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Title IX 30 Years Later: An In Depth Policy Analysis Kari Odland ms, atc and Christina Eyers ma, atc Central Michigan University Athletic Training Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Title IX 30 Years Later: An In Depth Policy Analysis Kari Odland ms, atc and Christina Eyers ma, atc Central Michigan University Athletic Training Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Title IX 30 Years Later: An In Depth Policy Analysis Kari Odland ms, atc and Christina Eyers ma, atc Central Michigan University Athletic Training Education Program, Faculty Women Rock Cleveland Title IX Conference March 29,2007

2 Title IX: The Facts The 1970’s –A year or two before title ix’s passage 16,000 college female athletes participated on varsity teams. They did so without scholarship assistance, and little institutional backing for coaches, uniforms, travel, locker rooms or athletic training.

3 Title IX: The Facts The 1980’s –Many changes occurred including the demise of the AIAW when the NCAA took over women’s athletics and the effects of historic lawsuits and legislation concerning the application of title ix’s jurisdiction to college athletics.

4 Title IX: The Facts The 1990’s –Additional lawsuits provided more knowledge concerning title ix and focused more on the enforcement of title ix rather than its jurisdiction.

5 Title IX: The Facts The 2000’s –Much of the focus on title ix centered around the loss of men’s ‘minor’ sports at the hands of administrators who sacrificed them rather than restructure the budgets for ‘premier’ men’s teams in order to meet mandates of providing access to both male and female students.

6 Policy Analysis

7 Policy Analysis of Title IX The office of civil rights three-part test for participation opportunities begins with the premise that if women’s and men’s rates of participation in intercollegiate athletics are proportionate to their rates of enrollment at the institution, then compliance is presumed

8 Policy Analysis of Title IX The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) is the office in the Department of Education that has the main responsibility for enforcing Title IX. The OCR can investigate any school where it believes there may be Title IX problems, but it rarely does. In 2001, OCR initiated only two Title IX reviews of athletic programs.

9 Policy Analysis of Title IX 80% of all colleges and universities are still not close to being in compliance with title ix after 30 years. Women’s Sports Foundation. Retrieved May 25, 2006, from

10 Policy Analysis of Title IX Three Part Test – participation opportunities 1.Provide women and men with participation opportunities at rates that are proportionate to their respective rates or enrollment as full-time undergraduate students 2.Demonstrate continuing program expansion for the underrepresented sex 3.Fully accommodate the underrepresented sex

11 Policy Analysis of Title IX Test One –Participation proportionate to full- time undergraduate enrollment What does that Mean? –Having the same proportion of women playing sports as are enrolled as undergraduates

12 Policy analysis of Title IX University of Wisconsin –Overall Enrollment –Female 53% –Male 47% –Athletic Participation –It was found in the fall of 2000 that the athletic department was short 25 female student-athletes and was ordered by the federal government that they obtain “equity”

13 Policy Analysis of Title IX James Madison University –Overall Enrollment –Female 61% –Male 39% –Athletics Participation –Female 50.7% –Male 49.3%

14 Policy Analysis Of Title IX Test Two –Continued program expansion for the underrepresented sex What does that mean? –Having a history and continuing practice of expanding programs for women

15 Policy Analysis Of Title IX Boulahanis v. Illinois State University, 2000 –No women’s team had been added in over ten years and women’s interests were not fully accommodated. National Association of college women athletics administration. Retrieved May 21, 2006, from

16 Policy Analysis of Title IX Belmont University –Was judged to be in compliance in 1998 even though it was still in the process of adding three new women’s teams –Women’s Soccer, Cross Country, Golf

17 Policy Analysis of Title IX Saint Joseph’s University No Experience Necessary! No Early Mornings! University of Minnesota No Experience Necessary! Looking for Tall Athletes »(over 5’9”) Looking for Small Athletes »(Under 5’3”) Must Have Athletic Background! All You Need is Coordination!

18 Policy Analysis Of Title IX Test Three –Fully Accommodate the Underrepresented Sex –Chosen most often as a compliance method What does that mean? –Demonstrates that the women’s sports program fully and effectively accommodates the interests of female students and potential female students

19 Policy Analysis of Title IX Boucher v. Syracuse University, 1999 –Seven Women Lacrosse club members filed a lawsuit alleging Title IX violations and seeking intercollegiate status for lacrosse, equivalent scholarships and equal treatment in the 11 program components under other athletic benefits and opportunities.

20 Policy Analysis of Title IX Brown University v. U.S. Court of Appeals, 1993 –Ruled that Brown University was not compliant using the third test stating that the option did not mean accommodating women’s interests and ability to the same degree, it meant completely accommodating them. National Association of college women athletics administration. Retrieved May 21, 2006, from

21 Considerations of Title IX

22 Sidney A. McPhee –President of Middle Tennessee State University –Chair, NCAA Subcommittee on Gender Equity and Diversity “Each institution has to look within and see what makes sense, and what is doable, keeping in mind the broader goal of providing some balance.”

23 Considerations of Title IX What the public doesn’t know is that these new moneys are being used to fuel the arms races being fought in men’s football and basketball

24 Considerations of Title IX Only 48 athletic programs among the 900+ NCAA member institutions operate at a profit. National collegiate athletic association. Retrieved May 21, 2006, from

25 considerations of title ix University of Notre Dame –Fiesta Bowl participant in 2006 –$14 million payout –$14 million dedicated to 3 academic priorities Undergraduate and Graduate financial aid Library acquisitions for the 10 libraries on campus including the Theodore Hesburgh Library Equipment for the Jordan Science Hall

26 Considerations of Title IX

27 Conclusions

28 Title IX Conclusions One problem is college presidents not putting a stop to the embarrassing waste of money in football and men’s basketball programs

29 Title IX Conclusions Conferences, leagues and the NCAA have not been willing to legislate expenditure limitations, lower scholarship limits or even require fewer games if that’s what it takes to have sufficient resources to make sure that male non-revenue producing sports as well as females get the chance to play

30 References acosta, v. and carpenter, L.J. (2004). Twenty-seven year study shows progression of women in college athletics. Retrieved May 21, 2006, from Coakley, J. ( 2006). Sports in society (9 th ed.). McGraw Hill Publishing: Philadelphia. Garber, G. (2002). Landmark law faces new challenges even now. Retrieved May 21, 2006, from Gavora, J. (2003). college sports sellout. Retrieved May 21, 2006, from mcmurtre-bonnette, v. (2004). Title ix and intercollegiate athletics: in plain english. good sports inc.: San Diego. National Association of College Women’s Athletics Administrators. Retrieved May 25, 2006, from Suggs, W. (2005). New federal policy eases rules for colleges to probes compliance with Title IX. Retrieved May 21, 2006, from Title IX EXcersise my rights. Retrieved May 21, 2006, from Title IX, 30 years later. Retrieved May 25, 2005, from US Department of Labor. Retrieved May 21, 2006, from Women’s Sports Foundation. Retrieved May 25, 2006, from University of Minnesota. Retrieved January 23, 2007 from Star tribune Newspaper. House gop bill would prevent tax money for u coach buyouts. Retrieved January 26, 2007 from Star Tribune Newspaper. Mason Say’s he’s not going to apologize. Retrieved January 26, 2007 from Star Tribune newspaper. Men’s Basketball: monson out, gophers regroup. Retrieved January 26, 2007 from

31 References The Business Journal. Ziegler Takes on the Fiesta Bowl Chairman’s Role. Retrieved January 11, 2007, from University of Notre Dame. Fiesta Bowl Revenue Direction. Retrieved January 26, 2007, from US Department of Education. (2003). Open To All: Title IX at 30. Commission Report on opportunity in Athletics.: Washington, DC. Gavora, J. (2006). Tilting the Playing Field: Schools, sports, sex and Title IX. Encounter Books.: San Francisco. James Madison University. JMU Enacts Proportionality Plan to Comply With Title IX. Retrieved October, 2, 2006, from Inside Higher Ed. Numbers Game. Retrieved November 22, 2006, from Inside Higher Ed. Rally for Title IX Changes. Retrieved November 22, 2006 from Inside Higher Ed. College Sports $4 million Man. Retrieved November 22, 2006 from University of Oregon. Retrieved January 22, 2007 from Saint Joseph’s University. Retrieved January 22, 2007 from American Association of University women. Retrieved June 5, 2006 from Glazer-Raymo, J. (1999). Shattering the myths: Women in academe. Johns hopkins University press.: Baltimore. National Collegiate Athletic Association. Retrieved June 13, 2006 from

32 Thank You!


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