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History of Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) “We’ll Even Leave the Light On”

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Presentation on theme: "History of Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) “We’ll Even Leave the Light On”"— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) “We’ll Even Leave the Light On”

2 Copyright and Terms of Service Copyright © Texas Education Agency, These materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and may not be reproduced without the express written permission of TEA, except under the following conditions: 1) Texas public school districts, charter schools, and Education Service Centers may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for the districts’ and schools’ educational use without obtaining permission from TEA. 2) Residents of the state of Texas may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for individual personal use only, without obtaining written permission of TEA. 3) Any portion reproduced must be reproduced in its entirety and remain unedited, unaltered and unchanged in any way. 4) No monetary charge can be made for the reproduced materials or any document containing them; however, a reasonable charge to cover only the cost of reproduction and distribution may be charged. Private entities or persons located in Texas that are not Texas public school districts, Texas Education Service Centers, or Texas charter schools or any entity, whether public or private, educational or non-educational, located outside the state of Texas MUST obtain written approval from TEA and will be required to enter into a license agreement that may involve the payment of a licensing fee or a royalty. Contact TEA Copyrights with any questions you may have.TEA Copyrights 2 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

3 Texas State Penitentiary (Huntsville) 3 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

4 Agency Titles –Texas State Penitentiary –Texas Prison System –Texas Department of Corrections 1989-Present –Texas Department of Criminal Justice 4 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

5 Era Characterizations The Formative Years The Civil War Era The Convict Lease Era The Farm System The Decline The Reform Era 5 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

6 The Formative Years ( ) Prior to 1848 –Inmates housed in local/county jails May 1, 1848 – 2 nd Legislature passed creation of Huntsville Penitentiary with 225 cells October 1, 1849 –1 st inmate received, William Sansom (cattle theft) 1855 – 75 inmates 1860 – 182 inmates 6 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

7 Civil War Era ( ) Civil War Union POWs and court- marshaled soldiers held Prison industries aided South by production of cloth from cotton and wool mills 1865 – only one prison left standing in the Confederate states (Huntsville) 7 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

8 Convict Lease Era ( ) Increased number of inmates 2 nd legislature –Leased inmate labor and use of facilities –Outside camps established –Inmates hired by railroad and plantation owners – second prison built in Rusk –Opened January, Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

9 Farm System Era ( ) Legislative changes to inmate accounts Industries slowed, farming expanded Less education and other reform efforts Leases were cancelled 9 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

10 Farm System Era ( ) Chain Gangs and Building Tenders Chain Gang: inmates leased to a private owner, and “chained” together during work to prevent their escape Building Tenders: inmates used to “control” other inmates and open/close cells 10 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

11 Farm System Era ( ) Large agricultural ranching operations became hallmarks of the prison system 11 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

12 The Decline ( ) Troubled times for prisons Turned purchased plantations into farms Corrupt and mismanaged administration Fraud, and poor treatment of inmates 12 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

13 “Backsliding” Large influx of inmates Brutality Self-mutilation Sexual Perversion Incompetence Petty Theft Darrington Farm –333 inmates housed in a unit designed for 250 –Shower every three weeks –NO laundry services Retrieve Farm –475 inmates housed in a unit designed for 350 –31 sleep on brick floor 13 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

14 The Reform Years ( ) Emphasis on reform, teaching, and recreation New Classification system 1931 – Prison rodeo established 14 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

15 The Reform Years ( ) 1947 – Penal reforms –Modernized agricultural production –Initiated industrial products –Improvements in facilities 1948 – “Construction Division” –Used inmate labor –Prison-made bricks –Prison-made concrete for new buildings 15 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

16 Prison Industries: License Plate Factory 16 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

17 Ellis Administration “Ellis Plan” implemented by O.B. Ellis Texas Prison System renamed to Texas Department of Corrections Education and industry expanded 17 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

18 Beto Administration Dr. George Beto director, of TDCJ Implemented the Windham School District National recognition for clean, orderly, and secure institutions 1964 – Cooper v. Pate 1971 – Guajardo v. Estelle 1972 – Lamar v. Coffield 18 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

19 Supreme Court Decisions Cooper v. Pate – Prisoners have the right to challenge administrative practices. Guajardo v. Estelle – TDCJ could not deny inmates the right to correspond with inmates on the same or different units regarding legal matters. Lamar v. Coffield – TDCJ prohibited from segregating offender housing or jobs based on race. 19 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

20 Windham School District 20 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

21 Windham School District Largest School District in Texas Established 1969 Offered GED and High School Diploma to inmates Junior- and Senior-level college courses Rehabilitation programs Vocational training Furlough and community service Helped secure work and transition after release 21 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

22 Prison-Made Goods Act 1963 – Produced materials for internal use and sale to other state agencies “Occupational training” for inmates Education, recreation, religion, physiological, and psychological health care added 22 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

23 Inmate Goods 23 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

24 Conflict and Consolidation ( ) Estelle administration: –Ruiz v. Estelle –The Carrasco Incident Weapons smuggled into the unit Hostages were killed Lasted eleven days –The Pack/Moore Homicides An offender was acquitted for the homicides of the warden and top prison official. This caused much outrage amongst the prison staff and concerns for safety –Death of Minnie Houston One of the first female correctional officers was murdered by an offender in the officer’s dining hall. This raised additional concerns for the suitability of female correctional officers in male facilities (female officers were allowed in male facilities as a result of K.K. Coble v. TDCJ) –TDCJ established Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

25 Ruiz v. Estelle 1978 class action lawsuit challenged conditions of confinement Longest running lawsuit Federal courts maintained control of TDCJ until Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

26 Ruiz v. Estelle Violations alleged –Due process –Cruel and unusual punishment –Crowding, poor living/health, and work conditions 26 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

27 Texas Department of Criminal Justice (1972-Present) 1986 – Prison rodeo stopped due to cost of repair and operation 1989 – TDCJ & Board of Criminal Justice were created Texas Department of Criminal Justice, Institutional Division –Department of Corrections –Board of Pardons and Parole –Texas Adult Probation Commission 27 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

28 Recent History (1998-Present) June 17, 2002 – Federal oversight under Ruiz was dismissed Connally Seven “Texas 7”Texas 7 –Amended count procedures –Revised security procedures –Modified the offender classification plan to include reassignment of offenders to more appropriate security levels 28 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

29 29 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

30 Recent History (1998-Present) Homicides of Daniel Nagle, Stanley Wiley, and Rhonda Osborne –Murdered by inmates –Officer safety reviewed –Initiatives to include body alarms, carry-on-person chemical agents, defensive tactics training, thrust vests (stab resistant vests), and BOSS chairs (x-ray chairs that check body orifices for weapons Hurricane Rita – 9,400 inmates were moved via airplane and vehicles prior to the hurricane hitting land 30 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

31 Recent History (1998-Present) CID reorganized to create better communication, coordination, consistency, and improve access to resources; revised into 6 regions. American Correctional Association (ACA) accreditation 31 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

32 Prison Population 1990s – the number of prison beds tripled Community supervision implemented State Jails created Transfer facilities established 1998 – 124,000 in TDCJ, and 6,168 in private facilities 32 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

33 Current Statistics 5 SAFPFs (Substance Abuse Felony Punishment Facilities) 21 State Jail Facilities 82 Prisons 33 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

34 Resources Texas Department of Criminal Justice Photos taken with permission at the Texas Prison Museum sters_outlaws/cops_others/seven/20.ht ml?print=yeshttp://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gang sters_outlaws/cops_others/seven/20.ht ml?print=yes 34 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.


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