2Objectives Understand the role for each of the body systems Identify the organs/parts of each body systemUnderstand how the body systems work together to maintain homeostasisExplain how each system helps cells get food and oxygen and remove waste
6Skeletal System 5 major functions: Gives shape and support to body Protects internal organsMajor muscles attach to the bone to help it moveBlood cells are formed in the center of many bones in soft tissue called red marrowStores calcium and phosphorous compounds which makes the bones hard (Got Milk)
7Parts of the bone:Periosteum – tough tight fitting membrane that covers the surface of the bone.Compact bone – gives the body strength, stores calcium and phosphate.Spongy bone – located at the ends of bones, has small open spaces that help make bones lightweight and contains marrow.Cartilage – smooth, thick, flexible layer of tissue that covers the ends of bones and acts as a shock absorber
8Where two or more bones come together Ligaments hold bones together JOINTS:Where two or more bones come togetherLigaments hold bones togetherImmovable jointsAllows little or no movementSkull (cranium) and pelvis (ilium)Movable jointsAllows the body to make wide range of movementsPivot joint- neck/skull (rotates)Ball and socket- shoulder and hipHinge joint- elbow (back and forth) and kneeGliding joint- slides over bones and back and forth movement, fingers, wrists, ankles and vertebraejoint problems: arthritis
10Tendons- hold muscle to bone Two types of muscles MUSCULAR SYSTEMFunction: movementTendons- hold muscle to boneTwo types of muscles- voluntary- muscles you can control, examples: skeletal muscles like biceps- involuntary- muscles you cannot control, examples: heart, blood vessels, stomach musclesThree types of muscle tissueCardiac muscle- found in heartSmooth muscle- found in stomach and blood vesselsSkeletal muscle- found in muscles that move bones
11ANABOLIC STERIODSAre synthetic compounds that cause muscle tissue to develop at an abnormally high rateSide Effects:development of acneweakening of tendons possibly leading to joint or tendon injurydamage to the cardiovascular system, affecting heart rate, blood pressure and increasing the risk of heart attackbones can become more brittleharms sexual characteristics- growth of facial hair in females and breast development in malesmental and emotional effects such as irritability, anxiety, suspicion or sudden rageliver and brain cancer
13INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM-Functions- protects, sensory response, formation of vitamin D, regulation of body temperature and ridding the body of wastes.-Skin- the largest organ in the body.-Skin is made up of three layers of tissuea. Epidermis- is the outer, thinnest layer ofyour skin where new skin cells are produced.Melanin is a chemical produced in theepidermis that protects your skin and gives itcolor.b. Dermis- is the layer of cells directly below theepidermis and contains many blood vessels,nerves, muscles, oil and sweat glands.c. Fatty layer- insulates the body.
14Digestive system1. Function: to break down food into forms the cells can use for energy2. The parts of the digestive system where food actually enters: Mouth to esophagus to stomach to small intestine to Large intestine to anus3. The parts of the digestive system where food does not enter: Liver, gall bladder and pancreas (release enzymes to help food break down)4. Two types of digestion:Mechanical digestion-food gets chewed in mouth, stomach muscles break food apart.Chemical digestion- salvia in mouth breaks food, gastric juice in stomach; bile from gall bladder breaks food with use of chemicals, enzymes
16NUTRITION FOR THE BODY Nutrients body uses Proteins are broken down into amino acids (used for growth and repair) eggs, beans, nuts, and meatcarbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars like glucose (used for energy) breads, rice, fruits, starchy vegetablesfats are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol (store energy and cushion organs) butters, oils, fat in animalsvitamins are used to regulate the body functions (vitamin D helps bones to absorb calcium, and vitamin K helps blood to clotminerals are used to regulate the body functionswater is in its simplest form and makes up about 70% of our bodyFast Food Restaurants have nutritional information available.Health Resources: American Heart Association, American Cancer Society, National Dairy Council, Local Cooperative Extension, National Institutes of Health and American Dietetic Association
17CIRCULATORY SYSTEMFunction is to carry oxygen, food and nutrients to all the body parts, carrywastes away, fight infections and helpheal wounds.Arteries carry blood away from the heart; capillaries connect arteries and veins together and allow nutrients and oxygen to diffuse into cells; veins carry blood back to the heart to pick up oxygen and nutrients.There are four chambers; upper chambers are atriums (right and left atrium); lower chambers ventricles (right and left ventricle)Three types of circulation:Coronary Circulation-flow of blood to and from the heartPulmonary Circulation- flow of blood from heart to lungs back to the heartSystemic Circulation-flow of blood to body tissue and organs except the heart or lungs
18Red blood cells- carry oxygen or carbon dioxide Platelets- clot bloodWhite blood cells-fightinfectionPlasma- carry nutrients4 types of blood- A, B, AB, ODiseases of circulatory system:Anemia- not enough iron; Leukemia- to many white blood cells made; hypertension- high blood pressure; atherosclerosis-fatty deposits build up in blood vessels; Heart failure
20Lymphatic SystemParts of the system: Lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, spleenFunction: filters blood, produce white blood cells (lymphocytes)that destroys bacteria and viruses, and destroy worn out blood cells.Diseases: AIDS ( HIV virus attacks T-cells which are a type of lymphocyte that helps the body fight infections)
21RESPIRATORY SYSTEMParts of the system: pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, Lungs, alveoliFunction: takes in oxygen and enters capillaries; gets rid of the wastes, carbon dioxideDiseases of this system: Smoking- chronic bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer, Asthma
22EXCRETORY SYSTEM Some organs have dual functions Parts of the system: kidneys, skin, lungs, liver and large intestineFunctions: to get rid of wastes and toxins that could damage systems and to regulate the fluid levels in the body. example: kidneys filter blood and then send to bladder to be expelled from the bodyUrine can be tested for many diseases (diabetes, kidney disease or heart failure)Diseases of this system: Kidney disease -where kidneys do not function then person has to be placed on a Dialysis machine
23NERVOUS SYSTEMParts of the system: neuron basic unit of structure; Types of nerve cells are sensory neuron which receives information and send impulses to the brain or spinal cord; interneuron’s relay information to motor neurons; motor neurons conduct impulses from the brain to muscles or glands throughout body.Central nervous system is Brain and Spinal cordPeripheral Nervous system all nerves outside of brain and spinal cord
24Brain:Cerebrum is where thinking takes place; the largest part of brainCerebellum coordinates your muscle movements for balance ( located at backlower part of brain)Brain stem connects brain to spinal cord (medulla is part of the stem and controls involuntary actions such as heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure. The medulla also is involved in coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting.)
25Peripheral Nervous System Spinal CordCarries impulses from all parts of the body to the brain and from the brain to all parts of the body.Peripheral Nervous SystemConnects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body.Made up of twelve pairs of nerves in the brain called cranial nerves and thirty one pair of nerves from the spinal cord called spinal nerves.
26Drugs and alcohol affect nervous system: Drugs act directly on the brain stem which helps control heart rate, breathing, appetite and sleeping.Alcohol disrupts normal cell function and is considered a depressant. It can impair memory, thought processes, perception, judgment and attention. Over time alcohol can destroy millions of brain cells that can never be replaced or repaired.Caffeine is a stimulant and can increase heart rate, tremors and insomnia.
27Endocrine SystemThis system uses hormones, chemicals that are made in tissues called glands found throughout the body, control and regulate your body.Thyroid gland – controls the rate that food is turned into energy.Pituitary gland – controls other glands and body growth.Pineal gland – produces melatonin, a hormone that functions as a body clock regulating sleep and wake patterns.Parathyroid gland – controls the amount of calcium in your blood.Adrenal gland – effects the kidneys and helps you when you are excited, angry or frighten.
28Adrenal gland – effects the kidneys and helps you when you are excited, angry or frighten. Thymus – helps the body’s immune system.Ovaries – produce female characteristics and initiates female bodily functions.Pancreas – controls the body’s use of glucose.Testes – produces testosterone which controls the development and maintenance of male sexual traits.