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Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 Effects of Inflation on Project Cash Flows Lecture No. 45 Chapter 11 Contemporary Engineering Economics Copyright © 2006
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 Effects of Inflation on Projects with Depreciable Assets ItemEffects of Inflation Depreciation expense Salvage value Depreciation expense is charged to taxable income in dollars of declining values; taxable income is overstated, resulting in higher taxes Inflated salvage value combined with book values based on historical costs results in higher taxable gains. Note: Depreciation expenses are based on historical costs and always expressed in actual dollars
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 Example 11.8 Reconsider the Automated Machining Center project discussed earlier. What will happen to this investment project if the general inflation during the next five years is expected to increase by 5% annually, sales, operating costs, and working capital requirements are assumed to increase accordingly, depreciation will remain unchanged, but taxes, profits, and thus cash flow will be higher. the firm’s inflation-free interest rate is known to be 15%. Determine the PW of the project.
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 Example 11.8 Excel Worksheet Depreciation deduction does not increase over time to keep pace with inflation. NPW = $38,899 > 0
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 ItemEffects of Inflation Loan repaymentsBorrowers repay historical loan amounts with dollars of decreased purchasing power, reducing the debt-financing cost. Effects of Borrowed Funds under Inflation
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 Example Effects of Inflation on Payments with Financing The debt payment size does not change with inflation 63,814
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 ItemEffects of Inflation Rate of Return and NPW Unless revenues are sufficiently increased to keep pace with inflation, tax effects and/or a working capital drain result in lower rate of return or lower NPW. Effects of Inflation on Return on Investment
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 Rate of return Calculation in the Absence of Inflation IRR’ = 21.88% The investment is acceptable. MARR = 20%
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 Rate of Return Calculation under Inflation IRR’ = 19.40% The investment is no longer acceptable. MARR = 20%
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 Rate of Return Analysis under Inflation Principle:True (real) rate of return should be based on constant dollars. If the rate of return is computed based on actual dollars, the real rate of return can be calculated as: n Net cash flows in actual dollars Net cash flows in constant dollars $30,000 13,570 15,860 13,358 13,626 -$30,000 12,336 13,108 10,036 9,307 IRR 31.34% 19.40% Not correct IRR
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 Decision Criterion If you use 31.34% as your IRR, you should use a market interest rate (or inflation- adjusted MARR) to make an accept and reject decision. If you use 19.40% as your IRR, you should use an inflation-free interest rate (inflation- free MARR) to make an accept and reject decision. In our example, MARR’ = 20%.
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 ItemEffects of Inflation Working capital requirement Known as working capital drain, the cost of working capital increases in an inflationary environment. Effects of Inflation on Working Capital
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 Example (a) Without Inflation
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 Example (b) With Inflation
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 Working Capital Requirements under Inflation
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 Summary The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a statistical measure of change, over time, of the prices of goods and services in major expenditure groups—such as food, housing, apparel, transportation, and medical care—typically purchased by urban consumers. Inflation is the term used to describe a decline in purchasing power evidenced in an economic environment of rising prices. Deflation is the opposite: An increase in purchasing power evidenced by falling prices.
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 The general inflation rate (f) is an average inflation rate based on the CPI. An annual general inflation rate ( ) can be calculated using the following equation: Specific, individual commodities do not always reflect the general inflation rate in their price changes. We can calculate an average inflation rate for a specific commodity (j) if we have an index (that is, a record of historical costs) for that commodity.
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 Project cash flows may be stated in one of two forms Actual dollars (A n ): Dollars that reflect the inflation or deflation rate. Constant dollars (A’ n ): Year 0 dollars Interest rates for project evaluation may be stated in one of two forms: Market interest rate (i): A rate which combines the effects of interest and inflation; used with actual dollar analysis Inflation-free interest rate (i’): A rate from which the effects of inflation have been removed; this rate is used with constant dollar analysis
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 To calculate the present worth of actual dollars, we can use a two-step or a one-step process: Deflation method—two steps: 1. Convert actual dollars by deflating with the general inflation rate of 2. Calculate the PW of constant dollars by discounting at i’ Adjusted-discount method—one step 1. Compute the market interest rate. 2. Use the market interest rate directly to find the present value.
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