Presentation on theme: "Environmental Health What is the relationship between the health of the planet and our own health?"— Presentation transcript:
1Environmental HealthWhat is the relationship between the health of the planet and our own health?
2Types of Environmental Health Hazards Environmental health hazards can be biological, social, chemical, physical. Can you think of any environmental health hazards that exist here in Latrobe, PA?Biological: Viruses, bacteria, and other organisms that cause diseaseSocial: Lifestyle choices that endanger healthChemical: Harmful artificial and natural chemicals in the environmentPhysical: Natural disasters and ongoing natural phenomena, such as UV radiation, that can cause health problems
3how these hazards affect people. Identifying hazards in the environment is just one part of environmental health. Scientists also want to understandhow these hazards affect people.EpidemiologyToxicologyThe study of disease in human populations—how and where they occur and how they can be controlledOften involves studying large groups over long periodsCan determine statistical associations between health hazards and effects, but can’t prove the hazards actually caused the effectsThe study of how poisonous substances affect an organism’s healthToxicity is a measure of how harmful a substance is.Toxicologists look at toxicity by determining dose-response relationships.
4Individual ResponsesPeople respond differently to environmental hazards making it difficult to predict with certainty how hazards may affect specific people.Sensitivity to hazards varies with age, sex, weight, and immune system health.People with health issues like asthma, compromised immune systems are more sensitive.Many diseases have genetic as well as environmental factors.Much research has proven that breast cancer can be caused by either emvironmental or genetic factors…and if caught early can be curable.Did You Know? Thalidomide, a drug that currently shows promise for treatment of Alzheimer's, AIDS, and some cancers, caused thousands of severe birth defects when it was used as an anti-nauseal in the 1950s and 60s.
5Risk Assessment Scientists try to determine how likely it is that a given hazard will cause harm. With chemical hazards, scientists determine toxicity, human exposure, frequency of exposure, concentration of exposure, etc.Risk: The probability that a hazard will cause harmRisk assessment: The process of measuring riskTakes into account:The type of hazardHow frequently humans will be exposed to itHow sensitive people are to it
6Biological and Social Health Hazards in the Environment Three quarters of infectious disease deaths are caused by five types of diseases: respiratory infections, AIDS, diarrheal diseases, tuberculosis, and malaria.Tuberculosis-causing bacteriaBiological and Social Health Hazards in the Environment
7Infectious Diseases Caused by pathogens Spread by human and animal contact and through contaminated food and waterCause of almost half of all deaths in developing nationsCovering your mouth when you cough, washing your hands often, and staying home from school if you’re sick help prevent the spread of infectious disease.Did You Know? In 2002, AIDS killed about 2 million people worldwide— almost equal to the entire population of Arkansas.
8Emerging DiseasesDiseases appearing in the human population for the first time or suddenly beginning to spread rapidlyHumans have little or no resistance, and no vaccines have been developed.Facilitated by increasing human mobility, growing antibiotic resistance, and environmental changes
9Responding to Emerging Diseases World Health Organization (WHO): Monitors health events worldwide and coordinates international responses to emerging diseasesCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Responds to emerging diseases in the United States; the CDC developed pandemic plans to deal with the spread of the H1N1 flu virus.Click HERE: History of PandemicsH1N1 Virus
10Social Hazards Some social hazards are easier to avoid than others. Examples of social hazards include smoking, being exposed to secondhand smoke, living near an old toxic waste site, working with harmful chemicals, and eating fatty foods.
11Chemical Health Hazards Chemicals are all around us, and all of them can be harmful to our health in large enough amounts. In other words, “The dose makes the poison.”Chemical Health Hazardsin the Environment
12Chemical Hazards Any chemical can be harmful in large enough amounts. A pollutant is something released into the environment that has some harmful impact on people and other organisms.Chemical hazards are not necessarily pollutants, and pollutants are not necessarily chemical hazards.
13Types of Chemical Hazards Carcinogens: Cancer-causing chemicalsChemical mutagens: Chemicals that cause genetic mutationsTeratogens: Chemicals that harm embryos and fetusesNeurotoxins: Chemicals that affect the nervous systemEndocrine disruptors: Chemicals that interfere with the endocrine systemAllergens: Chemicals that over-activate the immune systemDust mite protein is a common allergen.
16Sources of Outdoor Chemical Hazards In the air: Natural sources, such as volcanic eruptions, or human sources, such as pesticidesIn the ground: Pesticide use, improper disposal of electronics, etc.In the water: Chemical runoff from land or direct drainage of toxic substances into water
17Physical Health Hazards Although we cannot prevent most natural disasters, there are steps that scientists, engineers, governments, and citizens can take to resist damage and deal with the aftermath.A landslide caused by the Great Sichuan Earthquake in Sichuan Province, ChinaPhysical Health Hazardsin the Environment
18Physical HazardsPhysical hazards in the environment can pose health risks to humans.Earth Quakes, Volcanos, Storms, and Avalanches are just some examples of natural disasters that can create environmental hazards.We see biological hazards, chemical hazards, and social hazards result from natural disasters when they strike.Although we cannot prevent these disasters, we can decrease our vulnerability to them.
19Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification Bioaccumulation: The buildup of toxic substances in the bodies of organismsBiomagnification: The increased concentration of toxic substances with each step in a food chainPersistent organic pollutants are biomagnified and stay in the environment for long periods of time and over long distances.CLICK HERE: Mercury in fish
20One third of death and disease in the least developed nations is a direct result of environmental causes.
21Review Questions: Please answer ALL What are the 4 types of environmental hazards?What is the difference between epidemiology and toxicology?Does everyone respond to environmental hazards in the same way? Why or why not?How does the health of the environment influence biological hazards such as infectious disease?How are social hazards linked to environmental impacts?Make a chart listing each of the chemical hazard categories. Locate a specific example for each. ie: carcinogen example = xxxxFind an example of something that is a bioaccumulator in humans and in the environment.Explain the relationship between the health of the environment and the health of humans on the planet. Are they linked?