Presentation on theme: "فسيولوجيا الميكروبات Microbial Physiology Microbial Genetic دكتور محمد عبده مسلم أستاذ بيئة وفسيولوجيا الميكروبات المشارك قسم النبات والأحياء الدقيقة كلية."— Presentation transcript:
فسيولوجيا الميكروبات Microbial Physiology Microbial Genetic دكتور محمد عبده مسلم أستاذ بيئة وفسيولوجيا الميكروبات المشارك قسم النبات والأحياء الدقيقة كلية العلوم جامعة الملك سعو جامعة الملك سعود
Structure and Function of Genetic Material 1. Genetics is the study genes, genetic information, the expression of the genetic information, replication of genetic information and passing it to subsequent generations or other organisms. 2. DNA in cells exists as a double-stranded helix; the two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between specific nitrogenous base pairs. –Base pairing principle: A-T and C-G. –Complementary bases
Structure and Function of Genetic Material 3. A gene is a segment of DNA, a sequence of nucleotides, that codes for a protein. 4. When a gene is expressed, DNA is transcribed to produce mRNA; mRNA is then translated into proteins. 5. The DNA in a cell is replicated before the cell divides, so each daughter cell receives the same genetic information.
Genotype and Phenotype 1. Genotype is the genetic composition of an organism—its entire DNA. 2. Phenotype is the expression of the genes— the proteins of the cell and the properties they confer on the organism.
DNA and Chromosomes 1. The DNA in a chromosome exists as one long double helix associated with various proteins that regulate genetic activity. 2. Bacterial DNA is circular; the chromosome of E. coli, for example, contains about 4 million base pairs and is approximately 1000 times longer than the cell. 3. Genomics is the molecular characterization of genomes.
Some Types of DNA: Chromosomal Some Types of DNA: Chromosomal (circular or linear) and Plasmid (Vector)
DNA Replication 1. During DNA replication, the two strands of the double helix separate at a point called the replication fork, and each strand is used as a template by an enzyme DNA polymerase to synthesize two new strands of DNA according to the rules of nitrogenous base pairing. 2. The result of DNA replication is two new strands of DNA, each having a base sequence complementary to one of the original strands. 3. Because each double-stranded DNA molecule contains one original and one new strand, the replication process is called semiconservative.
DNA Replication - Continue 4. DNA polymerase proofreads new molecules of DNA and removes mismatched bases before continuing DNA synthesis. Statistically, errors only occur ~1 time for every 1010 bases added. 5. Each daughter bacterium receives a chromosome identical to the parent's.
RNA and Protein Synthesis 1. During transcription, the enzyme RNA polymerase synthesizes a strand of mRNA from one strand of double-stranded DNA, which serves as a template. 2. RNA is synthesized from nucleotides containing the bases A, C, G, and U, which pair with the bases of the DNA sense strand.
RNA and Protein Synthesis - Continue 3. Promoter site: –The starting point for transcription, where RNA polymerase binds to DNA 4. Terminator site: –The region of DNA that is the endpoint of transcription; –RNA is synthesized in the 5' —> 3' direction. 5. Translation: –The process in which the information in the nucleotide base sequence of mRNA is used to assemble a protein with a specific amino acid sequence. 6. The mRNA associates with ribosomes, which consist of rRNA and protein.
RNA and Protein Synthesis - Continue 6. Three-base segments of mRNA that specify amino acids are called codons. 7. The genetic code refers to the relationship among the nucleotide base sequence of DNA, the corresponding codons of mRNA, and the amino acids for which the codons code.
RNA and Protein Synthesis - Continue 8. The genetic code is degenerate; that is, most amino acids are coded for by more than one codon. 9. Of the 64 codons, 61 are sense codons (which code for amino acids), and 3 are nonsense codons (stop codons) which do not code for amino acids and are stop signals for translation. 10. The start codon, AUG, normally codes for methionine (formylmethionine at the beginning or a protein).
RNA and Protein Synthesis - Continue 11. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. Another portion of the tRNA has a base triplet called an anticodon. 12. The base pairing of codon and anticodon at the ribosome results in specific amino acids being brought to the site of protein synthesis.
RNA and Protein Synthesis - Continue 13. The ribosome moves along the mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide; mRNA is read in the 5' —> 3' direction. 14. Translation ends when the ribosome reaches a stop codon on the mRNA. 15. In prokaryotes, translation can begin before transcription is complete.
The Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression 1. Regulating protein synthesis at the gene level is energy-efficient because proteins are synthesized only as they are needed. 2. Constitutive enzymes produce products at a fixed rate. Examples are genes for the enzymes in glycolysis. 3. For these gene regulatory mechanisms, the control is aimed at mRNA synthesis
Repression 1. Repression controls the synthesis of one or several (repressible) enzymes. 2. When cells are exposed to a particular end- product, the synthesis of enzymes related to that product decreases.
Induction 1. In the presence of certain chemicals (inducers), cells synthesize more enzymes. This process is called induction. 2. An example of induction is the production of β-galactosidase by E. coli if in the presence of lactose; lactose can then be metabolized.
Regulation of Gene Expression All Genes are not always being expressed Genes turned on all the time - Constitutive Other genes can be regulated: –Turned On –Turned Off
lac operon Lac - Lactose (dissacharide) –Glucose and Galactose operon - series of structural genes all under the control of a Regulatory Gene lac operon is normally turned off lac operon is an Inducible operon: –a regulatory gene codes for a repressor protein. –When the inducer is absent, a repressor binds to the operator and no mRNA is synthesized. It does not happen when inducer is present.
Mutation: Change in the Genetic Material 1. A mutation is a change in the nitrogenous- base sequence of DNA; that change causes a change in the product coded for by the mutated gene. 2. Many mutations are neutral (silent), some are disadvantageous (or even lethal), and others are beneficial.
Silent Mutation Substitution of one nucleotide with another creating a different codon for the same amino acid: DNA mRNA AAT Transcription UUA Mutation AAC Transcription UUG Both mRNA’s codons are for Leucine.
Types of Mutations 1. A base substitution occurs when one base pair in DNA is replaced with a different base pair. 2. Alterations in DNA can result in missense mutations (which cause amino acid substitutions) or nonsense mutations (which create stop codons).
Frame Shift Mutation In a frameshift mutation, one or a few base pairs are deleted or added to DNA: Normal DNA: –ATG CAT GCA TGC ATT TCC TGC TTA AAA Addition Mutation (A is added): –AAT GCA TGC ATG CAT TTT CCT GCT TAA Reading Frame is Shifted (to the right) Deletion Mutation (A in normal DNA is deleted) –TGC ATG CAT GCA TTT CCT GCT TAA Reading Frame is Shifted (to the left)
Mutations - Continue Spontaneous mutations occur without the presence of a mutagen. The spontaneous mutation rate varies from genome to genome. –Copying errors in the genetic material during cell division Induced mutations occur as a result of applying mutagens.
Mutagens Mutagens are agents in the environment that cause permanent changes in DNA: –1. Chemical mutagens for example, nitrous acid, 2- aminopurine and 5-bromouracil and benzpyrene. –2. Ionizing radiation causes the formation of ions and free radicals that react with DNA; base substitutions or breakage of the sugar-phosphate backbone result. –3. Ultraviolet radiation is nonionizing, causing bonding between adjacent thymines (thymine dimers).
Repair of Mutated DNA 1. Damage to DNA caused by UV radiation can be repaired by enzymes that cut out and replace the damaged portion of DNA. 2. Light-repair enzymes repair thymine dimers in the presence of visible light.
Frequency of Mutation 1. Mutation rate is the probability that a gene will mutate when a cell divides; Spontaneous mutations are at a rate of 10 -6 per replicated genes. 2. Mutations occur randomly along a chromosome. 3. A low rate of spontaneous mutation is beneficial, providing genetic diversity needed for evolution.
Identifying Mutants 1. Mutants can be detected by selecting or testing for an altered phenotype. 2. Positive selection involves the selection of mutant cells and rejection of nonmutated cells. 3. Replica plating is used for negative selection—to detect, for example, auxotrophs that have nutritional requirements not possessed by the parent (nonmutated) cell. For example, a histidine dependent bacterium.
Identifying Chemical Carcinogens 1. The Ames test is an inexpensive and rapid test for identifying possible chemical carcinogens. 2. The test assumes that a mutant cell can revert to a normal cell in the presence of a mutagen and that many mutagens are carcinogens. 3. Histidine auxotrophs (Histidine dependent Salmonella) are exposed to an enzymatically treated potential carcinogen; reversions to the nonmutant state indicates a chemical mutagen – suspected carcinogen.
Genetic Transfer and Recombination of DNA 1. Genetic recombination, the rearrangement of genes from separate groups of genes, usually involves DNA from different organisms; it contributes to genetic diversity. The resultant DNA is recombinant DNA or rDNA 2. In crossing over, genes from two chromosomes are recombined into one chromosome containing some genes from each original chromosome.
Genetic Transfer and Recombination of DNA - Continue 3. Vertical gene transfer occurs during reproduction when genes are passed from an organism to its offspring. 4. Horizontal gene transfer in bacteria involves a portion of the cell's DNA being transferred from donor to recipient. –When some of the donor's DNA has been integrated into the recipient's DNA, the resultant cell is called a recombinant cell and the DNA is recombinant DNA or rDNA
Transformation in Bacteria 1. During this process, genes are transferred from one bacterium to another as "naked" DNA in solution. 2. This process was first demonstrated in Streptococcus pneumoniae, and occurs naturally among a few genera of bacteria.
Conjugation - Continue 2. One type of genetic donor cell is an F + ; recipient cells are F -. F + cells contain plasmids called F factors; these plasmids are transferred to the F - cells during conjugation.
Conjugation 3. When the plasmid becomes incorporated into the chromosome, the cell is called an Hfr (high-frequency recombinant). 4. During conjugation, an Hfr can transfer chromosomal DNA to an F -. Usually, the Hfr chromosome breaks before it is fully transferred
Transduction in Bacteria 1. In this process, DNA is passed from one bacterium to another via a bacteriophage (bacterial virus) and is then incorporated into the recipient's DNA. 2. In generalized transduction, any bacterial genes can be transferred.
Generalized Transduction in Bacteria - Continue 5 7 6
Plasmids Plasmids are self-replicating, closed circular extrachromosomal molecules of DNA carrying genes that are not usually essential for survival of the cell. Plasmid are mobile. There are several types of plasmids such as, conjugative plasmids and those carrying genes for antibiotics or heavy metals resistance
Transposons Transposons (“Jumping Genes” or Mobile DNA) 1. Transposons are small segments of DNA that can move from one region of a chromosome to another region of the same chromosome or to a different chromosome or a plasmid.
Transposons - Continue 2. Transposons are located in the chromosomes of organisms, in plasmids, and in the genetic material of viruses. They may be simple (insertion sequences) to complex. 3. Complex transposons can carry any type of gene, including antibiotic-resistance genes, and are thus a natural mechanism for moving genes from one chromosome to another.
The reddish streaks on these corn grains are caused by transposons.
Genes and Evolution 1. Diversity is the precondition of evolution. 2. Genetic mutation and recombination provide a diversity of organisms, and the process of natural selection allows the growth of those best adapted for a given environment.