# The Earth is the only Planet in the Universe (that we know of) with liquid water on its surface!!!!!

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The Earth is the only Planet in the Universe (that we know of) with liquid water on its surface!!!!!

 71% of the earth is covered by water  most is salty (about 97%)  Average depth – 14,000 feet (nearly 3 miles deep)  divided up into 4 sections  What are the 4 sections?

 Pacific Ocean – covers 30% of the planet Avg Depth – 13,740 ft Mariana Trench – 36,200 ft  Atlantic Ocean – 2 nd largest, ½ the size of Pacific Avg Depth – 12,254 ft Puerto Rico Trench – 28,374

 Indian Ocean – 3 rd largest Avg Depth – 12,740 ft Java Trench – 25,344 ft  Arctic Ocean – smallest and often ice covered Avg Depth - 3,047 ft Eurasian Basin – 17,881 ft

 4 billion years ago  water vapor from volcanoes on Earth and comets from space  As the Earth cooled the water condensed, fell as rain, filling the ocean basins

 Oceanography – the scientific study of the oceans.  Ocean depth  Currents  Temperature  Water density  Salinity (saltiness)  Waves  Life Forms

 Bathymetry – using tools to determine ocean floor topography (changes in elevation)  3 ways:  1) Lead Line Survey  2) Sonar  3) Satellites

 1 st measured using a lead weight and rope

 Sonar – sound waves sent through the water until they reach the sea floor. The time it takes for the noise to return and be detected relates to the distance  D = ½ t*v  D= depth  T = time  V = 1,500 m/s

 Satellites – (Seasat and Geosat) send signals that are bounced off the ocean surface and slight differences in water height are measured. Based on small differences in the pull of gravity, images are created that reflect the underwater features of an area.

 Continental Margin – near the continents  Ocean Basin – deep ocean areas

 Continental Shelf – part of the continents that are under shallow water. Basically flat areas that extend outward from a few up to an average of 300km

 Continental Slope – begins at edge of shelf. Very steep area where water depth increases rapidly and change to oceanic crust occurs. May contain submarine canyons (huge cut into the slope from the motions of rivers

 Continental Rise – gently sloping region between the slope and oceanic basin. Composed of deposits of sediment that originated from the motions of rivers

 Abyssal Plain – beginning at the end of the continental rise, flattest area on Earth, found at or about 4,500 m in depth and made of spread out sediments

 Abyssal Hills - raised areas extending outward from the mid-ocean ridges. Can be totally covered by sediments in many places

 Mid-Ocean Ridge – underwater mountain range that forms at divergent plate boundaries and runs a total of 80,000km over the entire earth

 Seamounts – cone shaped volcanic mountains rising from the sea floor from hot spots or diverging plates. If rise to water’s surface an island is formed. Often these islands have their tops eroded by waves. Guyots – underwater seamounts with their tops cut off (plateau)

 Trenches – deepest spots in the ocean. From wherever two plates converge and subduct

 WHAT IS SALT WATER?  96.5% H2O and 3.5% dissolved minerals (75 different elements)  sodium chloride  magnesium chloride  calcium sulfate  Some rare metals such as gold and uranium

 WHERE DID THE SALT COME FROM?  1) Each year the world’s rivers carry about 400 billion kg of solids into the ocean.  Most of the solids are salts that came from dissolved minerals on land

 WHERE DID THE SALT COME FROM?  2)Water also evaporates from the oceans, leaving salts behind to accumulate

 WHERE DID THE SALT COME FROM?  Underwater volcanoes also add salts to the water

 The amount of dissolved salts has not changed over time due to the natural processes that remove salts from the water  For example:  Deposition of sediment  Plant and animal processes

 FACTORS THAT AFFECT SALINITY  Salinity levels vary around the world  Equator = high evaporation = higher salinity  Poles = low evaporation = lower salinity (freezing increases salinity, melting decreases salinity)  Rivers = added freshwater = lower salinity  Currents and depth impact salinity as well!

 The measurement of the amount of salt dissolved in salt water  1000 g of ocean water  965 grams H2O  35 grams of salt

 % of Earth covered by water  4 ocean basins  Where the oceans came from  Oceanography definition  What an Oceanographer might study  Parts of the Continental Margin (3)  Parts of the Ocean Basin (5)  Salinity definition  % of salt in salt water  Names of the salt in salt water  Where the salt came from  Conditions that affect salinity  Conditions that affect water density

 2 types of ocean currents:  1) Surface Currents  2) Deep Water Currents

Warm Currents move away from the Equator Cold Currents move away from the Poles

 Water on the surface moves because of surface winds!!!!!!!  Shaped by the spinning of the Earth and the locations of the continents  Hot water at the equator moves toward the poles (western (left) side of the ocean basins)  Cold water at the poles moves toward the equator (eastern (right) side of the ocean basins)

 Caused by differences in density!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!  Cold Water at the poles sinks (more dense) to the bottom of the ocean, Hot water (less dense) at the equator moves across the surface –causing a slow movement of water  Polar water is the densest – extremely cold and salty due to freshwater ice forming

 The 2 currents work together to completely circulate the waters of the ocean  Surface waters move from the equator to the poles, sinks and returns to the equator where it is eventually warmed again  Slow – takes 1,000 years to complete  Important for life on Earth as it recycles and redistributes heat, nutrients, and oxygen.

Topic 1:  How much of the Earth is covered with water?, what are the 4 ocean basins? How did the oceans form? Topic 2:  Define Oceanography. What things does an oceanographer study? Topic 3:  Define Bathymetry, How do (did) we measure the depth of the ocean? What is SONAR? What is the formula? Topic 4:  What are the parts of the continental margin? Describe each Topic 5:  What are the parts of the ocean basin? Describe each Topic 6:  How much salt is in salt water? What is the most common salt? Where did the salt come from? Topic 7:  Define salinity, How is salinity measured? What conditions cause changes in salinity? Topic 8:  What is density? What factors affect water density? Where would there be the most dense ocean water? Where would be the least dense ocean water? Topic 9:  What are the 2 types of currents? What causes them? How do they move? Topic 10:  What is the global conveyor belt? How long does it take? Why is it important?

ECOSYSTEMS:3/10

 Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with one another and with their physical environment

 Structure of life---  Atoms  Macromolecules  Genes  Chromosomes  Nucleus  Cell  Organism (species) Smallest Largest

 Macromolecules – large and complex organic compounds  4 major macromolecules:  1) Complex Carbohydrates (glucose)  2) Proteins (amino acids)  3) Nucleic Acids (nucleotides)  4) Lipids (fats and oils)

 Genes – sequences of nucleotides that contain the genetic information for making specific proteins  Chromosome – single DNA molecule together with a number of proteins which contains thousands of genes

 Cells are the basic units of life!!!!!!!  Cell Theory = all living things are composed of cells  Cells – smallest, most fundamental structural and functional units in life

 Species – similar organisms that generally resemble one another in their appearance, behavior, chemistry, and genetic make up… and can produce fertile offspring  We have identified 1.8 million species – mostly insects  May be somewhere between 4 and 100 million species (10 -14 million best guess)

 ECOLOGISTS STUDY CONNECTIONS IN NATURE! Levels of Organization in Ecology:  Biosphere  Ecosystem  Community  Population  Organism --------------------  Cell  Nucleus  Chromosomes  Genes  Macromolecule  Atom Largest smallest

 Population - # of a particular species in a particular place

 Community – all the populations of all the species living in a particular area

 Ecosystem – all the living and non-living things in a particular area

 Biosphere – Where life is found on Earth

 In assigned groups…  Click on the links on my web page to complete the provided chart – BENTHIC ZONES  Tomorrow we will continue with the PELAGIC ZONES  When finished with both charts, complete the 10 question google doc “Ocean Zone Analysis Questions” – please be sure to share this with me  Both charts and the analysis questions will be collected on FRIDAY  Reminder – STEM Project revisions due Thursday

Ocean Bottom Zones “Benthic” - Intertidal - coast - Sublittoral - shelf - Bathyal – slope & rise - Abyssal – abyssal plain - Hadal - trench Open Ocean Zones “Pelagic” Neritic – above the shelf Oceanic – deep water Epipelagic – 0-200m Mesopelagic – 200-1,000 Bathypelagic – 1,000-4,000 Abyssopelagic – 4,000-6,000 Hadalpelagic – 6,000 +

 What do we get from each?  Biosphere -  Atmosphere -  Geosphere -  Hydrosphere -

 Autotrophs – photosynthesis/chemosynthesis (producers)  Heterotrophs – must eat to obtain food energy (consumers) ___________________________________________________  Carnivores – eat animals only (consumers)  Omnivores – eat plants and animals (consumers)  Herbivores – eat plants only (consumers)  Decomposers/Detritivores/Scavengers – eat dead organisms

 Tertiary Consumers:Shark  Secondary Consumers:Blue Fish  Primary Consumers:Shrimp  Producers/Autotrophs:Algae  Energy Sources:SUN Energy Flow

 Trophic levels – where does an organism feed in a food chain/web. Depends on what it eats Other important parts of an ecosystem:  Decomposers (bacteria and fungi) – recycle nutrients  Detritivores = scavengers

 ONLY 10% of the food energy is passed on to the next trophic level.  MOST IS used in metabolic activity, growth, movement  THIS IS WHY FOOD CHAINS ARE SO SHORT Pyramid of energy flow  10 humans  100 perch  1,000 shrimp  10,000 phytoplankton Decomposers

 Food Chains – single pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem  Food Webs – several interconnected food chains  Food webs are more accurate because most organisms eat more than one type of organism  Energy Pyramids – show how much energy is available at each level

Trophic Level 1 Trophic Level 2 Trophic Level 3 Trophic Level 4 Trophic Level 5

 Bioaccumulation – the increase in pollution concentration from the environment into the 1 st creature of a food web  Biomagnification – the increase in pollution concentration from one link in a food chain to another. - Increases at each trophic level

 Highest concentrations of pollutants exist in 1) higher trophic level organisms 2) Older organisms

 DDT – kill mosquitoes and other pests -remain in environment a long time -causes nervous system damage -causes reproductive system damage -causes cancer (carcinogen) Builds up in the fat of organisms Thins the egg shells of birds!

 PCBs/DIOXINS  Chemicals used in manufacturing -remain in environment a long time -causes nervous system damage -causes reproductive system damage -causes cancer (carcinogen) Builds up in the fat of organisms

 MERCURY  Heavy metal released in electrical generation -remain in environment a long time -causes nervous system damage Builds up in the MEAT of organisms

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