Presentation on theme: "A dynamic system involved in the chemical cycling of many of the earth’s vital nutrients; thin and turbulent layer of rising and falling air currents and."— Presentation transcript:
A dynamic system involved in the chemical cycling of many of the earth’s vital nutrients; thin and turbulent layer of rising and falling air currents and winds and largely responsible for our short- term weather and long- term climate The second layer of the atmosphere; you can find the ozone layer here Located in the stratosphere; protects earth’s biosphere from ultraviolet radiation; Harmful substances emitted directly into the air; examples include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide, most hydrocarbons, and most suspended particles Pollutants react with one another or with other chemicals to form these; examples include PANs, nitrates, sulfates, ozone, nitric acid, and acid rain A colorless, odorless, and highly toxic gas that forms during the incomplete combustion of carbon containing materials (burning of forests, grasslands, car exhaust); reacts with hemoglobin and reduces ability of blood to transport oxygen A colorless, odorless gas; increase of this gas in the atmosphere results from burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests; plants use this gas for photosynthesis A colorless gas which comes from automobile emissions and coal-burning power plants; lightning and certain bacteria in soil and water also produce this gas as part of a biogeochemical cycle; plays a role in the formation of photochemical smog A reddish-brown gas which reacts with water vapor to form a type of acid rain which damages plants, soils, and aquatic life air pollution from automobile exhaust that is formed by sunlight causing chemical reactions with nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons; it forms a brownish haze a natural radioactive gas produced by the decay of rock material; this has been a major concern because it may seep into buildings and cause cancer to occupants a weather phenomenon where a warm layer of air is on top of a cooler layer of air; traps pollutants in the lower atmosphere these chemicals vaporize into the air; examples include gasoline, paint solvents, many cleaning agents, and are a major factor in the formation of photochemical smog when the majority of a building’s occupants experience certain symptoms that vary with the amount of time spent in the building maximum permissible concentration of a pollutant in the air around us. Contrast with emission standards (maximum amount of pollutant permitted to be released from a given source).
A colorless gas with irritating odor; comes from natural sources and from the burning of coal or the refining of oil; can cause respiratory problems This is formed when a particular gas emitted from the burning of coal combines with water vapor (known as acid rain); damages plants and aquatic life; damages stone statues (especially those made of marble) Consists of a variety of solid particles and liquid droplets small enough to remain suspended in the air; most harmful form is has a diameter smaller than 10 micrometers; causes respiratory problems A colorless and highly reactive gas and is a major component of photochemical smog; causes respiratory problems; molecule of 3 oxygen atoms Methane, benzene, gasoline, propane are all examples of this type of Volatile Organic Compound Consisting mostly of sulfur dioxide, aerosols containing suspended droplets of sulfuric acid and suspended solid particles another name for photochemical smog; when nitrogen oxide is converted to nitrogen dioxide Industrial smog in which the suspended particles of salts such as ammonium sulfate and soot give a distinguishing color to the smog; typically a result of burning coal Occurs when volatile air pollutants are transported by evaporation and winds from tropical and temperate areas through the atmosphere to the earth’s polar areas where they are deposited; happens mostly during the winter; arctic apex predators have high levels of toxic pollutants in their bodies Consists of rain, snow, or fog with a pH less than 5.6; has been occurring since the Industrial Revolution Also known as limestone that can react with and neutralize some inputs of acids; can be naturally found in soils and water Another name for the ability to neutralize acid rain This poses a much greater threat to human health than does outdoor air pollution; examples include formaldehyde, radon-222, tobacco smoke, asbestos, carbon monoxide This indoor air pollutant can cause lung cancer; it was used in the United States to insulate pipes and for vinyl floors and as a fire-retardant; a naturally occurring silicate mineral; it is banned in most countries A colorless, extremely irritating chemical; causes respiratory problems; is a carcinogen; found in building materials such as plywood, particle board, and high-gloss wood used for cabinets; found in furniture upholstery, and carpeting
Years of smoking or breathing polluted air can lead to this type of lung disease; irreversible damage to air sacs and alveoli The EPA has established national emission standards for more than 188 of these types of pollutants that may cause serious health and ecological effects; most of these chemicals are chlorinated hydrocarbons, VOCs and compounds of toxic metals Established ambient standards for four primary pollutants: sulfur dioxide, particulates, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides; sets emission standards for cars Requires refineries, power plants, hard rock mines, chemical manufacturers, and factories to report their releases and waste management methods for 667 toxic chemicals Also known as emissions trading; enables the 110 most polluting power plants in 21 states to buy and sell sulfur dioxide pollution rights This device is used in electric power plants and industrial power plants that burn coal; particles released from burning are given a negative charge and they are attracted to a positively charged wall and then fall off the wall into a collector; can remove up to 99% of the particulate matter; not effective for ultrafine particles This device is used in electric power plants and industrial power plants that burn coal; fine mists of water vapor trap particulates; can remove 98% of the sulfur dioxide emissions; not effective for removing hazardous materials and ultrafine particles Helps reduce pollutant emissions by blowing a stream of hot air into a boiler to burn a mixture of powdered coal and crushed limestone; burns coal more efficiently