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Presidents of the 1920’s Warren G. Harding Calvin Coolidge Herbert Hoover.

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Presentation on theme: "Presidents of the 1920’s Warren G. Harding Calvin Coolidge Herbert Hoover."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presidents of the 1920’s Warren G. Harding Calvin Coolidge Herbert Hoover

2 Warren Harding Republican Republican Elected in 1920 on the platform: Elected in 1920 on the platform: “Return to Normalcy” Countered the progressivism of Wilson (a Democrat) Countered the progressivism of Wilson (a Democrat) Wanted to return the US to the simpler days before the war and the reforms that followed Wanted to return the US to the simpler days before the war and the reforms that followed Supported women’s suffrage (19 th Amendment passed before the election and many women voted for him) Supported women’s suffrage (19 th Amendment passed before the election and many women voted for him)

3 Harding as President Conferenced with other nations about peace and the avoidance of war Conferenced with other nations about peace and the avoidance of war Raised tariffs, making it hard for Britain and France to sell goods to the US Raised tariffs, making it hard for Britain and France to sell goods to the US Britain and France unable to repay war debts to US Britain and France unable to repay war debts to US How can this be seen as an isolationist policy? How can this be seen as an isolationist policy? Enacted the Dawes Plan Enacted the Dawes Plan US banks loaned Germany money to repay reparations to Britain and France US banks loaned Germany money to repay reparations to Britain and France Britain and France used that $ to repay debts to US Britain and France used that $ to repay debts to US

4 Dawes Plan US Banks Germany France and Britain US Gov. Who’s paying who? Treasury Issues $

5 Immigration under Harding: Immigration under Harding: Nativism (anti-immigrant) attitudes common Nativism (anti-immigrant) attitudes common Think back to the attitudes around Communism Think back to the attitudes around Communism Emergency Quota Act (1921) Emergency Quota Act (1921) Set a maximum number of people that could immigrate to the US from foreign countries Set a maximum number of people that could immigrate to the US from foreign countries How is this discriminatory? How is this discriminatory? Did not apply to immigrants from the Western hemisphere Did not apply to immigrants from the Western hemisphere Excluded Japanese immigrants altogether Excluded Japanese immigrants altogether Opposed government involvement in business affairs Opposed government involvement in business affairs Harding as President

6 Harding’s Scandals Did not understand all of the complexities of the administration Did not understand all of the complexities of the administration Cabinet consisted of personal friends— ”The Ohio Gang” Cabinet consisted of personal friends— ”The Ohio Gang” Teapot Dome Scandal (1922): Teapot Dome Scandal (1922): Gov’t (specifically the Navy) had oil reserves in WY and CA Gov’t (specifically the Navy) had oil reserves in WY and CA A. Fall (friend & Secretary of Interior) took the oil reserves, leased them to private companies, and made $325,000 for himself A. Fall (friend & Secretary of Interior) took the oil reserves, leased them to private companies, and made $325,000 for himself Claimed the leases were made to help the US gov. Claimed the leases were made to help the US gov.

7 Calvin Coolidge Harding’s Vice President Harding’s Vice President Becomes President when Harding dies in 1923 and “finishes Harding’s administration” Becomes President when Harding dies in 1923 and “finishes Harding’s administration” Elected President in 1924 election (Republican candidate) Elected President in 1924 election (Republican candidate) Platform: Platform: Preferred small-government Preferred small-government Traditional, subdued campaign—never mentioned his opponent by name Traditional, subdued campaign—never mentioned his opponent by name

8 Coolidge as President Actions: Actions: Restored public confidence for the White House Restored public confidence for the White House Reduced the tax burden for Americans Reduced the tax burden for Americans Believed, “the chief business of the American people is business.” Believed, “the chief business of the American people is business.” Reluctant to enter foreign policy, but did sign the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928— Reluctant to enter foreign policy, but did sign the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928— Signed by U.S., the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan, etc. Signed by U.S., the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan, etc. These countries were supposed to, “renounce war, as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another.” Do you think it was successful? These countries were supposed to, “renounce war, as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another.” Do you think it was successful?

9 Problems Under Coolidge Compared to Harding, not very many Compared to Harding, not very many Failed to appropriately respond to a natural disaster in Mississippi in 1927 Failed to appropriately respond to a natural disaster in Mississippi in 1927 Did little to enforce better/safer working conditions in factories and industry (he believed this was the responsibility of the states). Did little to enforce better/safer working conditions in factories and industry (he believed this was the responsibility of the states). Was exhausted by being president— choose not to run for re-election in Was exhausted by being president— choose not to run for re-election in 1928.

10 Herbert Hoover Republican Republican Had served as the Secretary of Commerce under Harding and Coolidge Had served as the Secretary of Commerce under Harding and Coolidge Elected in 1928 Elected in 1928 Campaigned for efficiency and prosperity, was pro-big business, supported isolationism and was for Prohibition Campaigned for efficiency and prosperity, was pro-big business, supported isolationism and was for Prohibition

11 Hoover as President Actions: Actions: Encouraged lawful reform and volunteerism Encouraged lawful reform and volunteerism Tax reforms Tax reforms Would not recognize territories gained by force Would not recognize territories gained by force Doubled veterans’ hospital facilities Doubled veterans’ hospital facilities Building projects: Hoover (Boulder) Dam, San Francisco Bay Bridge Building projects: Hoover (Boulder) Dam, San Francisco Bay Bridge Problems: Problems: Stock Market Crash (October 1929) Stock Market Crash (October 1929) Presidency marks the beginning of the Great Depression (not re-elected) Presidency marks the beginning of the Great Depression (not re-elected)


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