2 Objectives Food safety and personal hygiene The types of food contaminationFood safetyEmployee’s personal hygiene
3 Hong Kong Food Safety Internal player Food and Health Bureau食物及衞生局Department of Health衞生署Food and Environmental Hygiene Department (FEHD)食物環境衞生署Government Laboratory政 府 化 驗 所Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department漁農自然護理署Hospital Authority醫院管理局
4 Important contribution factors in Hong Kong ContaminationCross contamination of ready-to-eat food by raw foodContaminated raw foodPoor personal hygieneInadequate cleaning of equipmentContamination by food handlers, e.g. hands, cloths and equipmentsTemperatureInadequate cooking/ reheatingInappropriate storage temperatureInadequate cooling and cold holdingTimeProlonged storagePreparing food ahead of planned service
5 Consequences or costs of poor food safety Merits of Good Food Hygiene and Price for Bad Food HygieneMerits of Good Food HygienePrice for Bad Food HygieneRegulationsComply with statutory requirementsComply with licensing requirements and conditionsReduce the chance of food poisoning incidentsBreach the law and be prosecutedBe fined or pay lawsuit feesVictims may bring civil actionBusinessEarn reputation and boost businessImprove productivityLose goodwillReduce productivityMay cause closure of businessEmployeesElevate moraleReduce staff turnoverGood working environmentLose work daysIncrease staff turnoverUnemploymentFoodExtend shelf life of foodEnsure the quality of foodFood wastage
6 Food Safety Terminology Food Safety: assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and /or eaten according to its intended use (free from harmful substances)Food Hygiene: all conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food at all stages of the food chainFood Suitability: assurance that food is acceptable for human consumption according to its intended use
7 Food Safety Terminology (Food poisoning) “An acute illness usually of sudden onset, due to the consumption of contaminated or poisonous food”Common causative agents:Bacteria:Pathogenic type – Vibrio spp (霍亂弧菌), Salmonella spp (沙門氏桿菌)Toxin type –Staphylococcus aureus (金黃色葡萄球桿菌), Clostridium botulinum (肉毒桿菌)Chemicals:PesticidesNatural toxins (Biochemicals)Plant type – mushroom, sprout potatoAnimal type – puffer fishViruses e.g. Norwalk (諾沃克) group and Hepatitis A
8 Food Safety Terminology (Food Borne Disease) Differs from food poisoning in that:A relatively small number of organisms is capable of causing the illnessThe food acts purely as a vehicle and the multiplication of the organism within the food is not an important feature of the illness
9 Food Borne DiseaseWe divide the illnesses and the bacteria that cause them into two categories:Caused directly by the invasion of the body by bacteria (Food infection)Caused by bacterial toxins produced either directly on the food or produced in the body after ingestion (Food intoxication)
10 Food Hazard and Contamination A food hazard (食品危害) is anything that can contaminate the food or cause harm to the consumer.Food contamination (食品污染 or 感染??) or refers to any harmful substances unintentionally added to food. These substances may come from natural sources or environmental pollution, or arise from food processing.
11 Food hazards occur from one of three sources: Chemically Biologically Physically
12 Food hazardsChemical contamination are chemicals or compounds that can potentially harm the heath of humans. In the short term it may cause severe vomiting, but in the long term may lead to serious illnesses –such as, cancer – and damage to organs such as the liver, kidney, brain, etc.Biological contamination is living organism or agent derived by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mammal and bird antigens that can cause many health effects.Physical contamination is both objectionable (because it can be seen by consumer, unlike chemical or biological contamination) and harmful to health – causing:Broken teethCutsChoking
14 Biological Contamination High-risk group:young childrenelderly peoplechronic patientspregnant women
15 Pathogenic micro-organisms linked to food poisoning and food-borne illness:
16 Examples of bacterial food poisoning: Source/ Contaminated FoodCharacteristics of BacteriaBacillus Cereus仙人掌桿菌Rice and rice based items, meat, fish, milk, vegetables, pasta, soya beansSpore formerProduction of two toxinsClostridium Botulinum肉毒桿菌Soil and waterCanned foodPoor competitorFormation of neurotoxin (神經毒素)– double vision, difficulty in speaking and swallowingClostridium Perfringens產氣莢膜梭菌human and animal intestine, soil, dustSpore former, anaerobic,Listeria Monocytogenes李斯特菌chilled or delicatessen products – soft cheeses, cold cut, patePsychotropic – able to grow at 1℃ – 3℃E. coli 0157 H7大腸桿菌raw meat, undercooked meat products and raw milkExtremely resilient organismHigh mortality rateGut originSalmonella沙門氏菌Raw meat and products, undercooked eggs and egg productsCannot form sporesDies at 70℃Staphylococcus Aureus金黃色葡萄球桿菌Human skin, hair, nasal cavity, woundsCannot form spores, but its toxins are heat resistibleVibrio Parahaemolyticus腸炎弧菌Seafood, shellfishDies after heating at a high temperature for 10 minutes
17 Common symptoms of bacterial food poisoning Bacillus CereusVomiting and abdominal crampsClostridium BotulinumConstipation, diarrhoea and vomiting, double vision, difficulty in speaking and swallowingClostridium PerfringensDiarrhoea and abdominal pain. Vomiting rareListeria MonocytogenesSepticaemia (敗血症), meningitis (腦膜炎)Escherichia coli 0157 H7Abdominal pain, fever, bloody diarrhea, kidney failureSalmonellaFever, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and vomitingStaphylococcus AureusNausea, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and vomitingVibrio ParahaemolyticusNausea, fever, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and vomiting
18 VirusesMuch smaller than bacteria and highly infectious – one third smaller than bacteriaNo complete cell structure and cannot reproduce independently – can only multiply within a cellExamples include:Hepatitis ANorwalk (Norovirus)Rotavirus
19 Viruses Remember –do not require the food/water for multiplication Viruses are typically water borneContamination at source (food eaten raw) and by handlingNormal cooking temperatures denatures virusesRaw foods most implicated in outbreaksInfective dose very small – can be a single virusVery contagious and person to person spread is common outbreaksSpread by faecal – oral route
20 Viruses (Hepatitis A) If infected you gain life long immunity Symptoms: fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, liver diseaseIP: 15 – 50 daysillness lasts several days to several monthsGastro-intestinal tract usual source but blood and urine also implicatedImplicated foods: sewage contaminated water, raw shell fish, vegetables, saladsControl: standard food hygiene practices, water quality, approved shell fish beds
21 Viruses (Norwalk Viruses) Small round structured virusesSource: human intestine and sewage contaminated waterIP: 1 – 2 days, illness lasts 1 – 3 daysImplicated foods: shellfish, vegetables, salads and waterSymptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal painControl: standard food hygiene practices, water quality, approved shell fish beds
22 Viruses (Rotavirus)500,00 cases and 1 million deaths worldwide each yearEffects young children causing severe diarrhoea and dehydrationSource: humans, sewage contaminated waterIP: 1-3 days, duration 4-8daysControl: standard food hygiene practices
23 ParasitesParasites are organisms that can live on or in a host as well as to derive benefit from or at the expense of its host.They can be found on various kinds of food, such as meats, seafood and fresh produce.Two main types of parasites found in food are protozoa (原蟲) and helminths (蠕蟲) (also known as worms).
25 Cross-contamination Cross-contamination usually involves a vehicle of contamination –something that helps the bacteria to‘travel’ from one surface to another.E.g. Raw to cooked foodVehicle can be:Food handlerFood contact surfaceEquipment and utensil
26 Food Safety System - HACCP HACCP is an abbreviation for the“Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point”The HACCP technique itself is a logical system of control, based on the prevention of problems.Systematic and general approach allows design of operation specific programsA management tool used to protect the food supply against biological, chemical and physical hazardsDesign and evaluation of control systems
27 Origin of HACCP Pioneered in the 1960’s First used when foods were developed for the space programAdopted by many food processors and the U.S. governmentThe first work on HACCP was done at the Pillsbury Company, in collaboration with NASA
28 Seven Principles of HACCP Conduct hazard analysis and identify preventive measuresIdentify Critical Control Points (CCPs)Establish critical limitsEstablish monitoring procedure for Critical Control Points (CCPs)Establish corrective actionsEstablish verification proceduresEstablish record-keeping and documentation procedures
29 WHY HACCP??A Food Safety Plan minimizes the limitations of traditional food management systems such as end-product testing and inspectionMake the product safelyMinimize the possibility of food poisoningEnhance the consumer’s confidencePromote the competitive advantageIn a long run, a Food Safety Plan lowers production cost on raw material wastage and food recallEnhance reputation and credibility of enterprise
30 Principle 1Identify the potential hazards associated with a food and measures to control those hazards are identified. A food safety hazard is any biological, chemical or physical property that may cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption.
31 Principle 2Determine the Critical Control Points (CCP’s) in a food's production -- from its raw state through processing and shipping to consumption by the consumer--at which the potential hazard can be controlled, eliminated, or reduced to acceptable levels.
32 Principle 3Establish preventive measures with critical limits (管制界限) for each control point. For a cooked food, for example, this might include setting the minimum cooking temperature and time required to ensure the elimination of any harmful bacterial.A critical limits is defined as “The maximum or minimum value to which a physical, biological, or chemical hazard must be controlled at a critical control point.”
33 Principle 3- some examples Maximum value:E.g. Maximum temperature for cool storage - 4 C.Minimum value:E.g. Milk Pasteurization 71.7 C for 15 seconds.E.g. Industrial meat cooking are that the centre temperature achieves 70C for at least 2 minutes.
34 Principle 4Establish procedures to monitor the critical control points. Such procedures might include Who, What, When and How of monitoring.Example:The “Who” is the cook on duty.The “What” is the temperature of the oven.The “When” is every hour (＋/ － 5 minutes).The “How” is the oven temperature device.
35 Principle 5Establish corrective actions to be taken when monitoring shows that a critical limit has not been met.Corrective actions includeRaise the cooking temperatureExtend cooking timeAdjustRecall and discard products
36 Principle 6Establish procedures to verify that the system is working properly--for example, testing time and temperature recording devices to verify that a cooking unit is working properly.Some examples of verification are:The calibration of process monitoring instrumentsDirect observation of monitoring activities and corrective actionsSampling of productMonitoring records review and inspection
37 Principle 7Establish effective recordkeeping to document the HACCP system. This would includeRecords of hazardsTheir control methodsThe monitoring of safety requirementsAction taken to correct potential problems.
38 Examples of application of food safety plan Step: ReheatingHazardControl LimitsMonitoring ProceduresCorrective ActionsRecordsWhatHowWhenWhoSurvival of food poisoning bacteriaHeat food to a core temperature 75℃ or above as quickly as possibleCafé food temperatureUse thermometerEach batchChefContinue reheating food to required temperatureTemperature record sheetStep: Hot HoldingHazardControl LimitsMonitoring ProceduresCorrective ActionsRecordsWhatHowWhenWhoCross-contaminationCover/ wrap all foodStorage conditionVisual checkingDuring workingChef assistantcover/ wrap the foodDiscard contaminated foodTemperature record sheetGrowth of food poisoning bacteria and formation of toxinKeep food at 63℃ or aboveTemperature of food in holding containersUse thermometerEvery two hoursChef assistantAdjust hot holding apparatus to keep food above 63℃Discard food if it is held below 63℃ for more than two hours
39 Food Legislation of Hong Kong Main Ordinance – Part V (Food and Drugs) of the, Public Health and Municipal Services Ordinance, Cap 132 (公 眾 衞 生 及 巿 政 條 例)Subsidiary Legislations made under Section 55 & 56Colouring Matter in Food RegulationsDried Milk RegulationsSweeteners in Food RegulationsFood Adulteration (Metallic Contamination) RegulationsFood and Drugs (Composition and Labelling) RegulationsFood Business RegulationFrozen Confections RegulationHarmful Substances in Food RegulationsImported Game, Meat and Poultry RegulationsMilk RegulationMineral Oil in Food RegulationsPreservatives in Food RegulationsSlaughterhouses Regulations
40 LicensingOperators of the following food business required to obtain a license from FEHD (Food and Environment Hygiene Department ) before operation:1) Restaurant2) Food factory3) Fresh provision shop4) Bakery5) Factory canteen6) Siu mei and lo mei shop7) Frozen confections factory8) Milk factory9) Cold store10)Slaughterhouse
41 The right conditions For bacteria to multiply they need: Time Warmth Under optimum conditions bacteria can double every 10 to 20 minutes. For example, if food contains 1,000 bacteria in the beginning, their number can reach 1,000,000 within 1 hour and 40 minutes. Such amount of bacteria per gram of food can cause illness.WarmthIn the danger zone i.e. 4℃ to 63℃ bacterial multiplication occurs fastest and needs controlling.MoistureCritical for multiplication and this is the reason why it is vital to dry surfaces, where possible, after washing up to deny bacteria moisture. This is also one of the reasons why the sink and surround in a kitchen often has the highest level of bacteria.FoodThe available food for bacteria to utilise, survive and multiply. Food rich in moisture and protein such as milk and meat, are very suitable for the growth of bacteria. They are also called “high risk food”.
42 Most suitable temperature for bacteria growth It is called optimum temperature: between 20 to 45 oCTemperature danger zone4 to 60℃Food should not be placed at temperature danger zone for over 2 hoursInfluence of high temperature on bacteriaAbove 60℃: most of the bacteria would stop growingOver 60 ℃ : bacteria start to die off, and the higher the temperature, the less time it takes to kill bacteriaBacteria can produce spores, which can survive at high temperatureCook food thoroughly by maintaining the core temperature at 75 ℃ for at least 15 seconds
43 Chilled Storage- principles of safe storage Clean chiller regularly to avoid dirt and ensure efficiencyThe temperature of the refrigerator should bekept between 1 ℃ to 4 ℃Cover and label foodKeep food tidy and orderlyDon’t overstockFIFO (First In First Out)
44 Chilled Storage- principles of safe storage No warm foodSeparate raw and ready-to-eat foodsIf raw and ready-to-eat are to be stored in the same unit,Ensure raw is on shelves below ready-to-eat foodPreferably, use separate unitsOpen cans should not be stored in refrigerator
49 Frozen Storage – principles of safe storage At -18℃Clean freezer and defrost regularlyDefrost thoroughlyCover and label foodKeep food tidy and orderlyDon’t overstockNo warm foodFIFO
50 Safe methods for defrosting foods You can defrost foods in a:Chiller < 5℃Microwave (following manufacture’s instructions)Well cover with an appropriate container and place within the chillerUse specialist defrosting unitDo not re-freeze thawed foodCheck before cooking to ensure that the product is completely defrostedFood must not be thawed out at room temperatureUnless thawed food is processed immediately, it should be held at 8℃ or below until being usedFood thawed in microwave ovens should be cooked immediately.
51 Safe cooking temperatures Food must be cooked thoroughly, especially meat and poultry. Adequate cooking time is needed to allow food to attain the temperature capable of killing bacteria and completely cookedRaw animal food (e.g. poultry, pork, minced meat), the centre of the food should reach a temperature of at least 75 ℃ for 15 seconds, or an effective time / temperature combination (e.g. 65 ℃ for 10 minutes, 70 ℃ for 2 minutes)Food which do not require heating before consumption should not be put under room temperature, and should be stored under refrigeration immediately after processing
52 Safe cooking temperatures It is important that foods are cooked thoroughly and the target temperature is achieved throughout. Undercooking will enable bacteria to surviveMicrowave cookingRotated or stirred food throughout or midway during cookingHeated to a temperature of at least 75 ℃ for 15 seconds in all parts of the foodAllowed to stand covered for a minimum of 2 minutes after cooking to obtain temperature equilibrium
53 Cooling & Reheating Cooling Reheating Food that has been cooked, and is intended to be kept under refrigerated storage prior to serving should:Be cooled from 60 ℃ to 20 ℃ within 2 hours or less; andFrom 20 ℃ to 4 ℃ within 4 hours or lessContainers should not be stacked up during cooling and there should be a free space in between containers to allow cold air inside the refrigerator / cooling cabinet free circulationReheatingFood that has been cooked and cooled, when reheated, should be reheated to 75oC or above as quickly as possible. Normally, the reheating time should not exceed 2 hours.Food that has been reheated should not be cooled and reheated for a second time.
54 ServingKeep food above 60 ℃ or below 4 ℃ (be more safety, is can be up to 63 ℃)Minimize bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat foodIf gloves are used to handle ready-to-eat food, they should be of single-useIce to be used in food and drink should not be handled with bare handsRefresh food displays with completely fresh batches of food. Avoid mixing old food with fresh batchesDo not wipe utensils with aprons, soiled cloths, unclean towels, or handsNever re-use single-use items, such as straws, paper towels, disposable cups and platesOnce served to a consumer, portions of leftover food should not be served again
56 Food DisplayingDisplay food should be stored inside cold (at 4 ℃ or below), or hot (at 60 ℃ or above) cabinet, unless it is intended for short time displayEnsure the food intended to be displayed frozen remain frozen (preferably at –18 ℃ or below)Ensure the package of pre-packaged food intact and unbrokenCover unpackaged ready-to-eat food with lids or protect it with food guards/sneeze guardSushi and sashimi displayed for immediate consumption in conveyer belt should be properly covered and should not be left on the belt for too long (less than two hours)
57 Hot holding Hot holding, by law, must be at or above 63℃. Food will have been cooked or re-heated to higher temperature and if held at 63℃ or above food will be out of the danger zone.If the temperature of the food drops below 63℃, it must be sold within two hours or destroyed because of the potential for bacterial survival and multiplication.
59 Date markingAll pre-packed foods come with a date indication on the label. These are either ‘use-by’ or ‘best-before’ dates.Use-by date on ready-to-eatfoods –illegal to sellfood past its use-by dateBest-before date – canned, driedand frozen products – can be soldpast best-before date, but safetyand quality could be compromised
60 Personal hygieneHuman body is the source of many types of contamination and also a common medium of cross contamination. Food handlers must always keep up with a high personal hygiene standard to ensure food safety.Good appearanceHair should be short and covered with hatHeavy make-up, strong perfume or aftershave should be avoidedOpen wound should be covered by bandageClear and tidy uniform and shoe
61 Personal hygieneIn food preparation areas, one should avoid the following behaviours which may result in contamination of food:Storing personal belongings, such as handbags, shoes and dirty clothing, in any food preparation areaSmoking cigarettes or tobaccoSpittingChewing, eating, sneezing or coughing over unprotected food or food contact surfacesSitting, lying or standing on any surfaces of equipment touched by foodTouching ready-to-eat food with bare hands or tasting food with fingersCombing/touching hair or other parts of the body such as nose, eyes* Staff engaged in food handling should not be assigned to handle cash simultaneously.
62 Personal hygiene issues…. Before commencing work, work uniform and aprons (or clothings) must be clean and fit for the purposeWear mouth masks when handling food as far as possibleDo not wear work uniform outside food handling areaDaily clean uniform or even change twiceShould shower daily – for and after serviceTell the manager before work if they have suffered from diarrheas, vomiting or skin problemsShampoo your hair as often as necessary to keep it healthy and cleanKeep your fingernails clean, well-trimmed, and free of nail polish
63 Personal hygieneThe purpose of protective clothing: to protect the food from the handlerWhat properties should protective clothing have?Light (so dirt can be seen),washable,no pockets,no buttons or potential physical contaminants,disposable, etcReasons for wearing:Hat/hair netstops hands touching hair and ears (sources of Staphylococcus aureus) and stops hair falling into the food (contamination)Beard snoodstops facial hair falling into the foodApron/ Chef jacket/Trousersprotect the food from contamination that might be on the food handler’s clothesDedicated shoesto stop any contamination from the soles of outdoor shoes. Also for health and safety reasons –e.g. to prevent slipsGlovessometimes used to handle ready-to-eat food to act as a skin barrier, but if hands are kept clean, there should be no need to wear gloves
64 Personal Hygiene (Keep hands clean) Experimental results on hand washing:When hand basin is used for hand washing, about 26% of the bacteria will remainWith running water, about 20% of the bacteria will remainWhen soap is being used, almost all bacteria will be removed
65 Hand washing One of the most important actions you can take to help prevent contamination.But why is hand washing so important?
66 Hand washingIt is normal for a population of harmful micro-organisms to be carried on our hands at any time.However activities in our every day life such as handling raw meat or visiting the toilet can significantly increase the presence of more harmful ones.It is vital in preventing contamination of food by food handlers. Harmful bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus and viruses (e.g. norovirus) present on the hands of food workers.These micro-organisms are so small that you are unable to see them with the naked eye.It is not only important to wash your hands, but also to do so properly.Bacterial can be removed by proper hand washing techniques.
67 Washing facilities Hand wash facilities with hot and cold water, soap anddrying facilitiesSeparate food and equipmentsinks with hot and cold water
68 When should you wash you hand? Before:staring food preparationbefore wearing plastic gloveshandling high-risk foodAfter:taking a breaksneezingwearing plastic glovesblowing the nosepreparing ready to eat food and raw materialstouching contaminated articles (solid dishes, packaging, garbage)toileteating or drinkingtouching the face or hair
69 Six Steps for Hand Washing Wet hands and exposed portion of forearms with warm water. Using soap, work up a lather that covers hands and forearms. Vigorously rub hands together for at least 20 seconds. Pay particular attention to the areas under the fingernails and between the fingers. Rinse hands and forearms in clean water. Dry hands and forearms. Turn taps off with paper towel if available.
70 Why don’t we use the cloth for drying hand or cleaning?
71 Temperature indicate Cook Freezer temperature Boiling point Bacteria stayReheatUpper limit to danger zoneBody temperatureLower limit of danger zoneDisinfectRefrigerator or chilled product maximum temperature (for fresh vegetable)