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Copyright Law and Visual Resource Policy Georgia Harper University of Texas System.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Law and Visual Resource Policy Georgia Harper University of Texas System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright Law and Visual Resource Policy Georgia Harper University of Texas System

2 Overview: Fair Use of Visual Resources Purpose of Copyright Improving society by supporting the growth of knowledge Balancing interests Owners’ rights; users’ rights Fair Use of Visual Resources The TEACH Act and Use of Visual Resources

3 Copyright Basics What Does Copyright Protect? When Does it Begin and End? What Does it Mean to Owners? Understanding Ownership What Does it Mean to Users? What is Fair Use? What are Performance Rights? Who’s Liable for Infringement?

4 What Does Copyright Protect? Original Expression - A Person’s Unique Way of Saying Something Fixed in a Tangible Medium Only Requires Minimum Creativity Does Not Protect Facts Does Not Protect Ideas, Systems, Processes

5 When Does it Begin and End? Today: Protection Starts at the Moment of Fixation in a Tangible Medium It’s Automatic Notice is Not Required Registration Carries Certain Benefits but is only Required to Bring a Lawsuit

6 When Does It Begin and End? Terms of Protection Works Published Before 1978 Publication + 95 years or 28 years if published before 1964 and not renewed Works Created During/After 1978 Life of author + 70 Works for hire: Publication + 95/creation + 120 Works Unpublished Before 1978 Life of author + 70 or 2003, whichever is longer

7 Exclusive Rights of the Copyright Owner Make Copies Create Derivative Works Distribute, Display and Perform Works Publicly Artists’ Moral Rights Integrity/attribution Controlling Copies: Not the Only Way

8 Exemptions for Higher Education Fair Use (17 USC 107) Library’s Special Privileges (108) First Sale Doctrine (109) Educational Performances/Displays (110) Modifications for Blind and Disabled (121)

9 Role of Fair Use Fair Use Embodies a Balance of Interests Between owner control and public access Between owner control and public’s First Amendment rights Fair Use Addresses Market Failures Facilitates good, but uneconomic uses

10 Fair Use Statute 17 USC 107 Uses Such As… Four Factor Fair Use Test Character of the use Nature of the material used Amount and importance of part used Effect on market for permission/original

11 Character of the Use Favoring Fair Use One of the listed uses Nonprofit educational Restricted access Transformative Parody Favoring Permission Commercial use (profit) Entertainment Bad-faith

12 Nature of Material Used Favoring Fair Use Published Factual Nonfiction Favoring Permission Unpublished Highly creative work Fiction

13 Amount Used Favoring Fair Use Small amounts Not the heart of the work Appropriate in light of purpose Favoring Permission Large amounts Heart of the work

14 Effect on Market Favoring Fair Use Owning a copy Few copies made First 3 factors favor fair use No ready market for permission Out of print Owner unidentifiable Favoring Permission Takes away sales Easy licensing mechanism Many copies made Wide distribution of copies Repeated use First 3 factors favor permission

15 Guidelines Contextual Coursepacks; reserves; distance learning; image archives; multimedia; off-air taping, etc. Not the Limit of Fair Use Convenient, but More Limited than Statute Use Both Statutory Test and Guidelines If a Use is Not Fair, Pare it Down, Substitute, or Get Permission

16 Image Archive Guidelines Determine digital availability If available at reasonable price, acquire If not available, digitize Limit access Students registered for class Terminate access at end of semester Revisit availability periodically

17 TEACH Act Overview Right to display and perform works in the classroom during a lecture Brick-and-mortar classrooms Virtual classrooms Very specific, limited and conditioned

18 In the Classroom – 110(1) Brick-and-mortar classrooms Nonprofit educational institutions Displays or performances of any work in any medium Audiovisuals Legal copy

19 For Distant Students 110(2) Accredited nonprofits & government Smaller parts Technological limits Institutional requirements Exclusions for supplemental materials ETC. ETC. ETC. ETC. ETC. Why the different standard?

20 Performance Rights and Fair Use TEACH Act Permits Some Copying Fair Use is Best Source of Authority for Reproduction Beyond Section 110 Be sensitive to the availability of effective markets for permission and licenses to use digital materials

21 An Online Images Project Digitizing a Collection Sharing it with others Variety of Sources Copystand Donated Purchased Status of Copyright Protection Varies

22 Divide and Conquer Not All Slides are Protected Bridgeman v. Corel Slides Created by Faculty The implied license to use Copystand Photography Purchased/licensed Slides

23 Legal Analysis Implied Licenses Fair Use: Fourth Factor Where there is an effective, functioning permissions market or market for digital slides, use it Where there is no functional market, digitize the slides and use in accordance with standard fair use restrictions VRA Copy Photography Computator

24 Special Circumstances Someone Says “No” Sharing Your Archive with Other Institutions

25 Additional Requests Student Use of Digital Images for Class Assignments Faculty Use of Images for Professional Presentations Personal Use by Faculty and Students

26 The TEACH Act Theoretically Covers Use of Images in Virtual Classrooms Twenty-two prerequisites Among them: no recipient copying No digitizing where a digital alternative useful for online instruction is available

27 Risk Reduction: Permission Centralized Support for Obtaining Permission Coordination between Faculty Members, Permission Facility and Digital Library Licensed works do not require permission

28 For More Information The Copyright Crash Course intellectualproperty/cprtindx.htm Online Tutorial

29 Summary Copyright’s Purpose is to Improve Society by Advancing Knowledge The law achieves its purpose by balancing interests Owner’s rights and users rights are both vital to achieving the law’s purpose

30 Overview: Evaluating Policies and Guidelines Why Bother with Policy? VRA Guidelines: The Gold Standard Understand them completely Be able to explain why they are a correct interpretation of the law Use them to evaluate others’ policies Confu or Other Guidelines Modifying Existing Policy

31 Why Bother? Strict Liability Standard Penalties $150,000 per willful infringement $750 to $30,000 per innocent infringement

32 The Good Faith Fair Use Defense 17 USC 504(c) Permits Court to Remit Damages Infringer believed and had reasonable basis for believing that use was fair Following Institutional Policy is Excellent Protection

33 Vicarious Liability Agency: Employees Within general scope of authority Substantially within time/space Serves University interests Vicarious: Independent Contractors Benefit and control Contributory: Students Knowledge and participation

34 Institutional Defenses Policy Implements Educational Strategy Organizational Support for Permissioning Archive Further Limits Liability

35 VRA Guidelines Defining Fair Use of Images for Educational Purposes Address the issues in a straightforward, unambiguous way Do not address logistics; can be modified to add particulars

36 Other Guidelines Confu Guidelines UT System Rules of Thumb

37 Modifying an Existing Policy If You Can’t Start Fresh Understanding what your current policy does and how it does it Avoiding creating ambiguity and contradiction Know what must be eliminated Know what you have to add to accomplish your objective

38 Evaluating Sample Policies University of Pennsylvania University of Washington University of Texas System Arizona State University University of Virginia

39 Overview: Drafting Policy & Guidelines Adopting the VRA Guidelines Typical Modifications Adopting the Confu Guidelines Typical Modifications UT System Rules of Thumb Modifying an Existing Policy

40 Overview : Making Something Happen Back Home Whose Support Do You Need? Who has Authority to “Bless” Your Policy? If it’s you, post it! If it’s not you, begin the approval process

41 Mustering Support – Building Consensus Be Able to Articulate a Rationale for your Policy Framework Who Will Be Affected Who Represents Administration Interests

42 Identifying Who Must Approve Your Draft Examine Rules and Procedures for Information about the Approval Process Inquire Among Department Heads, College Deans and Sympathetic Administrators

43 The Approval Process If You Must Hand-off Approval Explain your position carefully and fully Follow-up frequently about progress

44 Questions? Time For Your Questions About approval On subjects from our earlier sessions

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