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Presenter: Jannel Albury Cherrington MPH Student – Sahmyook University June 24, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Presenter: Jannel Albury Cherrington MPH Student – Sahmyook University June 24, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presenter: Jannel Albury Cherrington MPH Student – Sahmyook University June 24, 2011

2 Is it okay to eat fish? Didn’t Jesus eat fish? Luke 24:42-43 King James Version (KJV) 42 And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb. 43 And he took it, and did eat before them.

3 Chemicals found in fish today are hazardous to our health. Mercury Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB’s) Dioxin DDT Chlordane

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5 Mercury (major contaminant)  The Environmental Protection Agency of the United States (EPA) says “Consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish is the primary route of human exposure to methylmercury.” 

6 Mercury How does mercury enter fish?  Main source - air emissions from power generation and industrial and waste disposal activities.  Mercury settles in the oceans and waterways  Bacteria in water transforms mercury to Methylmercury  Methylmercury is easily absorbed in fish and humans, is not easy to eliminate  e/pollutants/methylmercury/factsheet.cfm e/pollutants/methylmercury/factsheet.cfm

7 Mercury How does mercury enter fish? Mercury then works its way up the food chain as large fish consume contaminated smaller fish. Predatory fish such as large tuna, swordfish, shark and mackerel can have mercury concentrations in their bodies that are 10,000 times higher than those of their surrounding habitat nts/methylmercury/factsheet.cfm nts/methylmercury/factsheet.cfm

8 How Mercury Enters the Environment

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10 Less Mercury More Mercury

11 Mercury What are the adverse effects on human health ? Brain damage is most common, especially in the developing fetus developing fetus… likely to be sufficient to result in an increase in the number of children who have to struggle to keep up in school and who might require remedial classes or special education..

12 Minamata Disease – Japan ( ) Minamata Disease 8/mercury-fish-and-fabric/ Fish was the main source of protein. Many residents died. Children were born With cerebral palsy and mental retardation.

13 Mercury Fish contamination is global. Mercury is found in fish Fish contamination is global far from the source of release (found in fish in the arctic). *Hair samples were collected from 45 government delegates from 40 countries during a UN (United Nations) meeting. All hair samples were positive for mercury. * Amount of mercury in hair provides an estimate of methylmercury in the body. hair-test

14 Mercury FDA (Food and Drug Administration) of the U.S. Regulation of commercial fishing. Advisory on Mercury in Seafood! specificinformation/seafood/foodbornepathogenscontaminants/methylmercury/ucm htm

15 FDA (Food and Drug Administration) of the United States MACKEREL KING ANCHOVIES MACKEREL ATLANTIC (N.Atlantic) SALMON (CANNED) *0.008 SALMON (FRESH/FROZEN) * TILAPIA *0.013 TUNA (CANNED, LIGHT) GROUPER (ALL SPECIES) SNAPPER TUNA (FRESH/FROZEN, ALBACORE) specificinformation/seafood/foodbornepathogenscontaminants/methylmercury/ucm htm

16 Do not eat Shark, Swordfish, King Mackerel, or Tilefish because they contain high levels of mercury. Eat up to 12 ounces (2 average meals) a week of a variety of fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury.  Five of the most commonly eaten fish that are low in mercury are shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, and catfish.  Another commonly eaten fish, albacore ("white") tuna has more mercury than canned light tuna. So, when choosing your two meals of fish and shellfish, you may eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) of albacore tuna per week. Check local advisories about the safety of fish caught by family and friends in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. If no advice is available, eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) per week of fish you catch from local waters, but don't consume any other fish during that week.

17 Mercury EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) regulation of recreational fishing. National Listing of Fish Advisories shellfish/fishadvisories/tech2008.cfm

18 Mercury Mercury contamination is national – even in rural (countryside) lakes and rivers. 9&sq=fish+safety&st =nyt 9&sq=fish+safety&st =nyt

19 Mercury How safe is the fish in Korea? Conclusion: The blood mercury level in a representative sample of the Korean adult population was found to be associated with fish consumption in both men and women. However, a high consumption of fish increased the blood mercury level by only 18%. 25.aspx

20 . Mercury cannot be cooked out or cut out of fish!

21 Mercury level and Yellow Dust Arirang (April 2011) Brace Yourself for the Yellow Dust Storm “The worse thing about yellow dust is the pollutants like mercury”.

22 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB’s) Used in hundreds of industrial and commercial applications. Accumulates in plants and food crops. Taken up into the bodies of fish. People who ingest fish may be exposed to PCBs. Cause a variety of adverse health effects

23 Products that may contain PCB Transformers and capacitors Other electrical equipment including voltage regulators, switches, reclosers, bushings, and electromagnets Oil used in motors and hydraulic systems Old electrical devices or appliances containing PCB capacitors Fluorescent light ballasts Cable insulation Thermal insulation material including fiberglass, felt, foam, and cork Adhesives and tapes Oil-based paint Caulking Plastics Carbonless copy paper Floor finish

24 Dioxin Formed from combustion of commercial or municipal waste incineration and from burning fuels (like wood, coal or oil). Formed from forest fires and burning trash. Increased risk for cancer if exposed to high levels.

25 Dioxin Released into water, settle into sediments, ingested by fish. Accumulates in fatty fish (ex. Salmon). Bs/ucm htm Bs/ucm htm

26 Dioxin Follow health advisory regarding consumption of fish. Remove fat from fish.

27 DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is a pesticide once widely used to control insects in agriculture and insects that carry diseases such as malaria. Entered the environment when used as a pesticide; Still enters the environment due to current use in other countries.

28 DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) DDT, and especially DDE, build up in plants and in fatty tissues of fish, birds, and other animals but levels are very low. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) determined that DDT may reasonable be anticipated to be a human carcinogen.

29 DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) Cooking reduces the amount of DDT in fish. Follow health advisories about consumption of fish.

30 Chlordane A persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) pollutant targeted by EPA. Used in the United States from 1948 to 1978 as a pesticide. Likely causes cancer and may cause liver cancer Can cause behavioral disorders in children if they were exposed before birth or while nursing Harms the endocrine system, nervous system, digestive system, and liver

31 Are Fish Farms Safe? Not entirely. They may be: s/#ixzz1Q2DzJBsQ Raised in close quarters so must be treated with pesticides and fed antibiotics to minimize lice and disease. Farmed salmon are fed a fish meal. Pink color is artificial.

32 Is it Safe to Use Fish Oils? Not entirely, they may contain PCBs.

33 Can Radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan show up in fish? Yes, the Japanese government announced high levels of radioactive iodine and cesium were found in fish caught halfway between the reactor site and Tokyo.

34 If we shouldn’t eat fish, how can we obtain omega -3 fatty Acids? The AMA (American Medical Association) says fish is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, which benefit heart health. However, some types of fish may contain high levels of mercury, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), dioxins and other environmental contaminants.

35 Dr. Frank Sacks from the Dr. Frank Sacks Harvard School of Public says our bodies cannot make omega-3 fats, so we must get them through food. omega-3 fatty acids are also associated with many health benefits, including protection against heart disease and possibly stroke. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an omega-3 fatty acid, found in some vegetable oils, such as soybean, rapeseed (canola), and flaxseed, and in walnuts.

36 Foods Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids Soybean oil Flaxseed Fruits & Vegetables

37 The Bible tells in that Jesus ate meat, so why shouldn’t we eat meat? Luke 24:42-43 (KJV, King James Version) 42 And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb. 43 And he took it, and did eat before them. There were no industrial wastes and chemicals to pollute the water.

38 Counsels on Diet and Foods – Ellen G. White “In many places fish becomes so contaminated by the filth on which they feed as to be a cause of disease this is especially the case where the fish come in contact with the sewage of large cities. The fish that are fed on the contents of the drains may pass into distant waters, and may be caught where the water is pure and fresh. Thus when used as a food they bring disease and death on those who do not suspect the danger.” Pg. 394

39 In conclusion I hope that the information that has been presented encourages you to abstain from eating fish or to make wise choices in choosing the amount and type of fish consumed. I pray that we will all do our part in caring for our bodies by eating foods that are healthy, foods that were provided by God in the Garden of Eden – fruits, herbs, nuts, and grains. May God bless you!

40 Dr. Jane Hightower

41 References: 1.http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/aqlife/pollutanhttp://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/aqlife/pollutan ts/methylmercury/factsheet.cfm http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/aqlife/pollutants/methylmercury/factsheet.cfmhttp://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/aqlife/pollutants/methylmercury/factsheet.cfm http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/fishshellfish/fishadvisories/tech2008.cfm http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9807E0DD1E39F933A1575BC0A96F9C8B63&scp=9&sq=fish+safety&st =nyt 9.http://journals.lww.com/epidem/Fulltext/2011/01001/Blood_Total_Mercury_and_Fish_Consumption_in_the.725.aspx http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodContaminantsAdulteration/ChemicalContaminants/DioxinsPCBs/ucm htm


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