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Splash Screen.

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Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Splash Screen

2 Section 2: Criminal Cases Section 3: Young People and the Courts
Chapter Introduction Section 1: Civil Cases Section 2: Criminal Cases Section 3: Young People and the Courts Visual Summary Chapter Menu

3 When is a legal issue a criminal problem, and when is it a civil problem? Civil law concerns disputes between two or more individuals or between individuals and the government. In criminal law, by contrast, the government charges someone with a crime and is always the prosecutor. Chapter Intro 1

4 Section 1: Civil Cases The judicial branch of government is charged with interpreting the law. America’s courts decide thousands of civil cases each year. Chapter Intro 2

5 Section 2: Criminal Cases
The Constitution of the United States establishes and protects the individual’s fundamental rights and liberties. Thousands of criminal cases each year help define Americans’ rights and enforce law and order. Chapter Intro 2

6 Section 3: Young People and the Courts
The Constitution of the United States establishes and protects the individual’s fundamental rights and liberties. A separate legal system, the juvenile justice system, handles the cases of young people in trouble with the law. Chapter Intro 2

7 Chapter Preview-End

8 Guide to Reading Big Idea
The judicial branch of government is charged with interpreting the law. Section 1-Main Idea

9 Guide to Reading Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary complaint
summons discovery settlement Academic Vocabulary file retain respond Section 1-Key Terms

10 Section 1-Polling Question
Do you agree that settling a civil lawsuit out of court is a better course of action than going to trial? A. Agree B. Disagree A B Section 1-Polling Question

11 Civil Lawsuits Civil lawsuits may involve property disputes, a breach of contract, family matters, or personal injury. Section 1

12 Civil Lawsuits (cont.) In a civil case, a plaintiff brings a lawsuit against a defendant. The plaintiff: Claims to have suffered loss Usually seeks damages Section 1

13 Civil Lawsuits (cont.) The defendant: Argues the loss did not occur
Argues the defendant is not responsible Section 1

14 Civil Lawsuits (cont.) Civil lawsuits may involve: Property disputes
Breaches of contracts Family matters involving two or more parties Section 1

15 Civil Lawsuits (cont.) Negligence or personal injury
Negligence suit filed when: Someone injured or killed Property destroyed Section 1

16 Do you think a person should file a civil lawsuit against a neighbor for playing loud music late at night? A. Yes B. No A B Section 1

17 The Process in a Civil Case
Civil lawsuits follow a specified legal procedure. Section 1

18 The Process in a Civil Case (cont.)
There are specific legal procedures that civil lawsuits follow. Plaintiff retains a lawyer, who files a complaint with the court Civil Cases Section 1

19 The Process in a Civil Case (cont.)
Defendant: Receives a summons May file an “answer” to complaint Complaint and answer referred to as pleadings Civil Cases Section 1

20 The Process in a Civil Case (cont.)
The process of discovery to check facts and gather evidence Pretrial hearing: Helps to explain differences between two sides Plaintiff may decide to drop case Defendant may offer settlement Civil Cases Section 1

21 The Process in a Civil Case (cont.)
Mediation and arbitration are ways to resolve disputes. Most civil cases settled before trial because of time and money. Civil Cases Section 1

22 The Process in a Civil Case (cont.)
Trial: Jury or judge may hear case Plaintiff has to present a “preponderance of evidence” Remedy set if plaintiff wins Plaintiff gets nothing and must pay court costs if defendant wins Civil Cases Section 1

23 The Process in a Civil Case (cont.)
Appeal: Losing side may appeal to a higher court Defendant or defendant’s insurance company may appeal to reduce awards Civil Cases Section 1

24 Which do you think is probably the most effective way of resolving a civil dispute?
A. Settlement B. Mediation C. Arbitration D. Trial A B C D Section 1

25 Section 1-End

26 Guide to Reading Big Idea
The Constitution of the United States establishes and protects the individual’s fundamental rights and liberties. Section 2-Main Idea

27 Guide to Reading Content Vocabulary prosecution crime penal code
parole mandatory sentencing arraignment testimony cross-examine acquittal hung jury Section 2-Key Terms

28 Guide to Reading Academic Vocabulary function confine sufficient
Section 2-Key Terms

29 Section 2-Polling Question
Do you think that criminal penalties help prevent crimes? A. Yes B. No A B Section 2-Polling Question

30 What Is a Criminal Case? In criminal cases, defendants are charged with crimes, and if convicted, they are sentenced as punishment. Section 2

31 What Is a Criminal Case? (cont.)
In a criminal case, the state or federal government charges someone with a crime. Government is the prosecution in a criminal case. Section 2

32 What Is a Criminal Case? (cont.)
Crime is an act that: Breaks a federal or state criminal law Causes harm to people or society U.S. Regional Crime Rates in 2004 Section 2

33 What Is a Criminal Case? (cont.)
Criminal justice system includes courts, police and prisons. A separate juvenile justice system Section 2

34 What Is a Criminal Case? (cont.)
Penal code: Written criminal laws in each state Federal penal code defines federal crimes Spells out the punishments that go with each crime Section 2

35 What Is a Criminal Case? (cont.)
People convicted of misdemeanors: May be fined May be sentenced to one year or less in jail Section 2

36 What Is a Criminal Case? (cont.)
People convicted of felonies: May be imprisoned for a year or more May be punished by death in the case of murder May lose certain civil rights May lose employment opportunities in some careers Section 2

37 What Is a Criminal Case? (cont.)
Misdemeanors sometimes treated as felonies Example: drunk driving repeat offense Section 2

38 What Is a Criminal Case? (cont.)
Criminal penalties: Provide punishment so that a criminal pays for offense Protect society by confining dangerous lawbreakers in prison Can serve as warnings to deter other people Can help prepare lawbreakers to reenter society after prison terms Section 2

39 What Is a Criminal Case? (cont.)
Determining the sentence: System of indeterminate sentences used in the past Some prisoners eligible for parole Mandatory sentencing imposing whatever sentence the law directs Section 2

40 What Is a Criminal Case? (cont.)
Many states giving judges more sentencing options: Shock incarceration Intensive-supervision probation or parole House arrest Section 2

41 Do you agree that all judges should be required to impose mandatory sentencing?
A. Yes B. No A B Section 2

42 Criminal Case Procedure
Criminal cases follow several steps, including arrest, hearing, indictment, arraignment, verdict, sentencing, and appeal. Section 2

43 Criminal Case Procedure (cont.)
Criminal cases follow several steps. Defendants entitled to the protections of due process Criminal Cases Section 2

44 Criminal Case Procedure (cont.)
Arrest begins a criminal case Officers make an arrest when: They have witnessed suspected crime A citizen has made complaint or report of a crime A judge has issued arrest warrant Criminal Cases Section 2

45 Criminal Case Procedure (cont.)
The booking process: Police fingerprint and photograph suspect Suspect allowed to call a lawyer State provides lawyer if the suspect cannot afford lawyer Criminal Cases Section 2

46 Criminal Case Procedure (cont.)
A few hours after being booked: Suspect informed of charges Prosecution must show probable cause for believing the accused committed the crime Judge either sends accused back to jail, sets bail, or releases the accused Criminal Cases Section 2

47 Criminal Case Procedure (cont.)
Preliminary hearings and grand jury decide indictments “Information” claims sufficient evidence to bring accused to trial Criminal Cases Section 2

48 Criminal Case Procedure (cont.)
Arraignment: Defendant formally presented with charges and enters a plea If defendant pleads not guilty, case continues Criminal Cases Section 2

49 Criminal Case Procedure (cont.)
If defendant pleads guilty, he or she is convicted and punishment is determined. If defendant pleads no contest, effect is much the same as guilty plea Criminal Cases Section 2

50 Criminal Case Procedure (cont.)
Trial procedure: Defense lawyer interviews witnesses, studies laws affecting the case, and gathers information. Defendants have right to a jury trial, although many choose a bench trial. Selection of potential jurors Criminal Cases Section 2

51 Criminal Case Procedure (cont.)
Opening statements outlining the case Prosecution and defense present cases Calling witnesses who give testimony Cross-examine witnesses Criminal Cases Section 2

52 Criminal Case Procedure (cont.)
Closing statements highlighting testimony Judge explains law relating to case to the jury Criminal Cases Section 2

53 Criminal Case Procedure (cont.)
Reaching a verdict: Jury chooses foreperson to lead discussion Reviews evidence and arguments Deliberates secretly and without time limit Votes whether defendant is guilty or not guilty Criminal Cases Section 2

54 Criminal Case Procedure (cont.)
To reach guilty verdict, evidence must convince “beyond a reasonable doubt” Verdict must be unanimous in most criminal cases Acquittal is a vote of not guilty Hung jury is a jury that cannot agree on a verdict Criminal Cases Section 2

55 Criminal Case Procedure (cont.)
Jury or judge decides on sentence, which often specifies period of prison time Defendant can appeal guilty verdict Criminal Cases Section 2

56 Do you think the procedure for criminal cases is fair to defendants?
A. Yes B. No A B Section 2

57 Section 2-End

58 Guide to Reading Big Idea
The Constitution of the United States establishes and protects the individual’s fundamental rights and liberties. Section 3-Main Idea

59 Guide to Reading Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary juvenile
juvenile delinquent rehabilitation Academic Vocabulary emphasis preliminary equivalent Section 3-Key Terms

60 Section 3-Polling Question
Do you agree that there should be a separate justice system for juveniles? A. Agree B. Disagree A B Section 3-Polling Question

61 Causes of Juvenile Delinquency
All states and the federal government have a separate justice system for young people. Section 3

62 Causes of Juvenile Delinquency (cont.)
In most states, anyone under the age is 18 is considered a juvenile. Juvenile delinquents are young people who commit crimes Juvenile delinquents treated somewhat differently from adults who commit crimes Section 3

63 Causes of Juvenile Delinquency (cont.)
Factors that can contribute to juvenile delinquency: Abuse or neglect Emotional or mental problems Poverty Section 3

64 Which do you think contributes the most to juvenile delinquency?
A. Abuse or neglect B. Emotional or mental problems C. Poverty D. Wealth A B C D Section 3

65 The Juvenile Justice System
The juvenile justice system is similar to the adult system, with some important differences. Section 3

66 The Juvenile Justice System (cont.)
Juvenile courts try to rehabilitate juveniles, rather than punish them. Two types of cases handled by juvenile courts: Neglect, which involves caregivers neglecting or abusing juveniles Delinquency, which involves juveniles committing crimes Section 3

67 The Juvenile Justice System (cont.)
Police officers handling juvenile cases Special programs for juveniles: Counseling Job training Drug-treatment Section 3

68 The Juvenile Justice System (cont.)
Trials for juveniles: Preliminary hearings Juveniles not entitled to a jury trial Juvenile cases normally closed to the public Juvenile offenders’ identities and criminal records kept secret If found guilty court holds sentencing Section 3

69 The Juvenile Justice System (cont.)
Sentencing for juveniles: Court holds hearing that is the same as sentencing Some offenders sent home with a stern lecture Some offenders with previous history of delinquency placed in special training schools, reformatories, treatment centers, or teen shelters Section 3

70 The Juvenile Justice System (cont.)
Successful probation leading to dropped charges and removal of charges from record Neglected juveniles can become wards of the court Rules for juvenile criminal cases established by the Supreme Court Juveniles generally have same or similar rights as adults Section 3

71 Do you think special programs are effective in rehabilitating juvenile delinquents?
A. Yes B. No A B Section 3

72 Section 3-End

73 Civil Law Civil law includes disputes over rights, property, and agreements. In a civil lawsuit, the plaintiff files a complaint against the defendant, and the defendant responds. The legal system has established a procedure that everyone must follow to settle civil disputes. VS 1

74 Criminal Law In criminal law cases, the government charges someone with a crime. A crime is an act that breaks a federal or state criminal law and causes harm to people or society in general. Criminal cases are divided into two main groups—felonies and misdemeanors. VS 2

75 Juveniles and the Court System
When a juvenile is arrested, the police must notify his or her parents or caregivers. A preliminary hearing is held, followed by a court appearance. At sentencing, juveniles may be sent home, put on probation, made a ward of the court, or sent to a reformatory. VS 3

76 Juveniles and the Court System (cont.)
There is no jury in juvenile court cases. The primary goal of juvenile courts is to try to rehabilitate, or correct the behavior of, offenders. VS 4

77 VS-End

78 Figure 1

79 Figure 2

80 Figure 3

81 TIME Trans

82 DFS Trans 1

83 DFS Trans 2

84 DFS Trans 3

85 complaint a formal notice that a lawsuit is being brought Vocab1

86 summons a notice directing someone to appear in court to answer a complaint or a charge Vocab2

87 discovery process by which attorneys have opportunity to check facts and gather evidence Vocab3

88 settlement in a legal case, the amount of money the defendant agrees to pay the plaintiff Vocab4

89 file to submit or register Vocab5

90 retain to keep or to hold secure Vocab6

91 respond to answer or react Vocab7

92 prosecution party who starts the legal proceedings against another party for a violation of the law Vocab8

93 crime an act that breaks a law and causes harm to people or society in general Vocab9

94 penal code a state’s written criminal laws Vocab10

95 parole to grant a prisoner an early release from prison, with certain restrictions Vocab11

96 mandatory sentencing punishment that judges must impose according to what the law directs Vocab12

97 arraignment a hearing in which a suspect is charged and pleads guilty or not guilty Vocab13

98 testimony the statement a witness makes under oath Vocab14

99 cross-examine to question a witness at a trial or a hearing to check or discredit the testimony Vocab15

100 acquittal a vote of not guilty Vocab16

101 hung jury a jury that cannot agree on a verdict Vocab17

102 function to serve a purpose Vocab18

103 confine to restrict or imprison Vocab19

104 sufficient to be adequate for a purpose Vocab20

105 juvenile a person not yet legally an adult Vocab21

106 juvenile delinquent a child or teenager who commits a serious crime or repeatedly breaks the law Vocab22

107 rehabilitate to correct a person’s behavior Vocab23

108 emphasis placing stress or special importance on something Vocab24

109 preliminary coming before the main part or item Vocab25

110 equivalent alike or equal to in number or meaning Vocab26

111 To use this Presentation Plus! product:
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