Presentation on theme: "The PowerPoint presentation can serve three purposes: 1. A thorough introduction to the game 2. A presentation on workplace bullying separate from the."— Presentation transcript:
The PowerPoint presentation can serve three purposes: 1. A thorough introduction to the game 2. A presentation on workplace bullying separate from the game 3. A menu of topics to use selectively for introducing the game Introduction for the Presenter
The slides cover three main areas: Introduction to and summary of research on workplace bullying (slides 4-27) Comparing and contrasting workplace bullying and school bullying (slides 28-47) How The Respectful Workplace Game™ addresses workplace bullying and can help organizations move toward a more respectful workplace (slides 48-60) Introduction for the Presenter
Notes: The slides on workplace vs. school bullying can be skipped without affecting the continuity of the presentation. The last slide contains the sources of the statistics and lists in the slides. Introduction for the Presenter
By Franklin Rubenstein, Ph.D.
A respectful workplace is one where members are continuously vigilant in ensuring that they act in a respectful way and do not bully or harass other members. Members work to support, not put down, other members.
In this presentation and in The Respectful Workplace™ game, we refer to repeated disrespectful behavior aimed at an individual or group of individuals as bullying. For our purposes, bullying is defined as:
Repeated disrespectful behavior toward an individual or group Bullying
The terms harassment and abuse are also descriptive of the behavior termed bullying. We use bullying because: it is being used more and more frequently in the research literature, in media, and in organizations themselves. the term abuse brings visions of violence, which is usually not the case in workplace bullying.
the term harassment is often used to describe sexual harassment, a very serious issue. Unfortunately, for every case of it, there are many cases not based on gender issues. Legislation to outlaw workplace bullying is called healthy workplace legislation. Although this term is preferred by business groups because it does not imply wrongdoing, it is not sufficiently descriptive to be useful for the purpose of this game.
All disrespectful actions are to be avoided in the workplace. When we refer to workplace bullying, we are usually referring to a series of disrespectful actions that take place over a period of at least a few months. There are exceptions where intensive bullying can take place in a shorter period of time.
A study of bullying in the UK in 2000 concluded that 10% of workers had been bullied in the most recent six months, and that 24% had been bullied within the last five years.
A recent study by Zogby International found that 37% of U.S. workers said that they had been bullied at work. The survey also showed that 40% of workplace bullies are women.
Bullying varies greatly from organization to organization. It is prevalent in organizations that condone bullying as part of a “tough” management style.
A. For the Organization B. For the Target C. For the Bystanders
A. For the Organization Reduces productivity Stifles creativity Increases turnover Increases absenteeism Reduces satisfaction Increases the chances for costly lawsuits All the above reduce profitability.
B. For the Target Targets suffer from both physical and emotional symptoms.
Feeling sick Sweating, shaking Disturbed sleep Palpitations Loss of energy Stomach/bowel problems Severe headaches Loss of libido Aches and pains
Anxiety Irritability Panic attacks Depression Lack of motivation Loss of confidence Feelings of isolation Rage Reduced self-esteem Fallout from Workplace Bullying (cont.) Emotional Symptoms - Target
The emotional symptoms usually lead to strained relationships and/or excessive use of alcohol, tobacco, or recreational drugs, and/or violence against others or self.
C. For the Bystanders To a lesser degree, bystanders suffer the same symptoms as targets. Bystanders suffer because they fear that they may be the next targets and also because of the negative and destructive atmosphere that bullying causes.
There are often benefits for the bully, including feelings of dominance, revenge, and enhanced power over others. Bullying behavior is rewarded in certain organizations as examples of “tough” management. Bullying can also achieve short-term goals, such as meeting deadlines, although the medium-term and long-term effects are always negative.
In most organizations there is usually no cost for the bully. In most cases bullying behavior is not illegal, and lawsuits are rare at present. Bystanders are usually powerless to intervene to stop the bullying. Complaints to HR or management usually result in inaction. Why does bullying start and thrive in organizations? (continued)
Targets are usually reluctant to take formal action, such as a lawsuit or grievance, due to the possible negative consequences (further bullying and dismissal). Management is often reluctant to take action against managers who are bullies, but successful in their positions. The HR department usually lacks the power to take concerted action, especially in organizations where management condones or practices bullying.
Withholding information Use of sarcasm Excessive monitoring of work Systematic ignoring Isolation from other workers Persistent public criticism and/or humiliation
Setting unrealistic goals Intimidation to prevent taking vacation or sick leave Pattern of assigning meaningless tasks Spreading malicious rumors Shouting and verbal abuse Physical threats
Blocking promotions Refusing reasonable requests Invading privacy, such as by reading mail or inspecting computer hard drive Demanding perfection in trivial matters Setting objectives that cannot be achieved
Taking undeserved credit and/or improperly shifting blame Displaying uncontrolled anger, shouting, and/or using vulgar language Discounting or denial of accomplishments Sending memos designed to intimidate Undermining authority
Schools are achieving some success in battling bullying. Can workplaces learn from their example? Observe the differences in environments highlighted by these true/false questions.
True or False? If a target of bullying in school stands up for her rights in a nonviolent way, she runs a significant risk of being expelled from school or demoted to a lower grade.
Schools: False Workplace: True. Almost 25% of bullying situations in the workplace result in the target being fired. About 75% in all are resolved by the target resigning, being fired, being transferred to another department, or being demoted. Targets who stay often experience a reduction or elimination of promotion prospects, diminution of office size and location, and/or a reduction in challenging and interesting work.
True or False? In school, the bully and the target may have different social status and power, but their formal power and position are usually equal, except of course when a student is bullied by a coach or teacher.
Schools: True Workplace: False. Over 75% of the time, the bully is the target’s supervisor. This fact alone makes it much more difficult for the target and well-meaning bystanders to end the bullying.
True or False? Bullying in a school almost never helps the bully to achieve even short-term organizational objectives.
School: True Workplace: False. Bullying subordinates can help a supervisor achieve short-term objectives, such as making a deadline. However, the long-run effects of bullying are always negative, including reduced productivity, teamwork, and especially creativity.
True or False? There are some simple strategies targets and bystanders can use at school that are often effective.
School: True. For example, the target can go to a guidance counselor with the problem. A competent guidance counselor will call the bully into his or her office, explain that the bullying must stop and what the consequences are for continuing, and warn the bully that any retaliation against the target for telling about the bullying will result in even more severe consequences. No strategy works all the time, but this strategy has a good chance of success.
Workplace: False. In the workplace, the target would go to the HR department. The HR person, unlike the school counselor, does not have authority over the bully and is often powerless to help the target. It is often very difficult for staff personnel, such as those in the HR department, to exert power over line managers. Chances of ending the bullying are minimal.
True or False? Top management intervention in a school is, with rare exceptions, always in support of the target.
School: True. It is hard to imagine the principal (or head) of a school taking the side of the bully. The exception would be where the target responds violently to nonviolent bullying.
Workplace: False. The bully often presents him/herself as a firm, but fair supervisor, who has to hold the feet of laggards to the fire in order to do his/her job effectively. It is not the bully’s problem if some employees can’t take the heat. The bully is just striving for the success of his/her department and the organization. Having heard the bully’s convincing side of the story, management dismisses the target’s complaint, which is in essence siding with the bully.
True or False? In school, a bystander who stands up to a bully risks becoming a target himself, but does not risk being expelled from school or demoted to a lower grade.
Schools: True Workplace: False. Bystanders who stand up to the bully risk being the next target and experiencing the same consequences as the original target, including dismissal and demotion.
True or False? When bullying occurs at school, organizations that explicitly support students align themselves against the school administration. As a result, the administration feels pressure to support the bully in order to prove itself blameless.
School: False. PTAs or other parent organizations generally do not take up issues involving conflicts between students. On very rare occasions, parents will sue the school, such as in the case of a suicide or suicide attempt by the target.
Workplace: True. If the target goes to the shop steward or other union representative, management’s tendency is to fight the accusations, regardless of their merits. If outside organizations, such as those who represent the rights of women or a specific ethnic group, get involved, management calls the lawyers and prepares for battle. The same is true if a government organization representing workers’ rights takes the side of the target.
1. Maintain the self-respect and motivation of others. 2. Criticize actions and ideas, not people. 3. Support others, rather than undermining them. 4. Set realistic and attainable goals (for self and others). 5. Act assertively, not passively or aggressively. Using the five principles listed below as guidelines will assure a respectful workplace and absence of bullying.
Reducing current harassment and preventing future harassment is accomplished by: Learning the principles of positive and respectful relationships Learning to avoid unintentional harassment
Learning how to handle delicate problems without even the appearance of harassment Learning how to deal with harassment if it occurs and ending it before it becomes a major problem Learning how to disagree and compete with others in ways that preserve respect
Note: Just as all sex or racial discrimination cases are not valid, not all complaints about harassment and bullying will be valid. This training will help all managers and workers act in such a way to make even the appearance of harassment extremely unlikely. It will also make any unjust case much easier to defend.
Each player is a top consultant for Excelsior Consulting, one of the world’s foremost experts on positive workplace relationships. Excelsior’s expertise includes communication skills and preventing harassment and workplace bullying. Players have been hired by top corporations to help them provide an atmosphere of positive relationships, as well as contain and prevent workplace harassment and bullying.
Players move around the board picking cards and answering questions. There are two sets of rules—one for individual players and one for two teams to compete.
There are three sets of cards: Case Study cards present brief case studies that describe behavior of certain employees in the company. Players analyze the cases and make recommendations.
Respectful Relationships cards teach how to communicate effectively in difficult situations in ways that avoid even the appearance of bullying. Bonus cards are true-false or multiple choice cards that deal with misconceptions about workplace bullying, give statistics, clarify conceptual issues, etc.
Two teams compete. Each team moves around the board in an attempt to arrive at each meeting on its schedule on time and answer questions correctly. Play money is earned for each correct answer. If a team gives an incorrect answer, the other team can win the money. Follow-up questions give the teams the chance to role-play solutions to the problems presented in the cards.
Up to five players compete. Players move around the board in an attempt to arrive at each meeting on their schedule on time and answer questions correctly. Play money is earned for each correct answer. Follow-up questions give players the chance to role-play solutions to the problems presented in the cards.
Statistics on the Prevalence of Workplace Bullying: article by Tara Parker Pope in the New York Times, March 25, 2008 and Andrea Adams, Bullying at Work. Fallout from Workplace Bullying: mainly from Andrea Adams, Bullying at Work. London: Virago Press, Bullying Thriving in Organizations: mainly from Charlotte Rayner of Portsmouth University Business School Portsmouth, UK, Presentation at ILA (International Leadership Association) November Bullying Behaviors: various sources including Tara Parker Pole and Andrea Adams. References
Workplace vs. School Bullying slides: from Franklin Rubenstein, Ph.D., president of Franklin Learning Systems. Presentation at ILA (International Leadership Association) November Principles of Workplace Respect: from The Respectful Workplace Game™, published by Franklin Learning Systems, 2009.