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Climate Change and Green Cities in South Korea Sanghun Lee, Ph. D. Assistant Professor, Faculty of Liberal Arts Hanshin University Nautilus-ARI Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Climate Change and Green Cities in South Korea Sanghun Lee, Ph. D. Assistant Professor, Faculty of Liberal Arts Hanshin University Nautilus-ARI Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate Change and Green Cities in South Korea Sanghun Lee, Ph. D. Assistant Professor, Faculty of Liberal Arts Hanshin University Nautilus-ARI Research Workshop 20 October 2010 1

2 Contents 03. Green Cities in South Korea 04. Conclusion 01. Background of urban insecurity in South Korea 02. Green Growth – A new growth strategy 2

3 01 Background of urban insecurity in South Korea 3

4 Environmental Fix (Noel Castree) - In capitalist society, capital and state try to overcome the politico-ecological limits of growth  environmental fixes - Environmental fixes  nature is produced in various manner according to the dominant mode of production - In general, formal  real  fictitious subsumption of nature by capital and state Type s Environmental fix 1 (capital) Environmental fix 2 (capital) Environmental fix 3 (capital) Environmental fix 4 (state) Logic conserving resources and ecosystems by allowing them to be privatized and martketised (free market environmentalism or fictitious subsumption) extending capital’s formal and/or real subsumption of nature without ‘eco- friendly’ motivation (accumulation by dispossession) actively degrading protected or proscribed nonhuman phenomena yields profits (little or no regard for public or governmental perspective to nature) 1)Off-loading responsibilities to the private sector and/or civil society groups 2)Adopting a minimal state stance in the first place exam ples Wetland mitigation becomes commercial opportunity to firms multinational firms exploited Peruvian mining industry ‘Degrading nature for profit’ strategy by Canadian Methanex Co. (against California regulation on carcinogen products) 1) Water privatization in Britain 2) Contracting out of water testing in Ontario 1) Entrophy and Limits of Growth 01. Background of urban insecurity of South Korea 4

5 1) Entrophy and Limits of Growth Material and Energy Use under the process of capitalist society - Capitalism is based on ‘expanded reproduction of value’ and intensive use of fossil fuels like coal & oil at the same time - ‘Fossil fuel capitalism’ can not grow forever (peak oil)  politico-ecological limits to growth - Consequences of rapid growth of capitalism is increase of social inequality, environmental degradation, and fossil fuel exhaustion  roots of urban insecurity M C’ MP LP M+Δ C Accumulation of capital Increase of entrophy 01. South Korea as construction state01. Background of urban insecurity of South Korea 5

6 2) Neo-developmentalism of the South Korea as ‘Construction State’ Developmentalism and construction state - Developmentalism: ideology which seeks economic, industrial, technological development through exploitation of natural environment and resources - Construction state: construction-project-oriented developmental state - Neo-developmentalism: developmentalism + neo-liberalism (environmental fix)  hegemonic domination of construction state through developmentalism -Huge scale construction project at a certain place is the result of state’s spatial selectivity(Bob Jessop & Neil Brenner).  territorial politics is proceeded by place-dependent agencies  acceptable milieu for construction projects (developmentalist hegemony within the territory) 01. Background of urban insecurity of South Korea 6

7 Spatial selectivity, territorial politics, and construction coalitions -The material basis of politico-economic regime in South Korea, as construction state, is ‘construction coalitions’(close network of politicians, construction business and media, bureaucrats, and related experts)at local levels.  influential to decision making process of policies (main stakeholders) - After IMF crisis(1998), when neoliberal discourse began to dominate, South Korea as construction state, has supported environmental fix strategies of capital  large scale wetland reclamation project, low & medium level radioactive waste depository site construction project, 4 major rivers restoration project etc. PeriodRegimeCharacterisitcs 1961-1986Constructionist developmentalismInfrastructure building 1987-1997Democratization movementRetreat of developmentalism 1998-presentNeo-developmentalismReturn of developmentalism with guise of free-market (IMF crisis) 01. Background of urban insecurity of South Korea 2) Neo-developmentalism of the South Korea as ‘Construction State’ 7

8 Polarization and apartment dominant cities 3) Urbanization in ‘Construction State’ Urbanisation Trend Rapid urbanisation followed by industrialisation: 37%(’60)  90%(’00) Source: Young A Lee (2009) 01. Background of urban insecurity of South Korea 8

9 Distribution of Population –Spatial polarisation - Population of the Capital region : 21%(’60)  48%(’05) –Dominance of large cities - No. of million cities: 2(’60)  8(’03) - Population share: 39%(’60)  52% (‘03) Industrial Location Policy 1960s: Light industries in large cities 1970s: Heavy/chemical industries in selective growth poles 1980s: Small/medium complexes in less industrialized regions 1990s: Create new industrial spaces in west coast region 2000s: Industrial clusters with RIS and R&D activities National Complex Regional Complex Free Economic Zone Free Trade Zone FDI Zone Population >1Milliom 500-1,000 thousand 300-500 thousand 100-300 thousand <100 thousand Industrial Complex Polarization and apartment dominant cities Source: Young A Lee (2009) 3) Urbanization in ‘Construction State’ 01. Background of urban insecurity of South Korea 9

10 Polarization and apartment dominant cities -The dwelling condition of the poor is more and more deteriorated while apart- ment flat becomes dominant landscape of cities. National housing construction by dwelling type in South Korea - Roads and roofs of building  impervious cover  hydrological circulation interruption  vulnerability increase ( serious damage from heavy rainfall at Seoul in 2010) - Around 105 billion USD was spent for construction of roads (2000-2005) * National revenue is around 250 billion USD in FY 2009 3) Urbanization in ‘Construction State’ 01. Background of urban insecurity of South Korea 10

11 Ten thousand persons Trend of population of elderly people aged over 65 19902000200620102020203020402050 65+ (%)5.17.29.511.015.624.332.538.2 Social dimension of urbanization in South Korea Source: Young A Lee (2009) 3) Urbanization in ‘Construction State’ 01. Background of urban insecurity of South Korea 11

12 Unemployment rate of young people (aged 15~29) (unit: %) 1990199519981999200020052006 Unemployment (%)2.42.17.06.34.43.73.5 Unemployment of secondary school graduates (%) 3.42.58.37.65.14.64.1 Unemployment of university graduates (%) 4.42.85.95.44.23.4 Source: statistics Korea, 2006, Social index of Korea Trend of unemployment 2008 1 st quarter 2 nd quarter 3 rd Quarter 4 th quarter Jan. 2009 Unemployment3.23.43.1 3.6 Unemployment of Young people 7.27.37.46.97.08.2 Social dimension of urbanization in South Korea Source: Young A Lee (2009) 01. Background of urban insecurity of South Korea 12

13 02 Green Growth- A new growth strategy 13

14 14 More than 94% of GHG comes from energy sector(83.9%) and industrial process(10.9%) as of 2006 1) Energy consumption in South Korea 02. Green Growth – A New Growth Strategy

15 Electricity Consumption Per Capita(kWh) In 2006, 3 times increase comparing with year of 1991 (South Korea) Supply-oriented energy policy, No demand management, low price system Source : JEPIC YearSouth KoreaJapanFranceGermanyEnglandItaly 19912,4125,4766,0735,9135,0453,964 19922,6395,5106,2035,7995,0244,016 19932,8995,5356,1795,6915,0724,011 19943,2975,9196,2145,7124,9974,135 19953,6406,0286,3275,7895,1574,249 19964,4536,1546,5825,8575,3454,286 19974,8476,2736,5115,8845,3804,410 19984,6396,3176,6835,9435,5114,529 19995,0596,4486,7865,9505,5814,661 20005,5756,6026,9746,0835,6944,836 20015,9656,4747,0736,1025,7364,927 20026,3626,6147,049...5,8075,062 20036,6136,5457,4635,9435,9175,204 20046,7336,787...6,3965,8575,234 20057,4036,9227,4066,4965,8975,283 20067,7026,9707,2866,5515,7985,393 Source: Yujin Lee, 2010, “Low carbon green community” 02. Green Growth – A New Growth Strategy 1) Energy consumption in South Korea 15

16 - Addressed by president, as a national goal for next 60 years(2008.8.15) - To utilize environment for further growth and to respond to climate change through green technological breakthrough and Green New Deal - Green New Deal includes 4 major rivers restoration(building 16 dams & dredging 4 rivers) & expansion of nuclear power plants (14 more plants by 2030) Green Growth Vision in Comprehensive National Energy Plan(2008-2030) VisionIndex20062030 Transition to energy independent society Independent development rate3.2%40% Portion of renewable energy2.2%11% Transition to low energy consuming society Energy Intensity0.3470.185 Transition to oil free societyOil dependency43.633% Energy welfarePortion of energy poverty7.8%0% New growth engine and job creation Level of energy technology 60% of advanced countries Leading level 02. Green Growth – A New Growth Strategy 2) Introduction of Low carbon and green growth strategy 16

17 02. Green Growth – A New Growth Strategy Website of Presidential Committee on Green Growth (www.greengrowth.go.kr) 2) Introduction of Low carbon and green growth strategy 17

18 PCGG, 2009, “Mid-term plan for national GHG emission reduction target(2020)” ( 단위 : 백만톤 CO2)  At cabinet meeting on 17 th November 2009, the third option(4% reduction basis of 2005) was adopted 02. Green Growth – A New Growth Strategy Scenario of GHG emission reduction (2009.8) 2) Introduction of Low carbon and green growth strategy 18

19 - Korea Grand Canal Construction Plan (following RMD canal of Germany) - Facing hard dissent from people, the plan was cancelled by the President - Instead, 4 Major river restoration project was presented as crucial project of Green Growth (270 billion USD) 3) 4 Major Rivers Restoration Project as crucial tool of Green Growth 02. Green Growth – A New Growth Strategy 19

20 Pictures of 4 Major Rivers 02. Green Growth – A New Growth Strategy 3) 4 Major Rivers Restoration Project as crucial tool of Green Growth 20

21 The purposes and tasks of 4 Major Rivers Restoration Project - To enhance the capacity of adapting to climate change - To defend rivers from flood - To provide sufficient and clean water to riparian areas - by constructing 16 dams across the rivers - by dredging sediments of rivers 02. Green Growth – A New Growth Strategy 3) 4 Major Rivers Restoration Project as crucial one of Green Growth 21

22 (1) Is it a project that achieve flood control? l Mismatch of frequently flood damaged areas and planned areas in the project (blue lines) Source: Korea Research Institute for Human Settlement, “Sustainable land management strategy climate change (II)”, 2009 l Contradictory purposes in the project - Responding water shortage and preventing flood by lowering water level - Lowering water level while promoting various leisure activities in summer time 02. Green Growth – A New Growth Strategy 3) 4 Major Rivers Restoration Project as crucial tool of Green Growth 22

23 (1) Is it a project that achieve flood control? l Increased risk of inundation owing to the project (Youngsan River) Source: Jung- Wk Kim, 2010, “Crisis of Water” Planned flood level Height of houses Normal operation level Present ground level 02. Green Growth – A New Growth Strategy 3) 4 Major Rivers Restoration Project as crucial tool of Green Growth 23

24 (2) Is it appropriate for water quality management? l Impact of large-scale dredging of river bottoms to water quality  floating matters and turbid water have been spread to neighboring areas Source: Parkjinseop(2009), “Is there no problem in 4 major rivers project if it is not grand canal project?” 02. Green Growth – A New Growth Strategy 3) 4 Major Rivers Restoration Project as crucial tool of Green Growth 24

25 03 Green Cities in South Korea 25

26 1) Low Carbon Green City Projects by Central Government NamePurposeMain ContentsAuthorities Livable City - Development of Korean model for low carbon green city - Win-win of environment and economy - Establishment of categories like energy, commuting, oasis, recycle, industry, corridor, humanisms Presidential Commission of Green Growth Model city responding climate change - Encouragement of awareness in local governments for responding climate change - Goal of GHG reduction - Main themes - Cooperation with central government Ministry of Environment Green City - Enhancement of environmental management capacity - Subsidy to green cities - Increased support to environment related budget Ministry of Environment Eco-City -Development of region with restriction in land use - Preserving ecological condition of the region - Designation of under- developed area with ecologically sensitive and enthusiastic residents Ministry of Environment Source: Wang(2010) 03. Green Cities in South Korea 26

27 NamePurposeMain ContentsAuthorities Low carbon green villages - Meeting renewable energy use target - Green New Deal - Tailored supply of renewable energies - Financial support of model villages Ministry of Interior Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology Ministry of Knowledge and Economy Ministry of Land, Transportation and Maritime Ministry of Agriculture, and Food Ministry of Environment Innovation City - Green infrastructure - Environment friendly buildings - Adoption of renewable energy - Growth poles of green growth Ministry of Land, Transportation and Maritime Source: Wang(2010) 03. Green Cities in South Korea 1) Low Carbon Green City Projects by Central Government 27

28 2) Vision of Constructing Low Carbon Green City Source: Wang(2010) Climate change Cities Simultaneous exposure to various climate disasters Large scale disasters Unprecedented danger like hot temperature Climate change Integrated urban planning Crisis management Enhancement of adaptive capacity of cities Complementary adaptation tools Limits in preventing disasters Limits in structured measures Mitigation of heat island Eco-friendly prevention of disasters 03. Green Cities in South Korea 28

29 03. Green Cities in South Korea 3) Cases of Green City 1 – “Environment Capital Changwon City” - Noobiza Program  “Go wherever in Changwon by bicycle” (free public bicycle) - Alternative transportation movement 29

30 03. Green Cities in South Korea 3) Cases of Green City 2 – “Green Capital Cheongjoo City” - “Forest in apartment complex” - Increasing CNG buses - Recycling of waste (campaign) 30

31 03. Green Cities in South Korea 3) Cases of Green City 3 – SG FEZ(Saemangeum Free Economy Zone) - Saemangeum Wetland Reclamation Project  catch 22 situation of the province - FEZ, Renewable Energy(Wind power) Cluster  Successful? 31

32 Meeting of earth worm grower, inspection of energy consumption, Candle night festival, reduction of energy and food waste 20% in 180 household 03. Green Cities in South Korea 3) Cases of Green City 4 – “Green Apartment movement” 32

33 - Transforming used cooking oil into biodiesel - Climate change education in Hansan Middle school, “Making a resource circulation school through recycling of used cooking oil” 03. Green Cities in South Korea 3) Cases of Green City 5 – “Collection of used cooking oil” in Kangdong Gu 33

34 04 Conclusion 34

35 Green Growth or Green Wash? - Green Growth Strategy of South Korea could be interpreted as an environmental fix strategy by construction state - The strategy is far from satisfactory approach in terms of alleviating urban insecurity facing climate change  Green Wash! - Because the main content of the strategy is based on construction model of development which aggravates the impact of climate change on cities - However, there are some examples which have affirmative effect on adapting the impact from climate change - We need more initiatives from urban grassroots towards green cities 04. Conclusion 35

36 Thank you, for your attention! 36


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