chart Add data labels to a pie chart Format a chart legend Create a clustered column chart Create a stacked column chart New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Objectives Create a line chart Create a combination chart
Format chart elements Modify the chart’s data source Add sparklines to a worksheet Format cells with data bars Insert a watermark New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Visual Overview: Chart Elements
New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Visual Overview: Chart Elements
New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Introduction to Financial Functions
Excel provides a wide range of financial functions related to loans and investments: The PMT function can be used to calculate the installment payment and payment schedule required to completely repay a loan Future value Present value Calculating the interest part of a payment Calculating the principle part of a payment Loan interest rate New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Introduction to Financial Functions
New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2010

Introduction to Financial Functions
Cost of a loan to the borrower is largely based on three factors: Principal: amount of money being loaned Interest: amount added to the principal by the lender Time required to repay the loan New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2010

Introduction to Financial Functions
Use to determine… FV (future value) How much an investment will be worth after a series of monthly payments at some future time PMT (payment) How much you have to spend each month to repay a loan or mortgage within a set period of time IPMT (interest payment) How much of your monthly loan payment is used to pay the interest PPMT (principal payment) How much of your monthly loan payment is used for repaying the principal PV (present value) Largest loan or mortgage you can afford given a set monthly payment NPER (number of periods) How long it will take to pay off a loan with constant monthly payments RATE The interest rate of a loan or an investment based on periodic, constant payments New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2010

Introduction to Financial Functions
Using the PMT Function To calculate the costs associated with a loan, you must have the following information: The annual interest rate The number of payment periods per year The length of the loan in terms of the total number of payment periods The amount being borrowed When loan payments are due New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2010

Introduction to Financial Functions
The syntax of the PMT function is: New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2010

Introduction to Financial Functions
New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2010

Creating a Chart Charts show trends or relationships in data that are easier to see in a graphic representation rather than viewing the actual numbers or data Creating a chart is a several-step process: Selecting the data to display in the chart Choosing the chart type Moving the chart to a specific location Sizing the chart Formatting the chart’s appearance New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Chart Selecting a Chart’s Data Source
A data source includes one or more data series and a series of category values A data series contains the actual values that are plotted on the chart Category values provide descriptive labels for each data series or data value; usually located in the first column or first row of the data source New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Chart New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Chart Exploring Chart Types and Subtypes
Excel provides 53 types of charts organized into the 10 categories Each category includes variations of the same chart type, which are called chart subtypes You can design your own custom chart types to meet the specific needs of your reports and projects New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Chart New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Chart Exploring Chart Types and Subtypes
A pie chart is a chart in the shape of a circle divided into slices like a pie Each slice represents a single value from a data series Larger data values are represented with bigger pie slices The relative sizes of the slices let you visually compare the data values and see how much each contributes to the whole Pie charts are most effective with six or fewer slices, and when each slice is large enough to view easily New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Chart Inserting a Pie Chart with the Quick Analysis Tool
After you select an adjacent range to use as a chart’s data source, the Quick Analysis tool appears The Quick Analysis tool includes a category for creating charts The CHART category lists recommended chart types—the charts that are most appropriate for the data source you selected New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Chart Inserting a Pie Chart with the Quick Analysis Tool
Make sure the correct range is selected Click the Quick Analysis button in the lower-right corner of the selected range Click the CHARTS category Click Pie to select the pie chart New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Chart New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Chart Moving and Resizing Charts
Excel charts are either placed in their own chart sheets or embedded in a worksheet When you create a chart, it is embedded in the worksheet that contains the data source Selecting the chart displays: A selection box (used to move or resize the chart) Sizing handles (used to change the chart’s width and height) New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Chart New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Working with Chart Elements
Every chart contains elements that can be formatted, added to the chart, or removed from the chart The Chart Elements button is used to add, remove, and format individual elements When you add or remove a chart element, the other elements resize to fit in the space Live Preview shows how changing an element will affect the chart’s appearance New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Working with Chart Elements
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Working with Chart Elements
Choosing a Chart Style When you create a chart, the chart is formatted with a style (a collection of formats) In the pie chart created, the format of the chart title, the location of the legend, and the colors of the pie slices are all part of the default style You can quickly change the appearance of a chart by selecting a different style from the Chart Styles gallery Live Preview shows how a chart style will affect the chart New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Working with Chart Elements
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Working with Chart Elements
Formatting the Pie Chart Legend You can fine-tune a chart style by formatting individual chart elements From the Chart Elements button, you can open a submenu for each element that includes formatting options, such as the element’s location within the chart You can also open a Format pane, which has more options for formatting the selected chart element The Chart Elements button also provides access to the Format pane with more design options New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Working with Chart Elements
New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Working with Chart Elements
Formatting Pie Chart Data Labels Modify the content and appearance of data labels Move the labels to the center of the pie slices or place them outside of the slices Set the labels as data callouts Change the text and number styles used Drag and drop individual data labels, placing them anywhere within the chart When a data label is placed far from its pie slice, a leader line is added to connect the data label to its pie slice New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Working with Chart Elements
New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Working with Chart Elements
Setting the Pie Slice Colors A pie slice is an example of a data marker that represents a single data value from a data series You can format the appearance of individual data markers to make them stand out from the others Pie slice colors should be as distinct as possible to avoid confusion Depending on the printer quality or the monitor resolution, it might be difficult to distinguish between similarly colored slices or data New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Working with Chart Elements
Formatting the Chart Area The chart’s background (called the chart area) can be formatted using: Fill colors Border styles Special effects such as drop shadows and blurred edges The chart area fill color used in the pie chart is white, which blends in with the worksheet background New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Performing What-If Analyses with Charts
A chart is linked to its data source Changes made to the data source affect the chart; a visual representation of changes Makes charts a powerful tool for data exploration and what-if analysis Excel uses chart animation to slow down the effect of changing data source values, making it easier to see how changing one value affects the chart New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Performing What-If Analyses with Charts
Another type of what-if analysis is to limit the data to a subset of the original values in a process called filtering Rather than creating a new chart, you can filter an existing chart to only show specific data New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Performing What-If Analyses with Charts
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Creating a Column Chart
Displays values in different categories as columns Height of each column is based on its value Bar chart Column chart turned on its side Length of each bar is based on its value Better to use column and bar charts than pie charts when the number of categories is large or the data values are close in value New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Column Chart
Better to use column and bar charts than pie charts when the: Number of categories is large Data values are close in value Easier to compare height or length than area Column charts can include several data series New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Column Chart
Comparing Column Chart Subtypes Column and bar charts can display multiple data series You can plot three data series against one category New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating A Column Chart
Comparing Column Chart Subtypes The clustered column chart displays the data series in separate columns side-by-side so that you can compare the relative heights of the columns The stacked column chart places the data series values within combined columns showing how much is contributed by each series The 100% stacked column chart makes the same comparison as the stacked column chart except that the stacked sections are expressed as percentages New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Column Chart
Creating a Clustered Column Chart Select data source Select type of chart to create Move and resize the chart Change chart’s design, layout, and format by: Selecting one of the chart styles, or Formatting individual chart elements New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Column Chart
Moving a Chart to a Different Worksheet Can move a chart from one worksheet to another or place the chart in its own chart sheet In a chart sheet, the chart is enlarged to fill the entire workspace The Move Chart dialog box provides options for moving charts between worksheets and chart sheets You can cut and paste a chart between workbooks New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Column Chart
Changing and Formatting a Chart Title When a chart has a single data series, the name of the data series is used for the chart title When a chart has more than one data series, the “Chart Title” placeholder appears as the temporary title of the chart You can replace the placeholder text with a more descriptive title New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Column Chart
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Creating a Column Chart
Creating a Stacked Column Chart New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Visual Overview: Charts, Sparklines, and Data Bars
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Visual Overview: Charts, Sparklines, and Data Bars
New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Line Chart Line charts are typically used when the data consists of values drawn from categories that follow a sequential order at evenly spaced intervals Like column charts, a line chart can be used with one or more data series When multiple data series are included, the data values are plotted on different lines with varying line colors New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Line Chart Displays data values using a connected line rather than columns or bars New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Working with Axes and Gridlines
A chart’s vertical and horizontal axes are based on the values in the data series and the category values In many cases, the axes display the data in the most visually effective and informative way Sometimes you will want to modify the axes’ scale, add gridlines, and make other changes to better highlight the chart data New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Working with Axes and Gridlines
Editing the Scale of the Vertical Axis Range of values (scale) of an axis is based on the values in the data source Vertical (value) axis: range of values in the data Horizontal (category) axis: category values Excel divides the scale into regular intervals, marked on the axis with tick marks and labels More tick marks at smaller intervals could make the chart difficult to read Fewer tick marks at larger intervals could make the chart less informative New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Working with Axes and Gridlines
Editing the Scale of the Vertical Axis Major tick marks identify the main units on the chart axis Minor tick marks identify the smaller intervals between the major tick marks Some charts involve multiple data series Plot one data series against a primary axis, which usually appears along the left side of the chart Plot the other against a secondary axis, which is usually placed on the right side of the chart The two axes can be based on entirely different scales New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Working with Axes and Gridlines
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Working with Axes and Gridlines
Adding Gridlines Gridlines are horizontal and vertical lines that help you compare data and category values Gridlines may or may not appear in a chart You can add or remove them separately Gridlines are placed at the major tick marks or can be set to appear at the minor tick marks The chart style used for the two column charts and the line chart includes horizontal gridlines You can add vertical gridlines to help further separate one set of values from another New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Working with Axes and Gridlines
Working with Column Widths You can set the spacing between one column and another in your column charts You can define the width of the columns New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Formatting Data Markers
Each value from a data series is represented by a data marker: Individual pie slices in pie charts Columns in column charts Points connected by the line in a line chart New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Formatting the Plot Area
The plot area includes only that portion of the chart in which the data markers have been placed or plotted You can format the plot area by changing its fill and borders, and by adding visual effects Changes to the plot area are often madein conjunction with the chart area New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Formatting the Plot Area
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Creating a Combination Chart
A combination chart combines two chart types within a single chart Enable you to show two sets of data using the chart type that is best for each data set Can have data series with vastly different values You can create dual axis charts, using primary and secondary axes New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Combination Chart
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Creating a Combination Chart
Working with Primary and Secondary Axes When a chart has primary and secondary vertical axes, it is helpful to identify exactly what each axis is measuring Add an axis title (a descriptive text that appears next to the axis) to the chart You can add, remove, and format axis titles New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating a Combination Chart
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Editing a Chart Data Source
To modify a Chart’s Data Source: Click the chart to select it On the CHART TOOLS DESIGN tab, in the Data group, click the Select Data button In the Legend Entries (Series) section click the Add button or the Remove button Click the Edit button in the Horizontal (Category) Axis Labels section to select the category values for the chart New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Editing a Chart Data Source
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Creating Sparklines A sparkline is a chart that is displayed entirely within a worksheet cell Sparklines are compact in size; don’t include chart elements (legends, titles, or gridlines) The goal of a sparkline is to convey the maximum amount of information within a very small space Sparklines are useful when you don’t want charts to overwhelm the rest of your worksheet or take up valuable page space New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating Sparklines You can create the following three types of sparklines: A line sparkline for highlighting trends A column sparkline for column charts A win/loss sparkline for highlighting positive and negative values New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating Sparklines Three types of sparklines:
Line sparkline: Highlights trends Column sparkline: For column charts Win/Loss sparkline: Highlights positive and negative values New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating Sparklines New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating Sparklines Formatting the Sparkline Axis
You can change the scale of the vertical axis The vertical axis will range from the minimum value to the maximum value You can change the vertical axis scale to be the same for the related sparklines New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating Sparklines Working with Sparkline Groups
The sparklines in the location range are part of a single group Clicking any cell in the location range selects all of the sparklines in the group Any formatting applied to one sparkline affects all of the sparklines in the group (ensures that the sparklines for related data are formatted consistently) To format each sparkline differently, you must first ungroup them New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating Sparklines New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating Data Bars Conditional format that adds a horizontal bar to background of a cell containing a number Length based on value of each cell in the range Dynamic—the lengths of data bars automatically update if cell’s value changes New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Creating Data Bars Modifying a Data Bar Rule
Modify by altering rules of the conditional format New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013

Inserting a Watermark A watermark is text or an image that appears in the background behind other content Insert into the header or footer of a worksheet New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel 2013