Presentation on theme: "Warm-Up: Nomenclature Provide the name or formula for each of the following: Aluminum PhosphideH 2 SO 3 Calcium PhosphiteKNO 2 Nitrogen TriiodideCuCO 3."— Presentation transcript:
Warm-Up: Nomenclature Provide the name or formula for each of the following: Aluminum PhosphideH 2 SO 3 Calcium PhosphiteKNO 2 Nitrogen TriiodideCuCO 3 Tin (II) HydroxideMgSO 4 9 H 2 O Plumbic ChlorideLi 2 O Nitric AcidS 2 O 3
Structure and Properties LG: I can relate the structure of various chemicals to their properties and effects on humans and the environment
Structure and Properties The shape and composition of a chemical can determine many factors: – Solubility – State at room temperature – Stability – Taste, smell, texture, colour – Effects on the human body – Effects in the environment
Investigation: Oobleck ! In a large beaker, combine equal amounts of water and cornstarch and mix thoroughly with your hands Play with your Oobleck to learn about its strange properties – Pick it up – Roll it – Poke it Examine the chemical structure of this material, and propose an explanation for the properties you observe.
What Makes a Chemical Dangerous? Fat soluble (non-polar substances, heavy metals) – Stored in fat which prevents elimination – Can be passed from prey predator and accumulated in prey – Can reach high concentrations in breast milk Similar chemical structure to natural compounds (BPA, DDT) – The ability to mimic natural chemicals allow them to attach to receptors in the body and block or enhance the effect of the natural chemical
Example: DDT In 1939 DDT was found to be a ‘high efficiency’ insecticide. – DDT was used extensively during WWII to protect soldiers from typhus and malaria – Later approved for agricultural use – Hazards of DDT suspected in the 1950’s and banned in most developed countries by 1980 Why is DDT dangerous? – Non-specific: kills most insects – Very stable: half-life ~20 years – Fat-Soluble = BIOACCUMULATION Shellfish and birds of prey greatly affected – Genotoxic, hormone disruptor, and probable carcinogen
BPA – Bisphenol A BPA was developed in 1891 and used to create hard, clear plastics. – BPA is found in sports drink bottles, food containers, and the epoxy lining of canned goods BPA is structurally similar to estrogen – Because of this, it can interfere with hormone pathways and has been linked to neurological problems, weight gain and cancer
Magnificent Molecules: EDTA Read the article and answer the following questions: – Is EDTA ionic or molecular? – What are the special uses of EDTA? – Which atoms in the EDTA molecule attach to metal ions? What special feature of these atoms allows this to happen?
Homework Quiz tomorrow – all nomenclature Quiz Practice Old Book: Pg. 103 # 16, 17, 19, 20 New Book: Pg. 90 #41-46 Pg.469 #4, 6 Test Friday – Study early, study often! – Thursday will be review