Presentation on theme: "HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS. Objectives Understand the role for each of the body systems Identify the organs/parts of each body system Understand how the body."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives Understand the role for each of the body systems Identify the organs/parts of each body system Understand how the body systems work together to maintain homeostasis Explain how each system helps cells get food and oxygen and remove waste
Skeletal System 5 major functions: –Gives shape and support to body –Protects internal organs –Major muscles attach to the bone to help it move –Blood cells are formed in the center of many bones in soft tissue called red marrow –Stores calcium and phosphorous compounds which makes the bones hard (Got Milk)
Parts of the bone: –Periosteum – tough tight fitting membrane that covers the surface of the bone. –Compact bone – gives the body strength, stores calcium and phosphate. –Spongy bone – located at the ends of bones, has small open spaces that help make bones lightweight and contains marrow. –Cartilage – smooth, thick, flexible layer of tissue that covers the ends of bones and acts as a shock absorber
JOINTS: –Where two or more bones come together –Ligaments hold bones together –Immovable joints Allows little or no movement Skull (cranium) and pelvis (ilium) –Movable joints Allows the body to make wide range of movements Pivot joint- neck/skull (rotates) Ball and socket- shoulder and hip Hinge joint- elbow (back and forth) and knee Gliding joint- slides over bones and back and forth movement, fingers, wrists, ankles and vertebrae –joint problems: arthritis
MUSCULAR SYSTEM Function: movement Tendons- hold muscle to bone Two types of muscles - voluntary- muscles you can control, examples: skeletal muscles like biceps - involuntary- muscles you cannot control, examples: heart, blood vessels, stomach muscles Three types of muscle tissue –Cardiac muscle- found in heart –Smooth muscle- found in stomach and blood vessels –Skeletal muscle- found in muscles that move bones
ANABOLIC STERIODS Are synthetic compounds that cause muscle tissue to develop at an abnormally high rate –Side Effects: development of acne weakening of tendons possibly leading to joint or tendon injury damage to the cardiovascular system, affecting heart rate, blood pressure and increasing the risk of heart attack bones can become more brittle harms sexual characteristics- growth of facial hair in females and breast development in males mental and emotional effects such as irritability, anxiety, suspicion or sudden rage liver and brain cancer
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM -Functions- protects, sensory response, formation of vitamin D, regulation of body temperature and ridding the body of wastes. -Skin- the largest organ in the body. -Skin is made up of three layers of tissue a. Epidermis- is the outer, thinnest layer of your skin where new skin cells are produced. Melanin is a chemical produced in the epidermis that protects your skin and gives it color. b. Dermis- is the layer of cells directly below the epidermis and contains many blood vessels, nerves, muscles, oil and sweat glands. c. Fatty layer- insulates the body.
Digestive system 1. Function: to break down food into forms the cells can use for energy 2. The parts of the digestive system where food actually enters: Mouth to esophagus to stomach to small intestine to Large intestine to anus 3. The parts of the digestive system where food does not enter: Liver, gall bladder and pancreas (release enzymes to help food break down) 4. Two types of digestion: a.Mechanical digestion-food gets chewed in mouth, stomach muscles break food apart. b.Chemical digestion- salvia in mouth breaks food, gastric juice in stomach; bile from gall bladder breaks food with use of chemicals, enzymes
Mouth Salivary glands esophagus Liver stomach gallbladder pancreas large intestine small intestine anus duodenum
NUTRITION FOR THE BODY Nutrients body uses –Proteins are broken down into amino acids (used for growth and repair) eggs, beans, nuts, and meat –carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars like glucose (used for energy) breads, rice, fruits, starchy vegetables –fats are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol (store energy and cushion organs) butters, oils, fat in animals –vitamins are used to regulate the body functions (vitamin D helps bones to absorb calcium, and vitamin K helps blood to clot –minerals are used to regulate the body functions –water is in its simplest form and makes up about 70% of our body –Fast Food Restaurants have nutritional information available. –Health Resources: American Heart Association, American Cancer Society, National Dairy Council, Local Cooperative Extension, National Institutes of Health and American Dietetic Association
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Function is to carry oxygen, food and nutrients to all the body parts, carry wastes away, fight infections and help heal wounds. Arteries carry blood away from the heart; capillaries connect arteries and veins together and allow nutrients and oxygen to diffuse into cells; veins carry blood back to the heart to pick up oxygen and nutrients. There are four chambers; upper chambers are atriums (right and left atrium); lower chambers ventricles (right and left ventricle) Three types of circulation: –C–Coronary Circulation-flow of blood to and from the heart –P–Pulmonary Circulation- flow of blood from heart to lungs back to the heart –S–Systemic Circulation-flow of blood to body tissue and organs except the heart or lungs
Red blood cells- carry oxygen or carbon dioxide Platelets- clot blood White blood cells-fight infection Plasma- carry nutrients 4 types of blood- A, B, AB, O Diseases of circulatory system: Anemia- not enough iron; Leukemia- to many white blood cells made; hypertension- high blood pressure; atherosclerosis-fatty deposits build up in blood vessels; Heart failure
Lymphatic System Parts of the system: Lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, spleen Function: filters blood, produce white blood cells (lymphocytes) that destroys bacteria and viruses, and destroy worn out blood cells. Diseases: AIDS ( HIV virus attacks T- cells which are a type of lymphocyte that helps the body fight infections)
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Parts of the system: pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, Lungs, alveoli Function: takes in oxygen and enters capillaries; gets rid of the wastes, carbon dioxide Diseases of this system: Smoking- chronic bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer, Asthma
EXCRETORY SYSTEM Some organs have dual functions Parts of the system: kidneys, skin, lungs, liver and large intestine Functions: to get rid of wastes and toxins that could damage systems and to regulate the fluid levels in the body. example: kidneys filter blood and then send to bladder to be expelled from the body Urine can be tested for many diseases (diabetes, kidney disease or heart failure) Diseases of this system: Kidney disease - where kidneys do not function then person has to be placed on a Dialysis machine
NERVOUS SYSTEM Parts of the system: neuron basic unit of structure; Types of nerve cells are sensory neuron which receives information and send impulses to the brain or spinal cord; interneuron’s relay information to motor neurons; motor neurons conduct impulses from the brain to muscles or glands throughout body. Central nervous system is Brain and Spinal cord Peripheral Nervous system all nerves outside of brain and spinal cord
Brain: Cerebrum is where thinking takes place; the largest part of brain Cerebellum coordinates your muscle movements for balance ( located at back lower part of brain) Brain stem connects brain to spinal cord (medulla is part of the stem and controls involuntary actions such as heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure. The medulla also is involved in coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting.)
Spinal Cord –Carries impulses from all parts of the body to the brain and from the brain to all parts of the body. Peripheral Nervous System –Connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. –Made up of twelve pairs of nerves in the brain called cranial nerves and thirty one pair of nerves from the spinal cord called spinal nerves.
Drugs and alcohol affect nervous system: Drugs act directly on the brain stem which helps control heart rate, breathing, appetite and sleeping. Alcohol disrupts normal cell function and is considered a depressant. It can impair memory, thought processes, perception, judgment and attention. Over time alcohol can destroy millions of brain cells that can never be replaced or repaired. Caffeine is a stimulant and can increase heart rate, tremors and insomnia.
Endocrine System This system uses hormones, chemicals that are made in tissues called glands found throughout the body, control and regulate your body. –Thyroid gland – controls the rate that food is turned into energy. –Pituitary gland – controls other glands and body growth. –Pineal gland – produces melatonin, a hormone that functions as a body clock regulating sleep and wake patterns. –Parathyroid gland – controls the amount of calcium in your blood. –Adrenal gland – effects the kidneys and helps you when you are excited, angry or frighten.
–Thymus – helps the body’s immune system. –Ovaries – produce female characteristics and initiates female bodily functions. –Pancreas – controls the body’s use of glucose. –Testes – produces testosterone which controls the development and maintenance of male sexual traits.