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1 1 Presented by : Vincent James NSP Research Group (British Isles) 5/7/2015No State Project UK - Vince James

2 5/7/20152No State Project UK - Vince James

3 MarcStevensAdventuresinLegalLand Wikispaces.com 5/7/20153No State Project UK - Vince James

4 5/7/20154No State Project UK - Vince James

5 Marc Stevens is the author of the now infamous, inter-continental cult classic “Adventures in Legal Land”, and is currently soon to release his second book “Government Indicted”. 5/7/20155No State Project UK - Vince James

6 The first question people ask about Marc’s Book & work is ? “Does it apply in the UK, and under our Legal System” Answer: YES, Absolutely, there may be subtle differences in procedures, and/or word definitions etc., but basically it’s all the same in substance, meaning, and Legal Opinion. The American Legal System was adopted from the English Common law, in and around /7/20156No State Project UK - Vince James

7 Marc is not a lawyer or Guru, but like almost all of us was at one time on the receiving end of Bureaucratic & judicial corruption, and was so disillusioned by the experience, he sought to find answers to what he personally had witnessed and observed, not just from his experiences in court but from doing his own investigation and research into the many claims being made by “patriot & freedom movement guru’s” in the early 90’s. Marc best explains this part of his journey in the “must watch “ Video of his talk given at The Liberty Forum in titled “Delusions” 5/7/20157No State Project UK - Vince James

8 Those who attack the rationale of the game, & not the players, are its most formidable adversaries. — James J. Martin, in the introduction to Lysander Spooner's No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority.Lysander Spooner's 5/7/20158No State Project UK - Vince James

9 This Best Describes Marc’s approach to dealing with Bureaucrats Marc endeavours to look at the facts, not at the words and fictions hidden behind them, to hide and get away from those facts. In doing so he has demonstrated that the “legal system” and “Government”, is nothing more than a” public relations scam”. By looking at the actual facts using objective observation and logic it is very clear to see the fatal flaws in the system, reason being because of the nature on which is was built. By going to the heart of the matter, using the legal reality "they" have created, you can get them to contradict themselves and prove their claims were never valid or based on facts to begin with. 5/7/20159No State Project UK - Vince James

10 This is not about winning your case, as Marc points out, “once you are in the clutches of a bureaucrat or the legal system, you have already lost (ultimately they have guns and are perfectly willing to use them) - now it is simply a matter of trying to prevent further damage. There is no "winning." This talk will hopefully give you a brief insight into Marc’s way of reasoning and questioning, so you too can learn to use "their" system and flawed logic back against them. By understanding the rules that they have placed upon themselves in an effort to appear fair and just, you can use this to your advantage to expose the contradictions within the system. The result being you will embarrass them so badly that they will sooner drop any alleged claim against you in order to save face and not expose the true nature. 5/7/201510No State Project UK - Vince James

11 Quote: Rudyard Kipling  I keep six honest serving-men  (They taught me all I knew);  Their names are What and Why and When  And How and Where and Who.  I send them over land and sea,  I send them east and west;  But after they have worked for me  I give them all a rest 5/7/201511No State Project UK - Vince James

12 PART. 1 5/7/201512No State Project UK - Vince James

13 How does the “Law” apply ? 5/7/201513No State Project UK - Vince James

14  A legal duty is an obligation imposed by the law. Failure to fulfil such a duty can result in criminal or civil sanctions. Legal duties are distinct from moral or ethical duties; while a duty may be both legal and ethical, only legal duties are enforced by the justice system.  Legal duties can be created in several ways and by several different types of law. Within countries called common law countries — such as the United Kingdom and the United States — previous cases brought before a judge can create a legal duty. Legislation written by the state, local or county government can also impose a legal duty on individuals within the borders that the law applies to.  There are also two general classifications of legal duties: those duties where a breach is criminal and subject to criminal sanctions and those duties where the breach is punishable under civil law. There may be some overlap and certain behaviours may be governed both by criminal and civil law. This means that certain actions may be subject to both civil and criminal penalties. 5/7/201514No State Project UK - Vince James

15 Causation is the "causal relationship between conduct and result". That is to say that causation provides a means of connecting conduct with a resulting effect, typically an injury. In criminal law, it is defined as the actus reus (an action) from which the specific injury or other effect arose and is combined with mens rea (a state of mind) to comprise the elements of guilt. Causation is only applicable where a result has been achieved and therefore is immaterial with regard to inchoate offenses.inchoate offenses (An inchoate offense is one that is contemplated but not committed). 5/7/201515No State Project UK - Vince James

16 PART. 2 5/7/201516No State Project UK - Vince James

17 Civil & Criminal Law Explained 5/7/201517No State Project UK - Vince James

18 Is classified into two categories: 1.Torts 2.Contract Criminal Action: is in the nature of a public Tort, the claim being Society or the “Public” has been “harmed” or exposed to “a harm or injury” by a given act or omission.?. A “Civil Action” 5/7/201518No State Project UK - Vince James

19 Civil law (common law) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Civil law courts provide a forum for deciding disputes involving torts (such as accidents, negligence, and libel), contract disputes,tortscontract The objectives of civil law are different from other types of law. In civil law there is the attempt to right a wrong, honor an agreement, or settle a dispute. If there is a victim, they get compensation, and the person who is the cause of the wrong pays, this being a civilized form of, or legal alternative to, revenge. An action in criminal law does not necessarily preclude an action in civil law in common law countries, and may provide a mechanism for compensation to the victims of crime. Difference from criminal law In many countries such as the USA and UK, criminal law has to prove that a party is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt when a case is sent to court. Civil law operates differently, as the UK standard is only to prove guilt on the basis of a balance of probability. In civil law cases, the "burden of proof" requires the plaintiff to convince the trier of fact (whether judge or jury) of the plaintiff's entitlement to the relief sought. This means that the plaintiff must prove each element of the claim, or cause of action, in order to recover.USAUKcriminal law beyond a reasonable doubtbalance of probabilityburden of proof 5/7/201519No State Project UK - Vince James

20 SOURCE: Tort A wrong involving a breach of duty, and resulting in an injury to the person or property of another. A tort is distinguished from a breach of a contract in that a tort is a violation of a duty established by law, whereas a breach of contract results from a failure to meet an obligation created by the agreement of the parties 5/7/201520No State Project UK - Vince James

21 Source: Definition of 'Tort Law' The area of law that covers the majority of all civil lawsuits. Essentially, every claim that arises in civil court with the exception of contractual disputes falls under tort law. The concept of tort law is to redress a wrong done to a person, usually by awarding them monetary damages as compensation. 5/7/201521No State Project UK - Vince James

22 As Lord Goff observed recently: The situation in common law countries, including of course England, is exceptional, in that the common law grew up within a procedural framework uninfluenced by Roman law. The law was categorised by reference to the forms of action, and it was not until the abolition of the forms of action by the Common Law Procedure Act 1852 (15 & 16 Vict c 76) that it became necessary to reclassify the law in substantive terms. The result was that common lawyers did at last separate our law of obligations into contract and tort, though in so doing they relegated quasi-contractual claims to the status of an appendix to the law of contract, thereby postponing by a century or so the development of a law of restitution. Even then, there was no systematic reconsideration of the problem of concurrent claims in contract and tort. We can see the courts rather grappling with unpromising material drawn from the old cases in which liability in negligence derived largely from categories based upon the status of the defendant. In a sense, we must not be surprised; for no significant law faculties were established at our universities until the late 19th century, and so until then there was no academic opinion available to guide or stimulate the judges... 5/7/201522No State Project UK - Vince James

23 Tort v Criminal The distinction between the crime and tort is not in the conduct itself, but in the legal proceedings which follow and the purpose of those proceedings. A person may be both prosecuted by the state and be sued by the victim (plaintiff). The fundamental aim of criminal Law is to reduce certain kinds of conduct by measures which include punishment, deterrence and rehabilitation, whereas the fundamental aim of tort is to compensate the victim. The purpose of civil law is to deal with the private rights and duties of citizens as opposed to administrative law, criminal law, or military law. 5/7/201523No State Project UK - Vince James

24 “WHEN” ESTABLISHING A TIMELINE ? ASK HOW, WHY, WERE AND WHEN ANY ALLEGED OBLIGATION OR “DUTY WAS” CREATED? 5/7/201524No State Project UK - Vince James

25 PART.3

26 Magna Carta, Bill of Rights & ECHR ? 5/7/201526No State Project UK - Vince James

27 A Government is an organization within a specific geographic location which is dominant in physical force. Government is necessary to ensure the proper use of force. For this reason, it must specify objective laws to clarify the use of force, and it must have the ability to enforce these laws.physical forceproper use of force The purpose of government is to protect the individual rights of its citizens. Since rights can be assaulted both within a country or outside of it, the government must deal with either threat. This requires an army for defence of the country, and a police system to protect the individual citizens from other individuals within the country.individual rights To ensure that rights are upheld properly, the judgment of the use of force must be objective. Since individuals involved in an incident are not likely to be objective, it is the government's job to judge the individual use of force by its citizens. For this reason, the government must provide a court system. Laws are the tools by which the court decides if a use of force is valid or not. 5/7/201527No State Project UK - Vince James

28 Magna Carta, also called Magna Carta Libertatum, is an English charter, originally issued in the year 1215 and reissued later in the 13th century in modified versions. The later versions excluded the most direct challenges to the monarch's authority that had been present in the 1215 charter. The charter first passed into law in 1225; the 1297 version, with the long title (originally in Latin) The Great Charter of the Liberties of England, and of the Liberties of the Forest, still remains on the statute books of England and Wales.English charter statuteEngland and Wales Source: Wikpedia 5/7/201528No State Project UK - Vince James

29 The 1215 charter required King John of England to proclaim certain liberties, and accept that his will was not arbitrary, for example by explicitly accepting that no "freeman" (in the sense of non-serf) could be punished except through the law of the land, a right which is still in existence today. Magna Carta was the first document forced onto an English King by a group of his subjects, the feudal barons, in an attempt to limit his powers by law and protect their privileges. It was preceded and directly influenced by the Charter of Liberties in 1100, in which King Henry I had specified particular areas wherein his powers would be limited.John of Englandarbitraryserflaw of the landEnglish Kingfeudal barons Charter of LibertiesHenry I Source Wikipedia 5/7/201529No State Project UK - Vince James

30 Source: Wikipedia, Bill of Rights 1689 The Bill of Rights[1] or the Bill of Rights 1688[2] is an Act of the Parliament of England.[1][2]ActParliament of England The Bill of Rights was passed by Parliament on 16 December 1689.[3] It was a restatement in statutory form of the Declaration of Right presented by the Convention Parliament to William and Mary in March 1689 (or 1688 by Old Style dating), inviting them to become joint sovereigns of England.[3]statutory form Convention ParliamentWilliam and MaryOld Style dating It lays down limits on the powers of sovereign and sets out the rights of Parliament and rules for freedom of speech in Parliament, the requirement to regular elections to Parliament and the right to petition the monarch without fear of retribution. It reestablished the liberty of Protestants to have arms for their defence within the rule of law, and condemned James II of England for "causing several good subjects being Protestants to be disarmed at the same time when papists were both armed and employed contrary to law".James IIpapists These ideas about rights reflected those of the political thinker John Locke and they quickly became popular in England. It also sets out—or, in the view of its drafters, restates—certain constitutional requirements of the Crown to seek the consent of the people, as represented in Parliament.John Lockethe Crown 5/7/201530No State Project UK - Vince James

31 "Consent of the governed" is a phrase synonymous with a political theory wherein a government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and legal when derived from the people or society over which that political power is exercised. This theory of "consent" is historically contrasted to the divine right of kings and has often been invoked against the legitimacy of colonialism. Article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government."political theorygovernment legitimacymoral rightstate powerpeople societypolitical powerdivine right of kingslegitimacycolonialism Universal Declaration of Human Rights Source: Wikipedia 5/7/201531No State Project UK - Vince James

32 Does this claim to be a Contract ! If yes Between who !!! 5/7/201532No State Project UK - Vince James

33 Our constitutions purport to be established by 'the people,' and, in theory, 'all the people' consent to such government as the constitutions authorize. But this consent of 'the people' exists only in theory. It has no existence in fact. Government is in reality established by the few; and these few assume the consent of all the rest, without any such consent being actually given Lysander Spooner 5/7/201533No State Project UK - Vince James

34 The Constitution has no inherent authority or obligation. It has no authority or obligation at all, unless as a contract between man and man. And it does not so much as even purport to be a contract between persons now existing. It purports, at most, to be only a contract between persons living eighty years ago. And it can be supposed to have been a contract then only between persons who had already come to years of discretion, so as to be competent to make reasonable and obligatory contracts. Furthermore, we know, historically, that only a small portion even of the people then existing were consulted on the subject, or asked, or permitted to express either their consent or dissent in any formal manner Lysander Spooner, No Treason… 5/7/201534No State Project UK - Vince James

35 5/7/201535No State Project UK - Vince James

36 PART. 4 5/7/201536No State Project UK - Vince James

37 The Myth of State & Citizens 5/7/201537No State Project UK - Vince James

38  cit·i·zen (s t -z n)  n.  1. A person owing loyalty to and entitled by birth or naturalization to the protection of a state or nation.  2. A resident of a city or town, especially one entitled to vote and enjoy other privileges there.  3. A civilian.  4. A native, inhabitant, or denizen of a particular place: "We have learned to be citizens of the world, members of the human community" (Franklin D. Roosevelt).  [Middle English citisein, from Anglo-Norman citesein, alteration (perhaps influenced by dainzain, denizen) of Old French citeain, from cite, city; see city.]  cit i·zen·ly adj.  Synonyms: citizen, national, subject These nouns denote a person owing allegiance to a nation or state and entitled to its protection: an American citizen; a British national; a French subject. 5/7/201538No State Project UK - Vince James

39 5/7/201539No State Project UK - Vince James In performing the functions of investigating and preventing crime the police owe no duty do care to an individual member of the public. In such circumstances even were harm was reasonably foreseeable, there is insufficient proximity between the police and the victim. (Hill v. Chief Constable of West Yorkshire (HL, 1988). And Smith v. chief constable of Sussex (2008 ). The Police are here to protect the public...are they?....Some famous cases.

40  Chief Constable of Hertfordshire v Van Colle (Administrator of the Estate of GC, Deceased) and Another; Smith v Chief Constable of Sussex  [2008] UKHL 50  HL (Lord Bingham of Cornhill, Lord Hope of Craighead, Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers, Lord Carswell, Lord Brown of Eaton-under-Heywood) July  ABSTRACT  Article 2 does not affect the principle established in Hill v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire (1989) AC 53, namely that, in the absence of special circumstances, the police owed no common law duty of care to protect individuals against harm caused by criminals 5/7/201540No State Project UK - Vince James

41 B e f o r e : LORD JUSTICE PILL LORD JUSTICE SEDLEY and LORD JUSTICE RIMER Between: SMITH Appellant - and - CHIEF CONSTABLE OF SUSSEX POLICE Respondent The commission of the peace creates public law duties which can be enforced by mandatory orders[1], but not, by itself, private law duties. Correspondingly, no duty of care is owed by the police to the public at large so as to render them liable to an individual who suffers harm by their neglect. The bedrock of this doctrine is Hill v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire[2], in which the House of Lords held that the estate of a victim of the Yorkshire Ripper, who – it was averred and assumed – would have been caught by competent detective work in time to prevent her murder, had no claim against the police for negligence. There was no relationship between the victim, as a member of the public, and the police capable of giving rise to a duty of care. 5/7/201541No State Project UK - Vince James

42 PART.5 5/7/201542No State Project UK - Vince James

43 Conclusion & observations 5/7/201543No State Project UK - Vince James

44 “life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws. On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place.” ― Frédéric Bastiat, The LawFrédéric BastiatThe Law 5/7/201544No State Project UK - Vince James

45 What factually is a “Right” ? 5/7/201545No State Project UK - Vince James

46 A “Right” is a “Legal Claim”  Source:  claim  1) v. to make a demand for money, for property, or for enforcement of a right provided by law.  2) n. the making of a demand (assert a claim) for money due, for property, for damages or for enforcement of a right. If such a demand is not honoured, it may result in a lawsuit. In order to enforce a right against a government agency (ranging for damages from a negligent bus driver to a shortage in payroll) a claim must be filed first. If rejected or ignored by the government, it is lawsuit time. 5/7/201546No State Project UK - Vince James

47 Q. Did “Rights” exist prior to the creation of “law” ? 5/7/201547No State Project UK - Vince James

48 Rights are self defence 5/7/201548No State Project UK - Vince James

49 5/7/201549No State Project UK - Vince James

50 What factually is ”Law” ? 5/7/201550No State Project UK - Vince James

51 Law is solely the organization of the individual right of self- defense which existed before law was formalized. Frederic Bastiat ( The Law ) 5/7/201551No State Project UK - Vince James

52 What then is legislation? It is an assumption by one man or body of men, of absolute, irresponsible dominion over all other men whom they can subject to their power. It is an assumption by one man or body of men, of a right to subject all other men to their will and service…. Lysander Spooner,.... Natural Law, Natural Justice. 5/7/201552No State Project UK - Vince James

53 “Law is just an opinion, backed by a gun”… Marc Stevens, Adventures in Legal Land do not ignore this issue, because it ‘s the only issue 5/7/201553No State Project UK - Vince James

54 The definition of a “Crime” is ? An involuntary human relationship 5/7/201554No State Project UK - Vince James

55 What factually is government ? 5/7/201555No State Project UK - Vince James

56 "Government is not reason; it is not eloquent; it is force. Like fire, it is a dangerous servant and a fearful master." George Washington 5/7/201556No State Project UK - Vince James

57 The people who call themselves “Government is nothing more than, organised coercion & violence Factually it’s, a group of men and women who in turn award themselves “political Legal Titles” Legislators, Judges, Civil Servants, MP’s… etc. 5/7/201557No State Project UK - Vince James

58 What Factually is the “UK” 1536 Act of Union between England & Wales, 1603 Union of English & Scottish Crowns, 1707 Act of Union between England & Scotland, 1800 Act of Union of Ireland & Britain, 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty (Northern Ireland & Irish Free State [EIRE] created), 1985 Anglo-Irish agreement

59 “Legal Tender” ? Q. why do they always want it back ? 5/7/201559No State Project UK - Vince James

60 PART. 6 5/7/201560No State Project UK - Vince James

61 Dealing with bureaucratic attacks Parking Tickets Speeding & other Traffic, Seat belt …etc. Fixed Penalty Notices, police/council ? Council Tax Income Tax OTHER !!! QUESTIONS ? 5/7/201561No State Project UK - Vince James

62 5/7/201562No State Project UK - Vince James

63 Source Wikipedia: CAUSE OF ACTION The fact or combination of facts that gives a person the right to seek judicial redress or relief against another. Also, the legal theory forming the basis of a lawsuit. The cause of action is the heart of the complaint, which is the Pleading that initiates a lawsuit. Without an adequately stated cause of action the plaintiff's case can be dismissed at the outset. It is not sufficient merely to state that certain events occurred that entitle the plaintiff to relief. All the elements of each cause of action must be detailed in the complaint. The claims must be supported by the facts, the law, and a conclusion that flows from the application of the law to those facts. A cause of action can arise from an act, a failure to perform a legal obligation, a breach of duty, or a violation or invasion of a right. The importance of the act, failure, breach, or violation lies in its legal effect or characterization and in how the facts and circumstances, considered as a whole, relate to applicable law. 5/7/201563No State Project UK - Vince James

64 There are three (3) factual “elements”, that must always be present in a “cause of action”. They apply in both Contract and Tort claims be it either a Criminal or Civil proceeding. 1.Breach of a legal Duty 2.Violation of a legal right / interest 3.Damage/Loss and/or injury 5/7/201564No State Project UK - Vince James

65 A general definition of “action” may be found in Dorosh v. Bentwood Chair & Table Co. (1939) 47 Man. R. 133 at 138 (Man. C.A.): The word “action”, according to the legal meaning of the term, is a proceeding by which one party seeks in a Court of justice to enforce some right against, or to restrain the commission of some wrong by, another party. It includes both civil and criminal proceedings. In its more restricted or popular sense it denotes a civil action commenced by a writ: 1 Halsbury, p. 1, par. 1 It all centres on the violation of a legal right. I like how the Canadian psychopaths admitted it includes criminal proceedings. Quote: Marc Stevens 5/7/201565No State Project UK - Vince James

66 End notes & Questions ?  Hopefully I have explained the “legal opinions” on the ? 5/7/201566No State Project UK - Vince James

67 COUNCIL TAX 5/7/201567No State Project UK - Vince James

68 Local Government Finance Act 1992 The Council Tax (Administration and Enforcement) Regulations /7/201568No State Project UK - Vince James

69 Justices manual 2009 Complaint p (138) Minimum requirements of a fair trial p.1-447a (76) The minimum requirements for a hearing, are 1.The defendant has to understand what he is said to have done wrong, 2.The court has to be satisfied, that the defendant when he has done wrong, by act or omission, has the means of knowing it was wrong. 3.The defendant has to understand what defences if any, were available to him. 4.The defendant has to have a reasonable opportunity to make relevant representation if he wishes, and 5.The defendant has to have the opportunity to consider what representations he wishes to make, once he has understood the issues involved. Civil proceeding in magistrates courts are started, by the seeking of a complaint, followed by the issue of a summons. There is no statutory definition of the term complaint; it is characteristic of a complaint, that it seeks redress for an injury or grievance ‘but rule 4 of the magistrates courts rules, states that it is not necessary for a complaint to be in writing and the issue of a summons is not a requirement of proceedings by way of complaint. A Grievance is defined as a “Wrong” i.e. Civil Wrong (Tort) 5/7/201569No State Project UK - Vince James

70 A Grievance is defined as a “Wrong” i.e. Civil Wrong (Tort) Blacks Law 4 th ed states: 5/7/201570No State Project UK - Vince James

71 Q. WHAT FACTUALLY IS, A BOROUGH ? or COUNTY ?. 5/7/201571No State Project UK - Vince James

72 Local Government Act 1972 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Local Government Act 1972 (c. 70) is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom that reformed local government in England and Wales on 1 April [1]Act of Parliamentlocal governmentEngland and Wales [1] Its pattern of two-tier metropolitan and non-metropolitan county and district councils remains in use today in large parts of England, although the metropolitan county councils were abolished in 1986, and both county and district councils were replaced with unitary authorities in many areas in the 1990s.metropolitan and non-metropolitan countydistrictEnglandunitary authorities In Wales, too, the Act established a similar pattern of counties and districts, [2] but these have since been entirely replaced with a system of unitary authorities.Walesdistricts [2]system of unitary authorities In Scotland, where this Act did not apply, the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 regionalised local government with a system of two-tier regions and districts in 1975 – this was also replaced by a system of unitary council areas in 1996.ScotlandLocal Government (Scotland) Act 1973regionssystem of unitary council areas ElectionsElections were held to the new authorities in 1973, and they acted as "shadow authorities" until the handover date. Elections to county councils were held on 12 April, for metropolitan and Welsh districts on 10 May, and for non- metropolitan district councils on 7 June. [3] [3] 5/7/201572No State Project UK - Vince James

73 5/7/2015No State Project UK - Vince James73 London Government Act 1963 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The London Government Act 1963 (c. 33) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which recognised officially the conurbation known as Greater London and created a new local government structure for the capital. The Act significantly reduced the number of local government districts in the area, resulting in local authorities responsible for larger areas and populations. The upper tier of local government was reformed to cover the whole of the Greater London area and with a more strategic role; and the split of functions between upper and lower tiers was recast.ActParliament of the United KingdomconurbationGreater Londonlocal government The Act classified the boroughs into inner and outer London groups. The City of London and its corporation were essentially unreformed by the legislation. Subsequent amendments to the Act have significantly amended the upper tier arrangements, with the Greater London Council constituted in the legislation replaced by the Greater London Authority.innerouter LondonCity of London Greater London CouncilGreater London Authority As of 2008, the London boroughs are more or less identical to those created in 1965, although with some enhanced powers over services such as waste management and education.

74 London Government Act 1963 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The London Government Act 1963 (c. 33) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which recognised officially the conurbation known as Greater London and created a new local government structure for the capital. The Act significantly reduced the number of local government districts in the area, resulting in local authorities responsible for larger areas and populations. The upper tier of local government was reformed to cover the whole of the Greater London area and with a more strategic role; and the split of functions between upper and lower tiers was recast. The Act classified the boroughs into inner and outer London groups. The City of London and its corporation were essentially unreformed by the legislation. Subsequent amendments to the Act have significantly amended the upper tier arrangements, with the Greater London Council constituted in the legislation replaced by the Greater London Authority. As of 2008, the London boroughs are more or less identical to those created in 1965, although with some enhanced powers over services such as waste management and education. ActParliament of the United KingdomconurbationGreater London local governmentinnerouter LondonCity of LondonGreater London Council Greater London Authority 5/7/201574No State Project UK - Vince James

75 What is Borough or County & how was it created  Ask if the “Borough” or “County” is the ground your standing on !  No, then what factually is it?  Yes, what facts prove it exists as a natural phenomena ! 5/7/201575No State Project UK - Vince James

76 Q.1 Are there any witnesses with first hand personal knowledge, that I am a taxpayer, and have an obligation to pay “Council Tax”? Please answer yes or no Q.2 Is there any admissible evidence, that I am a taxpayer and have an obligation to pay “council tax”? Please answer yes or no. Q.3 Are the opinions that I am a taxpayer and have an obligation to pay council tax irrefutable? Please answer yes or no. Q.4 Does the “London Government finance Act” create or impose an obligation or legal duty upon me? Please answer yes or no. Q.5 Does such an obligation (should it factually exist) require my voluntary cooperation? Please answer yes or no ….Continued. 5/7/201576No State Project UK - Vince James Council Tax Liability Questions:

77 Q.6 Can you provide me with evidence the “London Government Finance Act”, applies to me? Please answer yes or no Q.7 Can you provide me with a factual time, to show how, why, were and when the alleged obligation was created? Please answer Yes or No Q.8 Are there any witnesses with first hand personal knowledge of this alleged obligation? Please answer Yes or No Q.9 Does your Complaint/Claim present a “valid cause of action”, to any competent court of law, that has jurisdiction in this matter? Please answer Yes or No Q.10 Is there any legally admissible evidence to prove such an alleged obligation? Please answer yes or no 5/7/201577No State Project UK - Vince James

78 11. Is your Complaint in the nature of a “Contract”? Please answer Yes or No 12. Is your Complaint in the nature of a “Tort”? Please answer Yes or No 13. Is the alleged Complaint/Claim factually consistent with the Human Rights Act 1998 ? Please answer Yes or No 14. Has the authorized officer of the council making the complaint against me, made a legal determination that I have an obligation or have a liability to pay “ council tax ?. Please answer Yes or No are the agents who have made a determination that I am liable to pay “Council Tax”, qualified to make legal determinations ? Please answer Yes or No 5/7/201578No State Project UK - Vince James

79 INCOME TAX 5/7/201579No State Project UK - Vince James

80 Most fundamental and devastating question to ask: Q. Is there a factual difference between income & taxable income ??? 5/7/201580No State Project UK - Vince James

81 4 x question approach ?  1. Are there any witnesses with first hand personal knowledge that I am a tax payer with taxable income, and required to file a tax return?  2. Is there any admissible evidence, that I am a taxpayer and have an obligation, that I am required to file a tax return and have taxable income.  3. Are the claims that I am a tax payer irrefutable?  4. Are the opinions that I :  am a tax payer  have an obligation to file a tax return  have taxable income irrefutable?  You have no defence if it’s irrefutable!  For any opinion to be valid, it must be based on facts! 5/7/201581No State Project UK - Vince James

82 PARKING TICKETS 5/7/201582No State Project UK - Vince James

83 Public Nuisance Public nuisance was defined by Romer LJ in Attorney-General v PYA Ltd Quarries Ltd (1957) as any nuisance which materially affects the reasonable comfort and convenience of life of a class of her majesty’s subject...’ Historically, the crime of public nuisance covered four broad categories: public decency, public health, convenience and public safety. The first two are now largely regulated by statute. The latter two are mainly concerned with nuisance on the highway. There are two key elements in the tort of public nuisance. 5/7/201583No State Project UK - Vince James

84 A CLASS OF HER MAJESTYS SUBJECTS? An action in the tort of public nuisance only arises if the nuisance is such to affect a section of the public and not just one person. Whether the number of people affected amounts to a class of people is a question of fact. If the defendant’s nuisance affects a number of people, he may have committed the crime of public nuisance. The Attorney General- General has the power to prosecute. 5/7/201584No State Project UK - Vince James

85 Typical procedure  Informal & Formal challenges/representation  Notice to owner  PATAS or NPAS appeal  Northampton bulk Centre  Transfer to your local county court 5/7/201585No State Project UK - Vince James

86 What created PATAS / NPAS ?  ANSWER: The Legal Opinion is  Road Traffic Act  PATAS & NPAS are agencies created by “Government”?  Government agencies ?  Councils are also agencies created by government?  The same “Act / Statute” that created the alleged liability also created the alleged “Independent Tribunal Service”? 5/7/201586No State Project UK - Vince James

87 Questions at appeals tribunals  Ask whom they represent ( are they a government agency ? )  Ask what created them ? ( Road Traffic Act )  Is the ticket factually consistent with the HRA 1998?  Is the ( PCO ) qualified to make legal determinations?  Did the (PCO) make a legal determination that a “contravention” had occurred before issuing the issuing the Parking ticket ? 5/7/201587No State Project UK - Vince James

88  Definition of Independent  Independent  Not dependent; free; not subject to control by others; not relying on others; not subordinate; as, few men are wholly independent. 5/7/201588No State Project UK - Vince James

89 Private Parking Tickets ! 5/7/201589No State Project UK - Vince James

90  A parking charge issued by a private company is not a criminal complaint, there is nothing in criminal law (opinion) to support a penalty or fine for parking on private land. Therefore they are likely misrepresenting themselves by claiming they are PCN’s in the lay sense of the word.  The private parking company is without legal standing, and attempting to use the “law” (opinion) of contract to make a claim for damages is also “without merit”, It has no validity whatsoever, no different from a “Public tort” claim by a council, the only difference being a “council” can back up their legal opinion with Bailiffs ( violence ).  The private operator has no right to recover a parking charge from you without first taking you to court, and even then they are screwed, because they cannot prove factually any alleged contract existed or the “elements” were fulfilled to make it a binding agreement.  If you want to exercise some effective damage control”  IGNORE THEM 5/7/201590No State Project UK - Vince James

91 SPEEDING & OTHER TRAFFIC 5/7/201591No State Project UK - Vince James

92 Do not be confrontational or take a position against them, do not give your own opinions.  Feed their opinions back to them in question form using the 6 friends method.  With practise and understanding as to why you are asking these questions it will soon become second nature.  Each question is worded a specific way to have maximum effect, you question in a way to get the bureucrat to take a position i.e. “the pretence of fairness and objectivity” 5/7/201592No State Project UK - Vince James

93 Questioning the “Judge” 5/7/201593No State Project UK - Vince James

94 How to plea  I INTEND TO PLEAD GIULTY,BUT BEFORE I CAN DO SO I WISH TO BE INFORMED AS TO THE NATURE AND CAUSE OF THE ALLEGATIONS MADE AGAINST ME.  Article 6 ECHR reads as follows.  2.Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.  3.Everyone charged with a criminal offence has the following minimum rights:  (a) to be informed promptly, in a language which he understands and in detail, of the nature and cause of the accusation against him; 5/7/201594No State Project UK - Vince James

95  “Am I entitled to a fair and meaningful hearing” ?  Meaningful, being you will be responsive and answer in substance to my questions ?  “Could I get a fair hearing, if there was a conflict of interest” ?  Who do you “represent” ? 5/7/201595No State Project UK - Vince James

96 Challenging jurisdiction!  Am I considered innocent of the alleged crime? Please answer yes or no Answer: Yes.  So am I considered innocent of every element of the alleged crime ?  Jurisdiction is an “element” of a court case; they cannot claim to have the right to hold you against your will, until you have been proven guilty 5/7/201596No State Project UK - Vince James

97 Why should the “Judge” even “Care” about the claim !  What is the nature & basis relationship between the cop and the judge ?  Q. If there is no relationship, then why do they claim the right to take control of your life and property  Q. Do they not both represent the “Crown” !  Could there possibly a business relationship !  Q. Were does the “Fine” money go to ? 5/7/201597No State Project UK - Vince James

98  Are you assuming jurisdiction? Answer: Yes  Please show me, how, were, why and when your alleged jurisdiction was acquired. Did this jurisdiction over me require my consent?  Apart from coercion and violence, how was your jurisdiction acquired ! 5/7/201598No State Project UK - Vince James

99  “NATURE OF THE CLAIM”  IS THIS CLAIM IN THE NATURE OF A......?  1. Tort  Or  2. Contract 5/7/201599No State Project UK - Vince James

100  Am I being accused of breaching a “legal duty” ?Please answer Yes or No  Am I being accused of violating anybody's “Rights”? Please answer Yes or No 5/7/ No State Project UK - Vince James

101 Cross examining the copper  Did you file a valid cause of action against me ? please answer Yes or No Answer: Yes  How many elements are their in a cause of action ? 5/7/ No State Project UK - Vince James

102 Are you an expert in the interpretation and application of the RTA 1991 ? Please answer Yes or No YES What are those qualifications ? 5/7/ No State Project UK - Vince James

103 Did the police officer make a legal determination when accusing you of speeding ? 5/7/ No State Project UK - Vince James

104  If the officer does not know or understand how, what, why, where and when the ( RTA ) became applicable to you or anyone else then:  How can he claim to have filed a valid cause of action ?  How can he prove he was qualified to make a legal determination ? 5/7/ No State Project UK - Vince James

105 Who does the judge represent  Nobody !  State !  Are you here on your own authority and not the crowns !  Who pays your wages?  Were does the fine money go ! i.e. back to the state, who in turn pays the judge ! Be it their expenses or otherwise  Explain to me how that is not a conflict of interest. 5/7/ No State Project UK - Vince James

106 Q. How to question a bureaucrat, ask ?  Do you hold an Objective standard of proof  “Law” = “legal opinion” is about as “subjective” as you can get. 5/7/ No State Project UK - Vince James

107 On the spot fines, Police or Council !  Same process as dealing with all claims civil or criminal, do not argue and risk being thrown in a cage or arrested and physically harmed, just take the ticket / notice and deal with it in court 5/7/ No State Project UK - Vince James

108 Loans & debts  Chain of title.  Securitization report.  C.U.S.I.P. & I.S.I.N. Numbers.  Was it their own “money”, that funded the loan? 5/7/ No State Project UK - Vince James

109 WERE DO WE GO FROM HERE ?

110 MAKING YOUR OWN CLAIMS HUMAN RIGHTS ACT AS A TOOL 5/7/2015No State Project UK - Vince James110

111 The End, Thank you for listening and taking part. Any Questions? 5/7/2015No State Project UK - Vince James111

112


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