Presentation on theme: "Selective Colleges and Admissions"— Presentation transcript:
1Selective Colleges and Admissions History of affirmative action and raceLegacy and sports admissions
2Selective Colleges are not the norm 55 colleges qualify as highly selective. They accept fewer than 30% of applicants.Many private colleges accept nearly all applicants.The average acceptance rate for all four year colleges in the US is 65.5%
3Selective Colleges54% of corporate leaders and 42% of government leaders were graduates of just 12 institutionsHarvard, Yale, Chicago, Stanford, Columbia, MIT, Cornell, Northwestern, Princeton, Johns Hopkins, Penn and Dartmouth
4Selectivity of Colleges Colleges with low selectivity spend 12,000 per student.Colleges with high selectivity spend 92,000 per student.
5Affirmative Action as Compensatory Justice "You do not take a person who, for years, has been hobbled by chains and liberate him, bring him up to the starting line of a race and then say you are free to compete with all the others, and still just believe that you have been completely fair.“ Lyndon Johnson 1965
6Affirmative Action as Diversity Without diverse college classes students will learn less and society will lack for future leaders.Colleges should “look like” AmericaLeadership should reflect the diversity of America
7Affirmative Action1960’s—reasons for developing preferences in hiring and admissionsEquality of opportunityCompensatory racial justice1965 President Johnson Executive Order 11246Federal contractors to take affirmative action in hiring
8Affirmative Action1969 President Nixon issues “Philadelphia Order” specifying federal contractors in construction had to show hiring of minorities1970 Nixon extends the ruling to all federal contractors.Bureaucrats decide on the racial categories to be used, and soon afterwards add women to the category.
9Affirmative ActionBecause it has been based on race, over time with the growth of minority populations and the growth of middle class minorities, affirmative action has increasingly benefitted affluent minorities and immigrants.86% of African Americans at highly selective schools are middle or upper class41% of Black Freshman are immigrants or second generation
13California Case 1978 Regents vs. Bakke UC Davis Medical SchoolAlan Bakke, white who was denied entranceSupreme Court outlawed racial quotas.In a 5-4 ruling found it unconstitutional to set aside a limited number of spaces.Allow race as a “plus factor”
14Michigan Case Grutter vs. Bollinger 2003 University of Michigan Law SchoolArgument was that diversity enhances the educational experience of all students—whites and minorities.Divided court struck down “mechanistic” use of race, allowed race as a “whole consideration”
15Michigan2006Proposition banning affirmative action in public education, employment or contracting.The law was considered by the courts and ended up in the Supreme Court where it was upheld in April The decision just covered higher education
16Texas Case 1996 U T Austin used race as a factor in admission. Freshman class was 4.1% black, 14.5% Hispanic1996 Fifth Circuit court case (Hopwood vs.Texas) temporarily barred from using race.Coalition of civil rights activists and rural white legislators invented the Top 10% plan.Automatically admit the top 10% of every high school in the state
17Texas CaseIn 2004 as a result of the Texas 10% plan, UT Austin was 4.5% African American and 16.9% Hispanic.The 2003 Michigan Supreme Court Case effectively overruled Hopwood. So Texas added race back into consideration, on top of class based and top 10% admissions.In 2013, 3.4% of entering students were African American Ten Percenters, 1.2% were African Americans admitted for diversity
18Texas Case 2012 Fisher vs. University of Texas Abigail Fisher argues she was denied admission because she was white.
23Electoral ChallengesThere are currently 8 states with complete bans on affirmative action in public institutionsCalifornia 1996Washington 1998Florida 1999Michigan 2006Nebraska 2008Arizona 2010New Hampshire 2011Oklahoma 2012
24Race neutral admissions schemes UC system has employed a percentage plan and economic based affirmative action.
25Harvard and UNC Lawsuit 2014 Filed by Asian American student turned down by Harvard and a white student turned down by UNC Chapel Hill. Backed by same organization that brought Texas suitBlum alleged that Harvard’s admission process discriminates against Asian Americans, and that UNC-Chapel Hill failed to give adequate consideration to race-neutral admissions.
26Harvard’s AdmissionsIn the Bakke Case, the SC talked about Harvard Admissions:“In Harvard College admissions the Committee has not set target-quotas for the number of blacks, or of musicians, football players, physicists or Californians to be admitted in a given year,” Justice Lewis F. Powellwrote for the majority. “This kind of program treats each applicant as an individual in the admissions process.”
27Lawsuit argues against using race Outlines other ways Harvard could have diversity:Limiting legacy preferencesIncreasing financial aid for minoritiesGiving preference based on socioeconomic measures or zip codesBecause Harvard is a private university it is sued under Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act which bars racial discrimination at institutions that receive federal funds.
28Legacy Admissions30 top colleges children of alumni have a 45% greater chance of admission. (Hurwitz 2011)Being a legacy is equivalent to 160 additional SAT points (Massey)At Harvard Legacy admission rate 30% vs. 6.9% overall.
29Sports and Higher Education The U.S. is unique in the world in the extent to which sports is part of higher education.Positive or negative effects onBudgetsAdmissionsUndergraduate Education
30Sports and StatusEfforts to regulate sports enabled schools to imagine themselves as groups of more or less similar institutions.The fundamental social power of colleges and universities lies in their ability to confer status in the form of academic credentials to graduates.Unlike France and other European countries, the government does not confer status on universities.
31Status Systems of Colleges Academic selectivityNational representativeness of the student bodyAthletic league affiliationIvy League (1945)Patriot LeagueNew England Small College Athletic ConferenceBig Ten
32History of Sports and Higher Education First Sporting Event Harvard vs. Yale 1852 Lake WinnipesaukeeFirst Football Game Rutgers vs. Princeton 1869.1880s and 1890s football teams were fielded across the country in colleges.By the 1890s the championship game in New York on Thanksgiving attracted 40,000 players.
33History of College Football 25 colleges were playing at beginning of 20th century. Rules were being improvised. Rugby had a strong influence. Particularly brutal.18 players died playing football in 1905 alone.Theodore Roosevelt summoned the presidents and coaches of Harvard, Yale and Princeton to the White House.Rule changes—forward pass.Organization precursor to NCAA
34Why academics and sports? Sports lent a macho air to a college life that was popularly regarded as bookish and effete.Larger cultural anxiety about the fate of masculinity in a changing social order. (Theodore Roosevelt doing paperwork)Boy Scouts and FootballFemale athletics in college highly debated. Competition frowned upon. No scores kept.Stevens pp
351895 Harper’s Magazine on Princeton The male of the human species passes through a stage when he has ceased to be a boy and is not yet a man, when his passions are virile and his judgement puerile. In the essentials of life he must at that epoch, in spite of his impatience of restraint, remain under tutelage. But how is he to find play for his growing manhood? Where is he to make his blunders and learn his lessons of experience? In some sphere where he will do the least harm and the greatest good both to himself and the community. This sphere is so manifestly that of his physical exercise and sport that the proposition is self evident.
36Money, Alcohol, Fame Harvard President Eliot Colleges are presenting themselves to the public, educated and uneducated alike, as places of mere physical sport and not as educational training institutions.1893 Cornell President W.F.KingThe hot competition in these games stimulates certain unfortunate practices, such as the admission of professionals into college as nominal students at the expense of the team, tendencies to betting, the limitation of the benefits of the game to a very few persons, and with these the interest is too intense to be compatible with educational advantages.
37From Student Clubs to Institutionalized Entertainment By the 1920’s the battle was over and college athletics became bureaucratized and commercialized. The idea was that faculty would oversee and control sports. Coaches were to be drawn from the faculty or report to the faculty.Professional coachesPaying spectatorsRecruited athletesSmall colleges: physical recreation and intercollegiate sportsLarge Universities: entertainment with elite athletes
38University of Chicago 1931 President Robert Hutchins College is not a great athletic association and social club, in which provision is made, merely incidentally, for intellectual activity on the part of the physically and socially unfit. College is an association of scholars in which provision is made for the development of traits and powers which must be cultivated, in addition to those which are purely intellectual, if one is to become a well-balanced and useful member of any community”1939 University of Chicago dropped football
39NCAANCAA founded in 1906, became dominant in the post war years. Problems were growing with recruiting, financial aid, defining the season.Television posed a big issue for sports.1952, paid director and national headquarters set up in Kansas City1973 Divisions were created, I, II and III.
40Divisions of NCAA Division 1 Must offer at least 14 sports Must offer two team sports for each gender.Must have men and womens sports in fall, winter and spring.Must offer a minimum amount of financial aid and may not exceed the maximum.335 colleges and universities.66% are public, 34% are private
41Division II Intermediate level of competition. Scholarships are partial.Must field 10 sports, four in each gender.Regionalization with playoffs throughout the country.302 institutions52% public, 48% private
42Division III No athletic scholarships Playing season to minimize conflict with academic programs.Features student athletes with the same admissions standards, academic standards, housing and support services as the general student body.447 institutions20% public, 80% private
43College Scholarships Not allowed until 1956 4 year scholarships until 1972 when they were switched to one year, now 4 year are allowed again.138,216 athletes received an athletic scholarship.Men received 57% of all scholarship money.Best paying sport?Men’s ice hockey $21,755Women’s ice hockey $20,540Lowest paying sport?Men’s rifelry $3,608Women’s bowling $4,899Excluding football and basketball, the average NCAA athletic scholarship is $8,707.
44Admissions StandardsThe only requirement from was that athletes graduate from high school with a 2.0 GPA.In 1986 the rules were tightened to a 2.0 GPA in 11 core courses, SAT score of 700.In 1996 it was revised to 13 core courses and SAT of (although if your GPA was above 2.5 you could have SAT of 820).
45Ivy League Academic Index Athlete’s admissions credentials were considered in relation to the overall academic profile of students in the school.
46College scholarships2% of the 6.4 million athletes playing high school sports get scholarships.
47Title IX 1972No person in the US shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.Average number of women’s sports teams per institution went from 2.5 in 1970 to 8.45 in 2006.Between 1988 and 2003 net gain of 2,102 women’s sports teams and 70 men’s sports teams
48Business of SportsMore than 90% of Division I athletic programs had deficits averaging $7.1 million.7% of Division I athletic departments were self supporting. Most required subsidies.Athletic spending is increasing 4-5 times the rate of other costs for higher education.
49Moving to the Pros Men’s Basketball 1.2% Women’s basketball 1% Football 2%Baseball 10.5%Men’s ice hockey 4.1%Men’s soccer 1.9%
50Admissions Advantages Athletics has become a major advantage in getting in to selective colleges, not necessarily in paying for them.
60College Admissions What is the purpose of college? Credential or Skills?How important is diversity by race or class?How important is college for social mobility and opportunity for smart people at the bottom of the hierarchy?Does our current system create “Excellent Sheep” (Deresiewicz)