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Welcome to Presentation Plus! Presentation Plus! Civics Today Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati,

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Presentation Plus! Presentation Plus! Civics Today Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Welcome to Presentation Plus! Presentation Plus! Civics Today Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240

3 Splash Screen

4 Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1Civil Cases Section 2Criminal Cases Section 3Young People and the Courts Review to Learn Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

5 Chapter Intro 1 Chapter Overview In Chapter 16 you learn about civil and criminal law. Section 1 discusses civil cases. Section 2 describes criminal cases. Section 3 focuses on young people and the courts.

6 Chapter Intro 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to:  Identify the various types of civil law and the steps in civil lawsuits.  Name the general types of criminal cases and the procedures they follow.  Explain the stages in the juvenile justice system and the role rehabilitation plays.

7 Chapter Intro 3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

8 End of Intro Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

9 Section 1-1 Guide to Reading Civil lawsuits go through a legal process before reaching trial or settlement.  plaintiff  Main Idea Key Terms defendant  injunction  complaint  summons Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

10 Section 1-2 Guide to Reading (cont.) Sequencing Events Use a graphic organizer like the one on page 364 of your textbook to show the steps in a civil lawsuit.  What are the various types of civil law?  Reading Strategy Read to Learn What are the steps in a civil lawsuit? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

11 Section 1-3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. A disputed election

12 Section 1-4 Types of Civil Lawsuits In civil cases the plaintiff–the party bringing a lawsuit–claims to have suffered a loss and usually seeks damages, an award of money from the defendant.  The defendant–the party being sued– argues either that the loss did not occur or that the defendant is not responsible for it. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 364–367)

13 Section 1-5 Types of Civil Lawsuits (cont.) Lawsuits involving a few thousand dollars or less are often handled in a small claims court, where people act as their own attorneys.  Lawsuits may involve property disputes, breach of contract, or divorce.  A negligence suit is filed when a person has been injured or killed or when property has been destroyed because someone else has been careless or negligent. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 364–367)

14 Section 1-6 Types of Civil Lawsuits (cont.) Equity is a system of rules by which disputes are resolved on the grounds of fairness.  People may file a suit in equity to seek fair treatment in a situation in which no law exists to decide the matter.  An equity court may stop a wrong before it occurs. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 364–367)

15 Section 1-7 Types of Civil Lawsuits (cont.) A judge decides suits in equity.  The judge may issue an injunction, or court order commanding a person or group to stop a certain action. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 364–367)

16 Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Suppose someone installs a pool but does not build a fence around it. A neighbor’s child falls into the pool and drowns. What type of lawsuit might the child’s parents file? Explain. The parents might file a negligence suit. They could claim that the neighbor was negligent for not building a fence to reduce the hazard posed by the pool. Types of Civil Lawsuits (cont.) (pages 364–367)

17 Section 1-9 What Happens in a Civil Case? A lawsuit starts when the plaintiff’s lawyer files a complaint–a formal statement naming the plaintiff and the defendant and describing the nature of the suit.  The court then sends the defendant a summons, a document telling him of the suit and requiring him to appear in court at a certain time. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 365–367)

18 Section 1-10 What Happens in a Civil Case? (cont.) The defendant may respond by having his lawyer file an “answer” to the complaint.  The answer may admit to the charges or deny responsibility.  The complaint and answer together are called pleadings.  During the discovery process before the trial, both lawyers check facts and gather evidence by questioning the other party and witnesses. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 365–367)

19 Section 1-11 What Happens in a Civil Case? (cont.) The judge may call a pretrial conference with both parties.  If the case is weak, the plaintiff may decide to drop the suit.  If it is strong, the defendant may offer a settlement of some amount of money the defendant will pay the plaintiff. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 365–367)

20 Section 1-12 What Happens in a Civil Case? (cont.) Another way to resolve disputes is through mediation.  A trained mediator does not decide the case, but serves as a neutral party to help the two sides reach an agreement.  The two sides may choose arbitration.  A professional arbitrator reviews and resolves the dispute, and the arbitrator’s decision is usually binding on both parties. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 365–367)

21 Section 1-13 What Happens in a Civil Case? (cont.) Most civil cases are settled before trial for several reasons.  First, parties often prefer a negotiated outcome to the uncertain outcome of a trial.  Second, it may take years for a case to come to trial.  Third, trials are expensive and time- consuming. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 365–367)

22 Section 1-14 What Happens in a Civil Case? (cont.) If the parties do not settle, the case goes to trial.  A jury of 6 to 12 members or, more likely, a judge will hear the case.  First the plaintiff and then the defendant present. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 365–367)

23 Section 1-15 What Happens in a Civil Case? (cont.) The plaintiff has to present a “preponderance of evidence”–enough to persuade the judge or jury that the defendant is likely to be responsible for the incident.  This is a lower standard than prosecutors must meet in criminal cases. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 365–367)

24 Section 1-16 What Happens in a Civil Case? (cont.) The judge or jury considers all evidence and decides on a verdict in favor of one of the parties.  If the plaintiff wins, a remedy is set. If the defendant wins, the plaintiff gets nothing and must pay court costs. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 365–367)

25 Section 1-17 What Happens in a Civil Case? (cont.) If the losing side believes the judge made errors or some injustice occurred, it may appeal to a higher court.  Cases involving large awards are often appealed.  As a result, the winning plaintiff may wait years for the money and may end up with nothing. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 365–367)

26 Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How is mediation different from arbitration? A mediator helps the two sides reach an agreement, but does not decide the case. An arbitrator does make a decision that is usually binding on both parties. What Happens in a Civil Case? (cont.) (pages 365–367)

27 Section 1-19 Checking for Understanding __ 1.a notice directing someone to appear in court to answer a complaint or a charge __ 2.a formal notice that a lawsuit is being brought __ 3.a person or party filing a lawsuit __ 4.an individual or group being sued or charged with a crime __ 5.a court order commanding a person or group to stop a certain action A.plaintiff B.defendant C.injunction D.complaint E.summons Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. D A E B C Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

28 Section 1-20 Checking for Understanding (cont.) In an equity suit, there is no existing law to help decide the case. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Compare How do suits of equity differ from other civil lawsuits?

29 Section 1-21 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Identify What do the pleadings include? What is the purpose of the discovery phase of a civil trial? Describe what happens during this process. The pleadings include the complaint and the answer to it. The purpose of the discovery phase is to avoid any surprises in the trial. During this process, each side gathers evidence.

30 Section 1-22 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Drawing Conclusions In your opinion, should mediation and arbitration be used to settle most civil suits to prevent overloading the court system? Possible answer: Mediation and arbitration should be used to prevent overloading the court system because they save time and money.

31 Section 1-23 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Identify Review the procedures of civil courts on page 366 of your textbook. In civil court proceedings, what are the two main functions of the court? The two main functions are to send summons to the defendant and to give a verdict.

32 Section 1-24 Close Summarize in your own words the steps that occur in a civil lawsuit.

33 End of Section 1 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

34 Section 2-1 Guide to Reading Criminal cases follow a legal procedure from arrest to the verdict and sentencing.  crime  Main Idea Key Terms arraignment  testimony  cross-examine  acquittal  hung jury Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

35 Section 2-2 Analyzing Information Outline the procedures that take place in a criminal case after an arrest is made, using a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 368 of your textbook.  What are the general types of criminal cases?  Reading Strategy Read to Learn What procedures do criminal cases follow? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.)

36 Section 2-3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. A judge delivers a verdict.

37 Section 2-4 Types of Cases In criminal law cases the government charges someone with a crime and is always the prosecution.  The accused person is the defendant. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 368–370)

38 Section 2-5 Types of Cases (cont.) A crime is an act that breaks a federal or state criminal law and causes harm to people or society in general.  Each state has a set of written criminal laws, called the penal code, that spells out punishments for each crime.  Felonies are serious crimes, and misdemeanors are minor violations. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 368–370)

39 Section 2-6 Types of Cases (cont.) Criminal penalties punish criminals and protect society by keeping dangerous criminals in prison.  They serve as a warning to deter others from committing the same crime.  Criminal penalties are also intended to help prepare lawbreakers to reenter society after their prison terms end. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 368–370)

40 Section 2-7 Types of Cases (cont.) In some cases, a parole board may decide to grant a prisoner parole, or early release.  In these cases, the person must report to a parole officer until the sentence expires. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 368–370)

41 Section 2-8 Types of Cases (cont.) Some states require mandatory sentencing, in which judges must impose whatever sentence the law directs.  In other systems, a judge imposes a minimum and maximum sentence.  Under any system, similar crimes should receive similar sentences, but judges have some leeway to consider the unique circumstances of each case. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 368–370)

42 Section 2-9 Types of Cases (cont.) Crimes against people include murder, manslaughter (accidental killing), assault (physical injury or threat of injury), rape, and kidnapping.  Crimes against property include larceny (burglary, robbery, and theft), vandalism (deliberate destruction of property), and fraud (taking property by dishonest means.)  Crimes such as unauthorized gambling and illegal drug use are considered victimless crimes, because there is no victim to bring a complaint. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 368–370)

43 Section 2-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why did some states establish mandatory sentencing? Critics of the parole system claim that many sentences end up much shorter than intended because of it. In answer to this criticism, some states have established mandatory sentencing, which requires judges to impose whatever sentence the law directs. Types of Cases (cont.) (pages 368–370)

44 Section 2-11 What Happens in a Criminal Case? Officers make arrests if they have witnessed a suspected crime, if a citizen has reported a crime, or if a judge has issued an arrest warrant.  At arrest, the officer informs the person of four rights: the right to remain silent, to have an attorney present during questioning, to have a court-appointed attorney if the person cannot afford one, and to stop answering questions at any time. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 370–373)

45 Section 2-12 What Happens in a Criminal Case? (cont.) Police take fingerprints and a photograph.  The suspect may call a lawyer at this time. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 370–373) The suspect is then booked, or charged with a crime. 

46 Section 2-13 What Happens in a Criminal Case? (cont.) The prosecution must show the judge probable cause–a good reason–to believe the accused committed the crime.  The judge then sends the accused back to jail, sets bail, or releases him on his own recognizance (without bail) with a promise to appear in court when called. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 370–373) In a few hours, the suspect appears in court. 

47 Section 2-14 What Happens in a Criminal Case? (cont.) In some states, a preliminary hearing is used instead.  In others, the prosecutor files an “information” and the judge decides whether to indict. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 370–373) In federal and many state courts, a grand jury decides whether to indict. 

48 Section 2-15 What Happens in a Criminal Case? (cont.) If the defendant pleads not guilty, the case continues.  If the plea is guilty, the defendant stands convicted and the judge determines the punishment.  A plea of no contest means that the defendant does not admit guilt but will not fight the charges. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 370–373) The defendant then appears for an arraignment and must enter a plea. 

49 Section 2-16 What Happens in a Criminal Case? (cont.) This avoids a lengthy trial and ensures a punishment.  Criminal defendants have a right to a jury trial, but many choose to be tried by a judge alone in a bench trial. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 370–373) A plea bargain is an agreement in which the accused agrees to plead guilty, but to a lesser charge. 

50 Section 2-17 What Happens in a Criminal Case? (cont.) Both can reject some candidates. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 370–373) For a jury trial, both sides select potential jurors from a large pool of residents within the court’s jurisdiction. 

51 Section 2-18 What Happens in a Criminal Case? (cont.) The prosecution and defense then present their cases in turn.  They call witnesses who give testimony–answers given under oath.  The other side may cross-examine witnesses to try to discredit their testimony. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 370–373) The lawyers for each side outline their case in an opening statement. 

52 Section 2-19 What Happens in a Criminal Case? (cont.) The judge then “instructs” the jury on the law that relates to the case. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 370–373) In closing statements, both sides highlight the evidence most favorable to their case. 

53 Section 2-20 What Happens in a Criminal Case? (cont.) They choose a foreman or forewoman to lead the discussion.  Deliberations are secret and have no time limit.  Finally, they vote. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 370–373) The jury goes off to discuss the case. 

54 Section 2-21 What Happens in a Criminal Case? (cont.) Most states require a unanimous vote.  Acquittal is a vote of not guilty.  If the jury cannot decide on a verdict, the judge declares a hung jury and rules a mistrial.  The prosecution must then decide whether to drop the charges or retry the case. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 370–373) A guilty verdict means the jury found the evidence convincing “beyond a reasonable doubt.” 

55 Section 2-22 What Happens in a Criminal Case? (cont.) Sometimes the jury recommends a sentence.  More often, the judge decides the sentence.  Sentences often specify prison time, but may include fines or community service work. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 370–373) If the verdict is guilty, the judge sets a court date for sentencing. 

56 Section 2-23 What Happens in a Criminal Case? (cont.) The Fifth Amendment prohibition against double jeopardy bars the prosecution from appealing a not-guilty verdict. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 370–373) The defense often appeals a guilty verdict. 

57 Section 2-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What do judges consider in deciding on a sentence? Judges consider the defendant’s family situation, previous criminal record, employment status, and other information. Judges may also consider statements from the victims. What Happens in a Criminal Case? (cont.) (pages 370–373)

58 Section 2-25 Checking for Understanding __ 1.the statements a witness makes under oath __ 2.to question a witness at a trial or a hearing to check or discredit the testimony __ 3.a vote of not guilty __ 4.an act that breaks a law and causes harm to people or society in general __ 5.a hearing in which a suspect is charged and pleads guilty or not guilty A.crime B.arraignment C.testimony D.cross- examine E.acquittal Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. D E C A B Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

59 Section 2-26 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Identify What are four functions of penalties for crimes? How are those convicted of crimes usually punished? The four functions of penalties for crimes are to punish the criminal, to protect society, to discourage other people from committing the same crimes, and to prepare lawbreakers for reentering society. Misdemeanors often receive fines. Felonies often receive jail time.

60 Section 2-27 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Define What is the basic procedure of a criminal case? Outline and describe each step in a criminal case. Attorneys choose a jury and make opening statements. Witnesses give testimony and are cross-examined. Closing statements are given. The verdict is reached.

61 Section 2-28 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Drawing Conclusions Why do you think judges allow some suspects to be released on their own recognizance? Possible answer: Judges allow some suspects to be released on their own because some suspects seem trustworthy.

62 Section 2-29 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Infer Review the procedures in criminal cases on page 371 of your textbook. What occurs if a defendant pleads guilty and accepts a plea bargain? What happens if a defendant pleads not guilty? The case ends and the defendant must accept the conditions of the plea bargain. A trial date is set.

63 Section 2-30 Close Do you think repeat offenders should be entitled to due process of law?

64 End of Section 2 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

65 Section 3-1 Guide to Reading When young people, or juveniles, commit crimes, the American judicial system treats them differently from adults. Juvenile criminal cases follow a general standard procedure.  juvenile  Main Idea Key Terms juvenile delinquent  rehabilitate Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

66 Section 3-2 Contrasting Information In a diagram similar to the one on page 375 of your textbook, write how juveniles and adults are treated differently in the American criminal system.  What are the stages in the juvenile justice system?  Reading Strategy Read to Learn What role does rehabilitation play in the juvenile justice system? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.)

67 Section 3-3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. A young girl hears the charges against her.

68 Section 3-4 Causes of Juvenile Delinquency In most states, anyone under age 18 is considered a juvenile–not yet legally an adult.  Our system treats young people who commit crimes–called juvenile delinquents–somewhat differently from adults.  Older juveniles charged with serious crimes, though, may be tried as adults. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 375)

69 Section 3-5 Causes of Juvenile Delinquency (cont.) Factors such as abuse, neglect, emotional or mental problems, and poverty contribute to juvenile delinquency.  However, many children with these risk factors never have trouble with the law, while children from all backgrounds can become delinquents. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 375)

70 Section 3-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What are some risk factors for juvenile delinquency? Risk factors include abuse, neglect, and emotional or mental problems. Also, children who grow up in poverty, in overcrowded and rundown neighborhoods where drug and alcohol abuse are common, are at greater risk. Causes of Juvenile Delinquency (cont.) (page 375)

71 Section 3-7 Stages in the Juvenile System The main goal of juvenile courts is to try to rehabilitate, or correct a person’s behavior, rather than punish.  Cases begin with arrest or petitions to the courts filed by school administrators, store managers, or others. Parents may also petition.  This means that children can be put into the juvenile justice system without having been accused of a crime. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 376–378)

72 Section 3-8 Stages in the Juvenile System (cont.) Before reforms in the late 1800s, juvenile offenders received the same sentences and were sent to the same prisons as adults.  Today, juvenile courts try to do whatever is best for the young person. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 376–378)

73 Section 3-9 Stages in the Juvenile System (cont.) In cases of neglect or abuse by caregivers, a court may place youths in foster homes.  Delinquency cases involve crimes.  Other cases involve actions that are considered illegal only for juveniles, such as running away or curfew violation.  When a juvenile is arrested, police notify the parents or caregivers.  The child may be sent home or placed in juvenile detention until time to appear in court. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 376–378)

74 Section 3-10 Stages in the Juvenile System (cont.) In nonviolent cases, juveniles may be diverted away from court and into special programs, such as counseling, job training, or drug treatment.  A judge may hold a detention hearing to determine whether the juveniles might be dangerous to themselves or others.  If so, they may remain confined.  The next stage is a preliminary hearing to determine probable cause. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 376–378)

75 Section 3-11 Stages in the Juvenile System (cont.) The trial is less formal than in adult court.  Only the parties involved may attend.  Both sides call and cross-examine witnesses.  There is no jury.  The judge decides whether the young person is delinquent or nondelinquent. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 376–378)

76 Section 3-12 Stages in the Juvenile System (cont.) The system tries to protect juveniles by keeping their identities and criminal records secret.  In some cases, records may be erased when the offender becomes an adult.  Some states are experimenting with peer juries for the sentencing stage, if the defendant agrees. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 376–378)

77 Section 3-13 Stages in the Juvenile System (cont.) If a juvenile has been found delinquent, the court holds a hearing to decide the disposition, or sentencing.  Delinquents may be sent home with a stern lecture or placed in a special training school, reformatory, treatment center, or teen shelter. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 376–378)

78 Section 3-14 Stages in the Juvenile System (cont.) If the young people attend school and obey their caregivers during the probationary period, the charges will be removed from their record.  Juveniles who were neglected may become wards of the court until they are adults.  Judges may place juveniles with serious mental or emotional problems in a hospital or institution. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 376–378)

79 Section 3-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Can a young person be put into the juvenile justice system without being accused of a crime? Explain. Yes. Parents who cannot control the behavior of their children may petition a court for help. This means that children can be put in the system for behavior like repeatedly running away from home, which is not a crime. Stages in the Juvenile System (cont.) (pages 376–378)

80 Section 3-16 Supreme Court Rules Gerald Gault, age 15, had been sentenced to six years in a reformatory for making indecent telephone calls to a neighbor.  His parents were not informed of his arrest.  He had no attorney present and the neighbor was never questioned. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 378)

81 Section 3-17 Supreme Court Rules (cont.) The Supreme Court overturned the ruling in the 1967 case In re Gault and established rules for juvenile criminal cases.  Juveniles have the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right not to be forced to incriminate themselves. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 378)

82 Section 3-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What rights do adults have in a criminal case that were not given to Gerald Gault in his trial? Gault did not have an attorney present during questioning and was not given the chance to question the neighbor who accused him. Supreme Court Rules (cont.) (page 378)

83 Section 3-19 Checking for Understanding __ 1.a person not yet legally an adult __ 2.to correct a person’s behavior __ 3.a child or teenager who commits a serious crime or repeatedly breaks the law A.juvenile B.juvenile delinquent C.rehabilitate Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. C B A Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

84 Section 3-20 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Identify What are two factors that contribute to juvenile delinquency? Possible answers: Factors that contribute to juvenile delinquency include abuse, neglect, emotional or mental problems, and poverty. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

85 Section 3-21 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Describe What is the primary goal of juvenile courts? The primary goal of juvenile courts is to rehabilitate a person’s behavior. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

86 Section 3-22 Critical Thinking Making Judgments Do you agree with the use of peer juries? Why or why not? Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

87 Section 3-23 Analyzing Visuals Infer Review the photograph of a peer jury on page 377 of your textbook. Would you call the use of peer juries an innovative development? Explain your answer. Possible answer: The use of peer juries is a new method that tries to protect the rights of juveniles accused of crimes. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

88 Section 3-24 Close Do you think juries should be used in juvenile cases? Why or why not?

89 End of Section 3 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

90 Review 1 Section 1: Civil Cases Civil law includes disputes over rights, property, or agreements.  In a civil lawsuit, the plaintiff files a complaint against the defendant and the defendant responds. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

91 Review 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2: Criminal Cases Criminal cases are divided into two main groups–felonies and misdemeanors.  Criminal cases follow certain steps.

92 Review 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3: Young People and the Courts When a juvenile is arrested, the police must notify his or her parents or caregivers. Then a preliminary hearing is held, followed by a court appearance. There is no jury in juvenile cases.  The primary goal of juvenile courts is to try to rehabilitate, or correct the behavior, of offenders.

93 End of Review Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

94 Chapter Assessment 1 Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Reviewing Key Terms __ 1.to correct a person’s behavior rather than to punish him or her __ 2.a young person who commits a crime __ 3.a vote of not guilty __ 4.a jury that cannot agree on a verdict __ 5.a formal statement naming the plaintiff and defendant and the nature of the civil lawsuit A. acquittal B. arraignment C. crime D. complaint E. defendant F. hung jury G. injunction H. juvenile delinquent I. plaintiff J. rehabilitation H A J Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. F D

95 Chapter Assessment 2 Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) __ 6.the party being sued __ 7.criminal procedure in which the accused is formally presented with charges and asked to enter a plea __ 8.the party bringing the lawsuit __ 9.an act that breaks a criminal law __10.a court order commanding a person or group to stop a certain action B I E Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. C G A. acquittal B. arraignment C. crime D. complaint E. defendant F. hung jury G. injunction H. juvenile delinquent I. plaintiff J. rehabilitation

96 Chapter Assessment 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Main Ideas What are four types of lawsuits? Four types of lawsuits are property disputes, negligence, suits of equity, and family matters such as divorce.

97 Chapter Assessment 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.) What are the two main types of crime? How do they differ? Felonies are serious crimes while misdemeanors are minor ones.

98 Chapter Assessment 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.) Identify four rules the Supreme Court has established for juvenile cases. Parents must be notified of an arrest. Juveniles and their caregivers must receive written notice of all charges. Juveniles have the right to remain silent and to consult an attorney. Juveniles have the right to confront witnesses against them.

99 Chapter Assessment 6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.) What is plea bargaining and why is it an important part of the legal process in criminal cases? The defendant agrees to plead guilty to a lesser charge to avoid a time-consuming and lengthy trial.

100 Chapter Assessment 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.) What happens during the hearing phase of a criminal case? The suspect is informed of charges against him or her.

101 Chapter Assessment 8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking Analyzing Information Do you think civil cases should be tried before a jury? Why or why not? Yes, civil cases should be tried before a jury because more than one person should decide a case. No, civil cases should not be tried before a jury because the judge has more experience in these decisions than a jury does.

102 Chapter Assessment 9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Visuals Examine the graph on page 369 of your textbook to answer the following question. In general, which types of crimes occur most often in the United States, violent crimes or property crimes? Property crimes occur most often in the United States.

103 Chapter Assessment 10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examine the graph on page 369 of your textbook to answer the following question. Which region of the country experiences the least amount of crime? In general, the Northeast experiences the least amount of crime. Analyzing Visuals (cont.)

104 Chapter Assessment 11 Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. In a civil case, a court Fsettles a dispute between two parties. Gpunishes a criminal offender. Hdecides how best to rehabilitate a juvenile offender. Jall of the above Test-Taking Tip Find the best answer by carefully identifying the key words in the statement to be completed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

105 Chapter Assessment 12 Do you think the press should be stopped from publishing the name of a juvenile offender? Explain your answer.

106 Chapter Assessment 13 Yes, the press should be stopped from publishing the name of a juvenile offender because the names of juvenile offenders should be kept secret. No, the press should not be stopped from publishing the name of a juvenile offender because the First Amendment guarantees freedom of the press. The Supreme Court decided in 1979 that if the media obtains information about a juvenile case in a lawful manner, resulting stories are allowed under the First Amendment freedom of the press.

107 End of Assessment Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

108 Civics Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Civics Today: Citizenship, Economics, & You Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to

109 M&C Contents Charts Civil Case Procedure U.S. Regional Crime Rates in 2000 Procedure in a Criminal Case Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

110 M&C 1

111 M&C 2

112 M&C 3

113 Skillbuilder 1 Solving problems does not end with math class. Individuals and societies alike must sometimes resolve difficult issues. Whether the problem is serious or not, a solid approach to solving it can lead to a faster and more satisfactory end. Problem Solving Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. Why Learn This Skill?

114 Skillbuilder 2 Learning the Skill Follow these steps in a problem-solving situation:  Define the problem. Recognize why you have the problem and what needs to change.  Look at all sides of the issue. Are others involved? How are they affected?  Keep your emotions in check. Anger, fear, or anxiety can stand in your way.  Draw on past experience. What have you done or seen others do that could help? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Problem Solving

115 Skillbuilder 3 Learning the Skill Consult an authority. You might do research to learn more facts or talk with an authority figure you trust.  Take action. Face the problem directly and avoid delays that might make the problem grow worse. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Problem Solving

116 Skillbuilder 4 Practicing the Skill Read the passage on page 379 of your textbook. Then on a separate sheet of paper, answer the questions on the following slides. Problem Solving

117 Skillbuilder 5 1.How did Nick define his problem? Nick had to find out who put drugs in his book bag and to make sure his name was clear. Nick was concerned about the kids around his locker, his mom, and Zach. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 2.What other people concerned him? Problem Solving

118 Skillbuilder 6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 3.When did he apply past experience? Nick remembered that Zach had been acting funny lately. He explained his situation to the kids at his locker and went to his coach for advice. 4.What actions did Nick take? Problem Solving

119 CC2 Geography Japanese crime statistics report only one murder per 100,000 people while almost 10 of every 100,000 Americans are murdered.

120 DYK1 Any wrongful act, other than breach of contract, for which the injured party has the right to sue for damages in a civil court is called a tort. Tort comes from the French word for “wronged” and can be traced even further back to the Latin word for “twisted.” A tort is directed against an individual rather than against the state.

121 WWWW1 Equity Law This kind of law developed in England when the common law system became so technical that it could not deal with cases that did not meet its rules precisely and when plaintiffs, as a result, appealed to England’s monarch for help. A plaintiff had to bring a complaint to the right court–the court of law or the court of equity. In the United States, the two kinds of court systems were combined under the Code of Civil Procedure in England unified its two-court system in 1873.

122 WWWW2 Sentencing Persons convicted of multiple crimes may be allowed to serve their sentences concurrently (at the same time) rather than consecutively (one after another). An exception is when a gun is used in a crime. Then many states require that an additional sentence be added to the end of the sentence for the crime.

123 WWWW3 Indiana In La Porte County teens who commit misdemeanors may go to Teen Court where the jurors, attorneys, bailiffs, and judge are teenagers.

124 Time1 In what ways does the Miranda ruling help protect the United States Constitution? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

125 Time2 By informing suspects of their rights, the Miranda ruling safeguards the Fifth Amendment’s protection against self-incrimination.

126 DFT1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

127 DFT2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

128 DFT3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

129 End of Custom Show End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.

130 End of Slide Show Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.


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