Presentation on theme: "Medical Genetics & Genomics Guri Tzivion, PhD Extension 506 BCHM 560: January 2015 Windsor University School of Medicine."— Presentation transcript:
Medical Genetics & Genomics Guri Tzivion, PhD email@example.com Extension 506 BCHM 560: January 2015 Windsor University School of Medicine
Cancer types and classifications Carcinomas: epithelial origin involving the skin, mucous membranes, epithelial cells in glands etc. Sarcomas: cancer of connective tissue. Lymphomas: T or B cell, Hodgkin’s, Burkitt’s lymhomas. Can involve also solid tumors Leukemias: disseminated tumors - may be lymphoid or myeloid.
Loss of Normal Growth Control Cancer cell division Fourth or later mutation Third mutation Second mutation First mutation Uncontrolled growth Cell Suicide or Apoptosis Cell damage— no repair Normal cell division
Oncogenesis proto-oncogenes tumor suppressor genes oncogenes carcinogen results in mutation dysfunctional tumor suppressor genes inherited defect increased GF increased GF receptors exaggerated response to GF loss of ability to repair damaged cells or induce apoptosis
5 p53 is a common tumor suppressor mutated or deleted in nearly 50% of all human cancers
Common traits of cancer cells Modified intercellular and intracellular signaling processes Increased proliferation rates Increased mobility of cells Increased invasive capabilities and ability to metastasize Ability to evade the immune system
Carcinoma in Situ Mild dysplasia Carcinoma in situ (severe dysplasia) Cancer (invasive) NormalHyperplasia
Cancer progression involves accumulation of mutations Malignant cells invade neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and metastasize to different sites More mutations, more genetic instability, metastatic disease Proto- oncogenes mutate to oncogenes Mutations inactivate DNA repair genes Cells proliferate Mutation inactivates suppressor gene Benign tumor cells grow only locally and cannot spread by invasion or metastasis Time
Tumor Grading General Relationship Between Tumor Grade and Prognosis Patient Survival Rate Years High grade Low grade 100% 12345
Tumor Staging Five-Year Survival Rates for Patients with Melanoma (by stage) Stage at Time of Initial Diagnosis 100% 50% IIIIII
Classes of Oncogenes A. Secreted Growth Factors B. Cell Surface Receptors C. Intracellular Transducers D. Transcription Factors E. Regulators of apoptosis Components of signal transduction pathways c-sis, hst erb B, fms, ret, trk, fes, fms c-src, c-abl, mst, ras myc, jun, fos bcl, bax, bad
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