Presentation on theme: "Lending: From A Banker’s Viewpoint. 2 Sources of Repayment Banks typically rely on three main sources of repayment Cash Flow from Operations Guarantor."— Presentation transcript:
2 Sources of Repayment Banks typically rely on three main sources of repayment Cash Flow from Operations Guarantor Support Collateral / Security
3 5 C’s of Credit Character Is the collateral sufficient as a source of repayment? If the collateral must be liquidated, is the realizable value enough to repay principal, outstanding interest and cover the bank’s administrative costs of liquidation? What are economic and market conditions that could impair the entity’s ability to service the debt and repay the loan? Does the entity recognize these risks and have plans to mitigate them? Does the borrower demonstrate a commitment to honor his or her transactions and keep promises even under adverse circumstances? Capacity Conditions Capital Collateral Does the entity demonstrate the capacity to apply the loan funds? Does management have a business plan? Are plant and equipment sufficient? Are marketing and product delivery well developed? Does the organization have sufficient assets to absorb normal business risk?
4 The Loan Application Ensure that the loan application is complete and accurate Core bank loan application information often includes: o Historical business financial information (2 years) o Form 990, Return of organization exempt from income tax (2 Years) o Interim financial statements along with accounts receivable and payable aging reports if applicable Alternative (micro) loan application is similar, but often allows some flexibility – ask questions!
5 Underwriting Pillars An organization’s financial condition determines the borrower’s ability to generate enough cash to repay the debt Three items in particular are evaluated: Cash Flow Liquidity Leverage Financial Condition It is necessary to determine the competence and integrity of key individuals running an organization A weak management team not only endangers the second source of repayment, but opens the doors for additional problems Management Quality The bank will determine the realistic level of control over any collateral pledged, including its likely liquidation value or net present value Inability to realize or “call” collateral threatens the third source of repayment Collateral / Security Analysis of the industry focuses on the particular industry of the borrower and the borrower’s position within the industry Weaknesses in the industry foundation can negatively impact a borrowers ability to repay Industry Dynamics
6 Important to Remember Cash flow Determine trends (revenue/expense) Industry comparison Total administrative costs Underwriting Pillar – Deeper Dive on Financial Condition Cash Flow Provides a better understanding as to how much excess income the organization will generate and the factors that influence income EBIDA Debt Service Coverage (EDSC) Calculation: (Net income + interest expense + depreciation + amortization) / (Current portion long term debt (prior period) + Interest Expenses)
7 Liquidity The ability to quickly convert the organization’s assets into cash Important to Remember Evaluate integrity of creditor support (adequate asset protection for liabilities) Evaluate current asset quality and aging of receivables (A/R > 90) Variety of funding levels from different sectors including corporate foundation, individual, or government grants Underwriting Pillar – Deeper Dive on Financial Condition