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By Lisa M. Boyd Consumer Health Librarian NN/LM National Network Office National Library of Medicine, NIH.

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Presentation on theme: "By Lisa M. Boyd Consumer Health Librarian NN/LM National Network Office National Library of Medicine, NIH."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Lisa M. Boyd Consumer Health Librarian NN/LM National Network Office National Library of Medicine, NIH

2 Librarian Training Program Louis Kerr v. Enoch Pratt Free Library 1945 Public Graduate Education Sweatt v. Painter 1950 McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents 1950 All Public Education Brown v. Board of Education 1954

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5 Photo Courtesy of U.S. Army Signal Corps

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7 Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine

8 Baltimorean 27 Years old in 1943 High School, Normal School & University of Pennsylvania Elementary School Teacher Aspired to be a Librarian

9 9 Month program Professional training for librarians Graduates employed by Pratt Library Over 200 Black applicants rejected “…unnecessary and unpractical to admit colored persons…”

10 Enoch Pratt Central Library on Mulberry Street 1886

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12 1943 & 1944 Pitcher Street Branch Iona Wood Collins Hampton University Thelma L. Thomas Hartford, Connecticut Alma Long Bell Appointed Head, 1944 Clark Atlanta University

13 Pratt Library Staff Senior & Junior Assistant Librarians Main Library 26 Branches 2 Black Junior Librarians Black Neighborhood Branches

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15 President, NAACP Baltimore City Chapter

16 Education: Amherst College 1915 Valedictorian Harvard Law School 1923 cum laude Harvard Law Review Dean, Howard University School of Law ABA accreditation Association of American Law Schools Counsel for NAACP Architect of Civil Rights legal strategies

17 “All persons born…in the United States…are citizens...” “No State…shall abridge the privileges…of citizens…” “…nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law,…” Section 1: ____________

18 Education: Lincoln University 1930 Howard University School of Law 1933 Career: NAACP Attorney, Baltimore Branch Chief Counsel, NAACP Brown vs. Board of Education 1954 US Court of Appeals, Second Circuit Solicitor General Associate Justice, US Supreme Court

19 Brown v. Board of Education 1954 Ended legalized segregation of public schools “separate but equal” {Plessy v. Ferguson 1896} overturned

20 Lawsuit Violation of 14 th Amendment $60,000 in damages Joined by T. Henderson Kerr Father of Louise Pharmacist Tax Payer $5,000 in damages

21 Defendants: Pratt Library Nine Trustees Librarian Mayor of Baltimore City Council of Baltimore Defendants’ Lawyers Harry N. Baetjer Allen A. Davis

22 Enoch Pratt Free Library Victorious Judge W. Calvin Chestnut ruled: Pratt Library Private corporation Not bound by 14 th Amendment No intent to discriminate

23 Fourth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals Judge Morris Ames Soper wrote: Pratt Library Public Agency of the State of Maryland Violated 14 th Amendment Kerr & NAACP Victorious

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25 Life After Verdict Wheeler resigned Resolution rescinded Training program opened to all Pass then employed by Library

26 Don Herzog, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor Law School Michigan Law Review, Vol. 105, October 2006

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29 Louise Lyles Kerr-Hines March 15, 1916 – April 9, 2007 Education: Douglass High School 1934 Coppin Normal School 1937 Married C. Morsell Hines 1946 Career: Elementary School Teacher NAACP Office Secretary Afro American Newspaper Reporter MD Department of Human Resources – Retired 1978 Life Member of NAACP

30 Ms. Louis Lyles Kerr-Hines Ms. Iona Wood Collins Ms. Thelma L. Thomas Ms. Alma Long Bell

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