1 فسيولوجيا الميكروبات Microbial Physiology Microbial Genetic دكتور محمد عبده مسلمأستاذ بيئة وفسيولوجيا الميكروبات المشاركقسم النبات والأحياء الدقيقةكلية العلومجامعة الملك سعود
2 Structure and Function of Genetic Material 1. Genetics is the study genes, genetic information, the expression of the genetic information, replication of genetic information and passing it to subsequent generations or other organisms.2. DNA in cells exists as a double-stranded helix; the two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between specific nitrogenous base pairs.Base pairing principle: A-T and C-G.Complementary bases
4 Structure and Function of Genetic Material 3. A gene is a segment of DNA, a sequence of nucleotides, that codes for a protein.4. When a gene is expressed, DNA is transcribed to produce mRNA; mRNA is then translated into proteins.5. The DNA in a cell is replicated before the cell divides, so each daughter cell receives the same genetic information.
5 Genotype and Phenotype 1. Genotype is the genetic composition of an organism—its entire DNA.2. Phenotype is the expression of the genes—the proteins of the cell and the properties they confer on the organism.
6 DNA and Chromosomes1. The DNA in a chromosome exists as one long double helix associated with various proteins that regulate genetic activity.2. Bacterial DNA is circular; the chromosome of E. coli, for example, contains about 4 million base pairs and is approximately 1000 times longer than the cell.3. Genomics is the molecular characterization of genomes.
7 Some Types of DNA: Chromosomal (circular or linear) and Plasmid (Vector)
8 DNA Replication1. During DNA replication, the two strands of the double helix separate at a point called the replication fork, and each strand is used as a template by an enzyme DNA polymerase to synthesize two new strands of DNA according to the rules of nitrogenous base pairing.2. The result of DNA replication is two new strands of DNA, each having a base sequence complementary to one of the original strands.3. Because each double-stranded DNA molecule contains one original and one new strand, the replication process is called semiconservative.
9 DNA Replication - Continue 4. DNA polymerase proofreads new molecules of DNA and removes mismatched bases before continuing DNA synthesis. Statistically, errors only occur ~1 time for every 1010 bases added.5. Each daughter bacterium receives a chromosome identical to the parent's.
13 RNA and Protein Synthesis 1. During transcription, the enzyme RNA polymerase synthesizes a strand of mRNA from one strand of double-stranded DNA, which serves as a template.2. RNA is synthesized from nucleotides containing the bases A, C, G, and U, which pair with the bases of the DNA sense strand.
14 RNA and Protein Synthesis - Continue 3. Promoter site:The starting point for transcription, where RNA polymerase binds to DNA4. Terminator site:The region of DNA that is the endpoint of transcription;RNA is synthesized in the 5' —> 3' direction.5. Translation:The process in which the information in the nucleotide base sequence of mRNA is used to assemble a protein with a specific amino acid sequence.6. The mRNA associates with ribosomes, which consist of rRNA and protein.
18 RNA and Protein Synthesis - Continue 6. Three-base segments of mRNA that specify amino acids are called codons.7. The genetic code refers to the relationship among the nucleotide base sequence of DNA, the corresponding codons of mRNA, and the amino acids for which the codons code.
20 RNA and Protein Synthesis - Continue 8. The genetic code is degenerate; that is, most amino acids are coded for by more than one codon.9. Of the 64 codons, 61 are sense codons (which code for amino acids), and 3 are nonsense codons (stop codons) which do not code for amino acids and are stop signals for translation.10. The start codon, AUG, normally codes for methionine (formylmethionine at the beginning or a protein).
22 RNA and Protein Synthesis - Continue 11. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. Another portion of the tRNA has a base triplet called an anticodon.12. The base pairing of codon and anticodon at the ribosome results in specific amino acids being brought to the site of protein synthesis.
23 RNA and Protein Synthesis - Continue 13. The ribosome moves along the mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide; mRNA is read in the 5' —> 3' direction.14. Translation ends when the ribosome reaches a stop codon on the mRNA.15. In prokaryotes, translation can begin before transcription is complete.
24 The Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression 1. Regulating protein synthesis at the gene level is energy-efficient because proteins are synthesized only as they are needed.2. Constitutive enzymes produce products at a fixed rate. Examples are genes for the enzymes in glycolysis.3. For these gene regulatory mechanisms, the control is aimed at mRNA synthesis
25 Repression1. Repression controls the synthesis of one or several (repressible) enzymes.2. When cells are exposed to a particular end-product, the synthesis of enzymes related to that product decreases.
26 Induction1. In the presence of certain chemicals (inducers), cells synthesize more enzymes. This process is called induction.2. An example of induction is the production of β-galactosidase by E. coli if in the presence of lactose; lactose can then be metabolized.
27 Regulation of Gene Expression All Genes are not always being expressedGenes turned on all the time - ConstitutiveOther genes can be regulated:Turned OnTurned Off
28 lac operon Lac - Lactose (dissacharide) Glucose and Galactoseoperon - series of structural genes all under the control of a Regulatory Genelac operon is normally turned offlac operon is an Inducible operon:a regulatory gene codes for a repressor protein.When the inducer is absent, a repressor binds to the operator and no mRNA is synthesized. It does not happen when inducer is present.
30 Mutation: Change in the Genetic Material 1. A mutation is a change in the nitrogenous-base sequence of DNA; that change causes a change in the product coded for by the mutated gene.2. Many mutations are neutral (silent), some are disadvantageous (or even lethal), and others are beneficial.
31 Silent MutationSubstitution of one nucleotide with another creating a different codon for the same amino acid:DNA mRNAAAT Transcription UUAMutationAAC Transcription UUGBoth mRNA’s codons are for Leucine.
32 Types of Mutations1. A base substitution occurs when one base pair in DNA is replaced with a different base pair.2. Alterations in DNA can result in missense mutations (which cause amino acid substitutions) or nonsense mutations (which create stop codons).
36 Frame Shift MutationIn a frameshift mutation, one or a few base pairs are deleted or added to DNA:Normal DNA:ATG CAT GCA TGC ATT TCC TGC TTA AAAAddition Mutation (A is added):AAT GCA TGC ATG CAT TTT CCT GCT TAAReading Frame is Shifted (to the right)Deletion Mutation (A in normal DNA is deleted)TGC ATG CAT GCA TTT CCT GCT TAAReading Frame is Shifted (to the left)
37 Mutations - ContinueSpontaneous mutations occur without the presence of a mutagen. The spontaneous mutation rate varies from genome to genome.Copying errors in the genetic material during cell divisionInduced mutations occur as a result of applying mutagens.
38 MutagensMutagens are agents in the environment that cause permanent changes in DNA:1. Chemical mutagens for example, nitrous acid, 2-aminopurine and 5-bromouracil and benzpyrene.2. Ionizing radiation causes the formation of ions and free radicals that react with DNA; base substitutions or breakage of the sugar-phosphate backbone result.3. Ultraviolet radiation is nonionizing, causing bonding between adjacent thymines (thymine dimers).
39 Repair of Mutated DNA1. Damage to DNA caused by UV radiation can be repaired by enzymes that cut out and replace the damaged portion of DNA.2. Light-repair enzymes repair thymine dimers in the presence of visible light.
40 Frequency of Mutation1. Mutation rate is the probability that a gene will mutate when a cell divides;Spontaneous mutations are at a rate of 10-6 per replicated genes.2. Mutations occur randomly along a chromosome.3. A low rate of spontaneous mutation is beneficial, providing genetic diversity needed for evolution.
41 Identifying Mutants1. Mutants can be detected by selecting or testing for an altered phenotype.2. Positive selection involves the selection of mutant cells and rejection of nonmutated cells.3. Replica plating is used for negative selection—to detect, for example, auxotrophs that have nutritional requirements not possessed by the parent (nonmutated) cell. For example, a histidine dependent bacterium.
43 Identifying Chemical Carcinogens 1. The Ames test is an inexpensive and rapid test for identifying possible chemical carcinogens.2. The test assumes that a mutant cell can revert to a normal cell in the presence of a mutagen and that many mutagens are carcinogens.3. Histidine auxotrophs (Histidine dependent Salmonella) are exposed to an enzymatically treated potential carcinogen; reversions to the nonmutant state indicates a chemical mutagen – suspected carcinogen.
45 Genetic Transfer and Recombination of DNA 1. Genetic recombination, the rearrangement of genes from separate groups of genes, usually involves DNA from different organisms; it contributes to genetic diversity. The resultant DNA is recombinant DNA or rDNA2. In crossing over, genes from two chromosomes are recombined into one chromosome containing some genes from each original chromosome.
46 Genetic Transfer and Recombination of DNA - Continue 3. Vertical gene transfer occurs during reproduction when genes are passed from an organism to its offspring.4. Horizontal gene transfer in bacteria involves a portion of the cell's DNA being transferred from donor to recipient.When some of the donor's DNA has been integrated into the recipient's DNA, the resultant cell is called a recombinant cell and the DNA is recombinant DNA or rDNA
47 Transformation in Bacteria 1. During this process, genes are transferred from one bacterium to another as "naked" DNA in solution.2. This process was first demonstrated in Streptococcus pneumoniae, and occurs naturally among a few genera of bacteria.
51 Conjugation - Continue 2. One type of genetic donor cell is an F+; recipient cells are F-. F+ cells contain plasmids called F factors; these plasmids are transferred to the F- cells during conjugation.
53 Conjugation3. When the plasmid becomes incorporated into the chromosome, the cell is called an Hfr (high-frequency recombinant).4. During conjugation, an Hfr can transfer chromosomal DNA to an F-. Usually, the Hfr chromosome breaks before it is fully transferred
55 Transduction in Bacteria 1. In this process, DNA is passed from one bacterium to another via a bacteriophage (bacterial virus) and is then incorporated into the recipient's DNA.2. In generalized transduction, any bacterial genes can be transferred.
57 Generalized Transduction in Bacteria - Continue 576
58 PlasmidsPlasmids are self-replicating, closed circular extrachromosomal molecules of DNA carrying genes that are not usually essential for survival of the cell.Plasmid are mobile.There are several types of plasmids such as, conjugative plasmids and those carrying genes for antibiotics or heavy metals resistance
60 Transposons (“Jumping Genes” or Mobile DNA) 1. Transposons are small segments of DNA that can move from one region of a chromosome to another region of the same chromosome or to a different chromosome or a plasmid.
61 Transposons - Continue 2. Transposons are located in the chromosomes of organisms, in plasmids, and in the genetic material of viruses. They may be simple (insertion sequences) to complex.3. Complex transposons can carry any type of gene, including antibiotic-resistance genes, and are thus a natural mechanism for moving genes from one chromosome to another.
62 The reddish streaks on these corn grains are caused by transposons.
63 Genes and Evolution 1. Diversity is the precondition of evolution. 2. Genetic mutation and recombination provide a diversity of organisms, and the process of natural selection allows the growth of those best adapted for a given environment.