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Impact of Environmental Dimensions on Oil Industry.

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Presentation on theme: "Impact of Environmental Dimensions on Oil Industry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Impact of Environmental Dimensions on Oil Industry

2 TERI Technologies

3 Sources of Environmental Impact  Exploration  Underwater explosions (250 db)  disturbs communication and navigation of aquatic animals.  Drilling  Muds – oil, heavy metals, chemicals (CI, BCD, O2X, detergents  Land and water pollution (3826 MTs oil discharged in offshore in Britain in 1996)  Processing  Rigs & Pipelines  Noise, Light, Land & water pollution. Flaring of gas  Global warming – Climate Change.  Refining  SOx, NOx, Cox, SPM to Air, Solid waste to Land and Liquid effluent to water pollution.  Storage  Tank Bottom Sludge, Crude Oily Sludge, Emulsion Oily Sludge, Oily Sludge in Pit – Air, Water & Land pollution.  Transportation  Oil Spill, Leakage of pipe line  Water & Land (Farmer’s agricultural land).  Accidents  Oil Contaminated Site, Ship breaking at sea  water & land pollution. (223 oil spill in UK in 1996, Fire in Oil India Ltd, India, 2005)  War  Land, Sea water pollution  Gulf War 1991, Lebanon Bombing etc.

4 Sources of Environmental Impacts



7 Environmental Threats of Oil Contamination


9 Effect on soil quality: Oil contaminated soil looses its fertility for more than 20 years. The texture and other physicochemical characteristics of the soil gets affected. The mites and other insects can’t survive in oil contaminated land leading to major imbalance in the food chain. Oil contamination has adverse effect on seed germination. Farmers loose its crops and are not able to grow agricultural crops for years after years. Effect on economy of the farmers. Effect on Fresh water Eco-system and ecological habitat: A large percentage of the oil spills gets spread over the surface of the stagnant aquatic system resulting anaerobic environment in the water below the surface. This leads to death of the natural flora and fauna where oxygen is the key element for their respiration. Physical and chemical alteration of natural habitats of the fresh water ecosystem.

10 Environmental Threats of Oil Contamination Effect on Fresh water Eco-system and ecological habitat: Physical smothering effect and lethal or sub-lethal toxic effects on the aquatic life Aquatic birds suffer from Hypothermia, Drowning, Loss in flight, Poisoning etc. Crude oil exposure may cause damage to lungs, liver, kidneys, intestines and other internal organs of the aquatic birds and animals. Reproductive Impairment in birds, fish and reptiles Plants covered by the oil, unable to photosynthesize. Oil spill significantly reduce the density of invertebrates and taxonomic richness at least 5 km downstream. Some fish species has been found with altered tracheal gills impregnated with tar like substance.

11 Environmental Threats of Oil Contamination Effect on Marine Eco-system and ecological habitat: Displacement of fish and other aquatic animals due to noise pollution by underwater explosion. A large percentage of the oil spill gets emulsified and solidified along with sea shore, clinging to sand, rock and stone. Physical and chemical alteration of natural habitats such as when oil is incorporated into sediments Physical smothering effect on the marine life Lethal or sub-lethal toxic effects on the marine life Aquatic birds suffer from Hypothermia, Drowning, Loss in flight, Poisoning etc. Crude oil exposure may cause damage to lungs, liver, kidneys, intestines and other internal organs of the aquatic birds and animals. Reproductive Impairment in birds, fish and reptiles Plants covered by the oil, unable to photosynthesize. Changes in the marine ecosystem resulting from oil effects on key organisms e.g. increased abundance of intertidal algae following the death of limpets, which normally eat the algae.

12 Environmental Threats of Oil Contamination Effect on human health: Long term exposure to crude oil contamination leads to severe diseases to human and other animals. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one of the major components found in crude oil are highly health hazard like skin erythema (reddening), skin cancer, sinonasal cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, and bladder cancer. Inhalation of hydrocarbon vapours causes headache, nausea, dizziness, respiratory irritation. Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX), the key components of crude oil causes mutations, cancers, birth defects, endocrine disruptions, nervous disorders, and liver disease, carcinogen, effect on CNS, depression, irregular heartbeats.

13 Environmental Threats of Oil Contamination Effect on air quality: The ambient air quality gets affected because of high carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), SPM (fine and respirable suspended particulate matter), VOC (volatile organic compounds) etc. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health. Health effects range anywhere from minor irritation of eyes and the upper respiratory system to chronic respiratory disease, heart disease, lung cancer, and death. Air pollution has been shown to cause acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults. It has also been shown to worsen the condition of people with pre-existing heart or lung disease. Among asthmatics, air pollution has been shown to aggravate the frequency and severity of attacks. Both short-term and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. Air pollutants can also indirectly affect human health through acid rain, by polluting drinking water and entering the food chain, and through global warming and associated climate change and sea level rise.

14 Environmental Threats of Oil Contamination Effect on climate change: Continuous gas flaring is a major source of green house gases which has great impact on climate change. This results in global warming, flooding, coastal erosion, rise in sea level, massive population migration and loss of infrastructure. There is chance of adverse impact on human health and loss of life due to heat waves, extreme weather events, contaminated water supply, air pollution and increased transmission of disease.

15 Environmental Protection Measures Environment Management Practices (EMP) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Environmental Management System (ISO 14000) Occupational Health Safety and Society (OHSAS 18000) Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Environmental protection measures are taken to minimize pollution in water, air, land and biological environment by improving the environmental performance.

16 Environmental Protection Measures “Caring for the Climate” initiative: Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), India and Tata Steel are among the companies that have recently joined a UN climate change initiative for business leaders, according to the UN Global Compact, which partners industry. Some 230 companies from around the world have signed up for this “Caring for the Climate” initiative since it was launched in The CEOs of these companies have to pledge their commitment to caring for the environment. As many as 150 of the world’s top 500 corporations are its members. There are also 74 country networks and India is “very strong”. It was formed in Mumbai in Shri R S Sharma, CMD of ONGC and also President of the Indian arm of United Nations Global Compact.

17 Environmental Protection Measures


19 Environmental Policy and Regulations International and national policies developed. The basic legislations, rules and regulations covering environmental dimensions of the petroleum sector. The petroleum (production) (seaward areas) regulation act 1988 provides that “ the licensees are obliged to operate in a proper and workmanlike manner in accordance with methods and practice customarily used in good oil field practice”. The Kyoto Protocol, an international and legally binding agreement to reduce greenhouse gases emissions worldwide, entered into force on 16th February, Each country has to create its own policy based on own circumstances. In India TERI is co-operating with the government regulatory authorities like Ministry of Environment and Forest (MOEF), Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), State Pollution Control Board (SPCB), for developing various policies related to environment.

20 Environmental Policy and Regulations Dr. R.K.Pachauri, Director-General, TERI, India & Chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is also the advisor to Government of India for Climate Change Policy. Dr Pachauri accepts the Nobel Peace Prize 2007 on behalf of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change at a presentation ceremony held in Oslo on 10 December 2007.

21 Environmental Policy and Regulations Acts & Rules by Govt. of India applicable to Oil Industries : The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules,1975 The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act 1977 & Cess (Amendment ) Act, 2003 The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Rules, 1978 The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 amended 1987 The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules,1981 amended 1983 The Environment (Protection ) Act, 1986 The Environment (Protection ) Rules,1986 amended 2005 Environment (Siting for industrial projects) Rules 1999 Declaring coastal stretches as coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) 1991 The Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules,1989 amended 2003, further amended The Manufacture, storage and import of hazardous chemicals Rules 1989 amended 2000

22 Environmental Policy and Regulations Acts & Rules by Govt. of India applicable to Oil Industries : The Biomedical Waste Rules (Management and Handling),1998 amended 2003 The Noise pollution ( Regulation & Control ) Rules, 2000 amended 2002 The Chemical Accidents (Emergency planning, preparedness & response ) Rules, 1996 The Batteries ( Management & Handling ) Rules.2001 The Ozone Depleting substances (regulation & Control) Rules 2000 The Public Liability and Insurance Act, 1981 amended 1992 The Public Liability and Insurance Rules, 1981 amended 1993 The National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997 The National Environment Appellate Authority (Appeal) Rules, 1997 The National Environmental Tribunal Act. 1995

23 Bioremediation : An Ecofriendly Solution For Treatment Of Petroleum Waste

24 Conventional methods for remediation of Oil Contamination  Land filling  Incineration  Air Spurging  Natural Remediation (like evaporation of VOCs, auto oxidation, and photo oxidation, etc.)  Surfactants  Chemical dissociation, dumping in injection wells, etc.  Land farming

25 What is Bioremediation ? Bioremediation : Naturally occurring microorganisms for remediation of harmful substances to nontoxic compounds. Used for clean up of oil spills, oily sludge, oil contaminated site, oil contaminated water, any other type of contamination like pesticide contamination etc. End product CO2, water & cell biomass More Economical & Environment-friendly compared to other conventional methods, like incineration etc.

26 Comparison with other methods ParametersTechniques for disposal Conventional methodsBioremediation technique EfficiencyContainment of toxic wastes to some extent, complete removal is not possible. Complete removal of toxic waste is possible. ApplicabilityApplication is limited. In-situ application is not possible, subject to availability of land and machinery. In some cases the process is not easy to handle. Application is universal (can often treat water, soil, sludges etc). In- situ application is possible and land requirement is minimal. The process is easy to handle. LiabilityPresentEliminated Land requirementSeparate land is required for the treatment.Treatment can be done in-situ, hence separate land requirement is not there. Environment friendlinessNot environment friendly. Directly or indirectly generates secondary pollutant. Quite environment friendly method. The end product is CO2, water and dead biomass that helps to regain the fertility of the contaminated soil. Water PollutionThere is always a chance of water pollution. No chance of water pollution. Air pollutionThere is always a chance of air pollution.No chance of air pollution. CostHighMinimal

27 Method Environmental impact Cost of remediation (USD/ton contaminated soil) IncinerationAir pollution SurfactantsWater/ Land pollution Bioremediation Environment friendly (negligible pollution) Comparison with other methods

28 Oil Installations in India Development of the consortium Oil Installations in India Baraun i Mathura Mumbai Visakhapatnam Cochin Haldiochi n Digboi Bongaigaon Guwahati Southern Region Western Region North Eastern Region Northern Region Duliajan Vadinar Pipeline Terminal Panipat

29 Development of the consortium  Isolation of microbes capable of hydrocarbon degradation  15 different oil contaminated sites identified (in India) –Different geo-climatic regions –Different level of contamination and types of contamination –Age and history of contamination  324 bacterial strains were screened (from 15 sites)  Four bacterial strains were finally selected

30 Composition of Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) Alkane Fraction Aromatic Fraction NSO Fraction Asphaltene Fraction Crude Oil Straight Chain Compound Branched Chain Compound Cyclic Compound Monocyclic Aromatics Polycylic Aromatic

31 The Microbial Consortium A microbial consortium was developed, comprising of 4 different strains of microbes which can eat up oil contamination in soil. Can work in different climatic conditions i.e C – 60 0 C temp, upto 6% salinity etc. Not pathogenic and not harmful to the environment. Can degrade the oil contamination very quickly (normally 4 – 6 months time) Easy to handle.

32 Mechanism of Action

33 Microbial Products of TERI KT Oilivorus-A OilzapperKT- Oilzapper Oilivorous-A Oilivorous-S

34 TERI’s experience on Bioremediation Name of the company where bioremediation job has been carried out Quantity (MTs) of oil contamination BG Exploration & Production India Limited, India Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, India Cairn Energy Pty. Ltd., India Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited, India Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station, India20.00 Hindustan Petroleum Corpn Limited, India Indian Oil Corporation Limited, India Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited, India Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited, India Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited, India Oil India Limited, India Reliance Petroleum Limited, India Tata Power Company Limited, India10.00 KOC, Kuwait ADNOC, Abu Dhabi Total quantity undertaken for bioremediation job

35 TERI’s experience on Bioremediation Type of oil contaminationQuantity (MTs) of oil contamination Synthetic oil based mud (SOBM) Drill cuttings Emulsion sludge Thermal power station sludge30.00 Acidic sludge oil contaminated soil (land) oil contaminated water Crude oily sludge/ oily sludge in pit Total quantity of oil contamination undertaken for bioremediation job

36 Application Process Steps 1. Site preparation 2. Installation of Bore wells (Optional) 3. Transfer of oil contaminated soil 4. Application of microbial consortium to the oil contaminated soil 5. Application of nutrients to the oil contaminated soil 6. Tilling and watering 7. Sampling – oil contaminated soil and ground water 8. Sample Analysis – Monitoring Bioremediation

37 Application Process Steps

38 Monitoring of Bioremediation Job Monitoring of TPH Monitoring of Fractions of TPH Monitoring of Soil quality Monitoring of Ground water quality Monitoring of Microbial population

39 Composition of oily sludge undertaken for bioremediation Constituents of oily sludge Composition (%) in samples of CPF Gandhar CTF South Santhal GGS Narimanam Solvent extractable TPH Water content Sediments / inorganic Constituents of TPH Alkane fraction Aromatic fraction NSO fraction836 Asphaltane fraction4812

40 Biodegradation of TPH South Santhal CTF, ONGC, Mehsana Asset, India

41 Biodegradation of TPH CPF,Gandhar, ONGC, Ankleshwar Asset, India

42 Biodegradation of Alkane &Aromatic fractions of TPH

43 Preparation of bioremediation site

44 Application of Microbial Consortium

45 Tilling of bioremediation site

46 Watering of bioremediation site

47 Sampling at the bioremediation site

48 From waste OIL To fertile SOIL


50 Bioremediation of oily sludge at BPCL Refinery, Mumbai Before bioremediation After bioremediation

51 Before Bioremediation After Bioremediation Bioremediation of oil contaminated water at Duliajan (Assam)

52 Bioremediation site at Oil India Ltd. (Dikom) Before bioremediation After bioremediation by Oilzapper

53 Bioremediation site in CTF, Geleky, Nazira, ONGC, Assam Before Bioremediation After Bioremediation by oilzapper

54 Bioremediation site at Mathura refinery Before bioremediation After bioremediation

55 Soil Fertility Vs. Bioremediation

56 Fish culturing after bioremediation Site before bioremediationSite after bioremediation Natural vegetation after bioremediation Aquatic birds in site filled with water Fish culturing in site filled with rain water after bioremediation

57 Pathogenecity Test

58 Soil Toxicity Study Type of test : Fish toxicity study Samples studied : Sample – 1 : Soil sample from the bioremediation site of Barauni refinery before bioremediation Sample – 2 : Soil sample from the bioremediation site of Barauni refinery after bioremediation Test method : IS : 6582 ( P-II ) : 2001 Results: Sample 1 : No survival of fish in one part sample & one part water Sample 2 : 100% fish survival in one part sample & one part water

59 Heavy metal in soil before and after Bioremediation ppm Heavy metals Concentration of heavy metals in soil samples (mg/kg soil) Permissible limit as per Hazardous Wastes Management and Handling Rules (Amendment 2003) Before bioremediation After bioremediation Nearby Soil Zn0.001 MnBD Cu0.001 BDTotal concentration Ni ppm Pb CoBD As Cd ppm Cr (Total) SeBD Total concentration BD: Below detection limit (1 ppb)

60 Soil Characteristics before and after Bioremediation Texture of soilLoamy Soil pH Soil bulk density0.99 g/cm g/cm 3 Soil water holding capacity 61 %75 %74 % Electric conductivity2.25 mS/cm1.59 mS/cm1.48 mS/cm Total soil nitrogen0.07 %0.11 %0.08 % Organic carbon1.92 %1.66 %1.62 % Available phosphorous in soil 11 ppm19 ppm9 ppm ParameterTest results Before bioremediation After bioremediation Nearby soil Potassium in soil124 ppm150 ppm120 ppm

61 Ground water characteristics before and after Bioremediation Zn5 ppm1 ppm Mn0.1 ppm1.5 ppm Cu1 ppm 0.01 Ni5 ppb1 ppm Pb5 ppb0.5 ppm Co5 ppb As5 ppb0.5 ppm Cd1 ppb0.01 ppm Cr (Total)5 ppb1 ppm Se0.5 ppb0.5 ppm BD Physico-chemical properties: pH---6 – EC mS/cm Heavy metalsPermissible limitsConcentration in ground water (ppm) BSI/WHOEPA (LIE) BeforeAfter Oil/grease ppm Nil

62 Publications S Krishnan, P M Sarma and Lal B Comparative analysis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two desulphurizing bacterial strains, Mycobacterium phlei SM120-1 and Mycobacterium phlei GTIS10. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 42 : Prasad G S, Mayilraj S, Sood N, Singh V, Biswas K, and Lal B Candida digboiensis sp.nov. a novel anamorphic yeast species from an acidic tar sludge-contaminated oil field. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 55: 633–638. Mishra S, Sarma P M, and Lal B Crude oil degradation efficiency of a recombinant lux tagged Acinetobacter baumannii strain and its survival in crude oil contaminated soil microcosm. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 235: Sarma P M, Bhattacharya D, Krishnan S, and Lal B Assessment of intraspecies diversity among strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Canadian journal of Microbiology. 50: Sarma P M, Bhattacharya D, Krishnan S, and Lal B Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon by a newly discovered enteric bacterium, Leclercia adecarboxylata. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 70: Bhattacharya D, Sarma P M, Krishnan S, Mishra S, and Lal B Evaluation of the Genetic Diversity among the Strains of Pseudomonas citronellolis isolated from oily Sludge Contaminated Sites. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 60: Mishra S., Jyot J., Kuhad, R., and Lal B., Evaluation of inoculum addition to stimulate in situ bioremediation of oily sludge contaminated soil, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67: Mishra S., Jyot J., Kuhad, R., and Lal B., In situ bioremediation potential of an oily sludge degrading bacterial consortium. Current Microbiology 43:

63 Patents on OILZAPPER A process for enhanced recovery of crude oil from oil wells using novel microbial consortium. Patent No. PCT/IN 2004/ (International Patent) Bioremediation of acidic sludge. Patent No MUM/2004. A process for enhanced recovery of crude oil from oil wells using novel multi-microbial strain. Patent No 892/DEL/2003. Microbial nutrients for biodegradation of oil refinery waste and process for bioremediation of oily sludge and crude oil spill sites. Patent No 168/DL/2000.

64 Awards won by Oilzapper (Total 10 Awards : International & National)

65 Users of OILZAPPER Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (IOCL), India Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (HPCL), India Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BPCL), India Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. (ONGC), India Oil India Ltd (OIL), Assam, India Cairn Energy Pty. Ltd., India BG Exploration & Production India Ltd., India Reliance Energy Ltd., India Mangalore Refinery & Petrochemicals Ltd. (MRPL), India Kuwait Oil Company (KOC), Kuwait. Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC), Abu Dhabi.

66 Acknowledgements Dr. R. K. Pachauri, DG, TERI, India Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India IOCL R&D Centre, India Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Govt. of India MOEF, CPCB & SPCB, Govt. of India Sheba Center for Strategic Studies (SCSS), Yemen

67 My Team Members

68 For further clarifications, contact: Ajoy Kumar Mandal, Fellow & Area Convenor Environment and Industrial Biotechnology Division The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) Darbari Seth Block, India Habitat Centre, Lodhi Road, New Delhi – , India. Tel: +91 – 11 – , 2111 Fax: + 91 – 11 – , 2145 E_mail: Web:


70 Development of the consortium Different oil contaminated sites in India: Isolation sites (Regional location in India) Geographical location (Latitude & Longitude) Temp. range ( 0 C) Total number of culturable bacterial strains isolated Total number of species among the bacterial strains LatitudeLongitude IOCL, Mathura refinery ( N ) N E 10 – IOCL, Barauni refinery ( E ) N E 19 – IOCL, Haldia refinery ( E ) N E 15 – IOCL, Gujarat refinery ( W ) N E 20 – IOCL, Panipat refinery ( N ) N E 15 – ONGC, Jorhat ( NE ) N E 10 – Oil India Ltd., Duliajan, ( NE ) N E 10 – IOCL, Digboi refinery ( NE ) N E 12 – IOCL, Guwahati refinery ( NE ) N E 15 – BPCL, Mumbai refinery, ( W ) N E 24 – HPCL, Visakhapatnam ( S ) N E 21 – CRL, Cochin refinery ( S ) N E 19 – BRPL, Bongaigoan refinery ( N ) N E 18 – Vadinar refinery ( W ) N E 15 – Reliance refinery, Jamnagar ( W ) N E 15 – Total324110

71 Development of the consortium Screening for the best degraders ( from Gujarat Refinery, IOCL, India):

72 Development of the consortium Screening for the best degraders ( from Gujarat Refinery, IOCL, India):

73 Degradation of oily sludge by selected bacterial strains Without Bacterial Strain With Bacterial Strain

74 Biodegradation of alkane fraction of crude oil

75 Biodegradation of alkane compound by A.baumannii

76 Mineralization of alkane compound by A.baumannii

77 Biodegradation of aromatic fraction of crude oil by A.odarans

78 Biodegradation of PAH compound by A.odorans Fluoranthene

79 Mineralization of aromatic hydrocarbon compound by A.odorans

80 Biodegradation of sulphur containing compound of crude oil

81 Microbial count in oil contaminated soil during bioremediation process Time of treatment by microbial consortium TBC (CFU/gm.) of the soil samples at Site I (Well no. 1) Site II (Well no. 205) Site III (Well no. 206) Site IV (Control site) Zero day before application 1.2 X X X X 10 4 Zero day after application 3.7 X X X X 10 4 After 15 days5.9 X X X X 10 4 After 40 days3.9 X X X X 10 4 After 75 days1.9 X X X X 10 4 After 135 days5.3 X X X X 10 5

82 Lysimeter: to demonstrate that leachate is clean and free from oil for analysis of oily sludge

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