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What GHS? Logical and comprehensive approach to:

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2 What GHS? Logical and comprehensive approach to:
Defining health, physical and environmental hazards of chemicals Creating classification processes that use available data on chemicals for comparison with the defined hazard criteria Communicating hazard information, as well as protective measures, on Labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDS)

3 The GHS itself is not a standard or a regulation
The GHS itself is not a standard or a regulation. The GHS document (referred to as “the purple book”) establishes agreed hazard classification and communication provisions with explanatory information on how to apply the system What is GHS? The GHS itself is not a standard or a regulation The GHS document “the purple book” establishes agreed hazard classification and communication provisions with explanatory information on how to apply the system

4 Why is GHS Necessary? The primary purpose of GHS is to reduce illness and injury caused by chemicals OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard was published in 1983 Resulted in a <42% in acute illness and injuries from chemicals

5 Why is GHS Necessary? In the US alone there are many different classification systems used by various authorities. This means that the same product can be non-hazardous or hazardous with different labels and SDS Flammability for example OSHA/NFPA Flammable degrees combustible degrees DOT Flammable degrees combustible degrees CPSC Flammable degrees (Consumer Product Safety Commission) Combustible degrees ANSI Extremely flammable degrees (American National Standards Institute) Combustible degrees GHS Flammable degrees

6 GHS Benefits Overall Enhance the protection of human health and the environment Provide a recognized framework to develop regulations Facilitate international trade in chemicals whose hazards have been identified on an international basis Reduce the need for testing and evaluation against multiple classification systems

7 GHS Timeline in US December 1, 2013 train employees on the new label system June 1, 2015 comply with all modified provisions of the final rule, except: Distributers may ship products labeled under the old system until Dec 1, 2015 During transition may comply with 29CFR or current standard

8 GHS Major Elements Classification - Physical - Health - Environmental
Communication - Labels - Safety Data Sheets

9 GHS Classification Definitions changed to provide specific criteria for classification: health and physical hazards Classifications of mixtures Specific Criteria will help ensure: Evaluations of hazardous effects are consistent across manufacturers Labels and SDS’s are more accurate Until GHS mixtures were not classified. Only the chemicals within the mixture

10 GHS Classification Chemicals are first classified by one or more of three Hazard Classes: Physical, Health or Environmental Each Hazard Class is divided onto hazard categories Hazard categories may be further divided into divisions, types, groups etc.. When Hazard Categories are further divided the main thing to remember is the lower the letter or number the more hazardous the substance is. Example 1: Explosives “division 1.1” has mass explosion potential and “1.6” extremely insensititive with no mass explosion hazard. Example 2: Self reactive substances “Type A” can detonate or deflagrate rapidly as packaged “Type G” neither detonates nor deflagrates Example 3: Skin corrosion category “1A” <3 min exposure destruction to dermal tissue “3” reversible adverse effects in dermal tissue.

11 Physical Hazards Explosives Flammable gasses Flammable aerosols
Oxidizing gasses Gasses under pressure Flammable liquids Flammable solids Self-reactive substances

12 Physical Hazards Pyrophoric liquids Pyrophoric solids
Self heating substances Substances which in contact with water emit flammable gasses Oxidizing liquids Oxidizing solids Organic peroxides Corrosive to metal

13 Health Hazards Acute toxicity Skin corrosion/irritation
Serious eye damage/eye irritation Respiratory or skin sensitive Germ cell mutantgency Carcinogenicity Reproductive toxicity Mutagen: is an agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation to a species Reproductive toxicity: an agent that can cause adverse effects on sexual function, fertility as well as developmental toxicity to unborn fetus

14 Health Hazards Target organ/systemic toxicity- single dose
Target organ/systemic toxicity-repeated exposure Aspiration toxicity All significant health effects (not otherwise specifically included in the GHS) that can impair function are included in the non-lethal target organ/systemic toxicity class Target organ for example would be the liver with alcohol Systemic refers to the entire body or system like the Central Nervous System for example Aspiration is the drawing or inhaling of a foreign substance into the respiratory tract. Risks of aspiration include lung damage and pneumonia

15 Environmental Hazards
Hazardous to aquatic environment Acute aquatic toxicity Chronic aquatic toxicity Bioaccumulation Rapid degradability Bioaccumulation is the process producing an increase in the concentration of chemicals (usually toxins) in tissues of organisms with each increase in the trophic level of the food chain. Example if concentrations are found in minnows, the concentration will be higher in Crappie. The concentration will then be higher in larger predatory fish or birds. Rapid degradability means a chemical is capable of degrading rapidly. To be classified as Chronic Aquatic Toxicity the substance has a lack of rapid degradability

16 Hazard Communication Once the chemical has been classified, the hazard(s) MUST be communicated to target audiences The international mandate for the GHS included to development of a harmonized communication system including: Labels Safety Data Sheets (SDS) Easily understandable symbols Adopting GHS means adopting the harmonized method of hazard communication.

17 Pictograms Pictogram is a communication:
Intended to convey specific information 9 pictograms to convey: Health hazards Physical hazards Environmental hazards

18 Pictograms Health Hazard Carcinogen Mutagen Respiratory sensitizer
Reproductive toxicity Target organ toxicity Aspiration toxicity

19 Pictograms Flame Flammables Pryophorics Self-Heating
Emits flammable gas Self-reactive Organic peroxides

20 Pictograms Exclamation mark Irritant (skin and eye) Skin sensitizer
Acute toxicity (harmful) Narcotic effects Respiratory tract irritant Hazardous to ozone layer

21 Pictograms Gas cylinder Gas under pressure Flame over circle Oxidizers

22 Pictograms Corrosion Skin corrosion/burns Eye damage
Corrosive to metals Exploding bomb Explosives Self-reactives Organic peroxides

23 Pictograms Skull and crossbones Acute toxicity (fatal or toxic)
Environment (non-mandatory) Aquatic toxicity

24 Labels Existing systems have labels that look different for the same product. Which leads to confusion, consumer uncertainty and the need for additional resources to maintain different systems

25 Label Elements Signal word: is a word that typically appears near the top of a label. Final rule requires the use of 1 of 2 signal words DANGER WARNING Hazard Statements describe the hazards associated with a chemical. Intended to form a set of standardized phrases about the hazards of chemical substances Hazard Statements are coded with the letter “H” and a 3 digit number for reference purposes when translating. Example H220 is the code for “Extremely flammable gas” Only the statement appears on the label

26 Hazard Statements, Physical Hazards
Code Physical hazard statement GHS Hazard Class Hazard Category H200 Unstable explosive Explosives Unstable H201 Explosive: mass explosive hazard Div 1.1 H202 Explosive, severe projection hazard Div 1.2 H203 Explosive: fire, blast or projection hazard Div 1.3 H204 Fire or projection hazard Div 1.4 H205 May mass explode in fire Div 1.5 H220 Extremely flammable gas Flammable gasses 1 H221 Flammable gas 2

27 Hazard Statements, Health Hazards
Code Health hazard statement GHS Hazard Class Hazard Category H300 Fatal if swallowed Acute toxicity, oral 1,2 H301 Toxic if swallowed 3 H302 Harmful if swallowed 4 H303 May be harmful if swallowed 5 H304 May be fatal if swallowed and enters airway Aspiration hazard 1 H305 May be harmful if swallowed and enters airways 2 H310 Fatal in contact with skin Acute toxicity, dermal H311 Toxic in contact with skin H312 Harmful in contact with skin

28 Label Elements Precautionary statements Indicate how the product should be handled, used and stored to minimize risks to the user and the environment

29 Precautionary statements
Label Elements Precautionary statements General statements - If medical advice is needed, have product container or label at hand - Keep out of reach of children - Read Label before use

30 Precautionary statements
Label Elements Precautionary statements Prevention statements - Obtain special instructions before use - Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read - Keep away from heat/sparks or open flames - Ground/bond container and receiving equipment - Wear protective gloves/clothing/eye protection - Use required PPE

31 Precautionary statements
Label Elements Precautionary statements Response statements - IF SWALLOWED - IF ON SKIN - IF ON SKIN OR HAIR - IF INHALED - IF IN EYES - IF ON CLOTHING

32 Precautionary statements
Label Elements Precautionary statements Storage statements Store in closed container Store locked up Store in corrosive resistant container Maintain air gap between stacks and pallets Store away from other materials Store is dry place

33 Precautionary statements
Label Elements Precautionary statements storage statements Store in closed container Store in well ventilated place Keep container tightly closed Disposal statements Dispose of contents/container….

34 Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
The GHS established a standardized 16 section format for SDS to provide a consistent sequence for presentation to SDS users. Items of primary concern to exposed employees and emergency responders are presented at the beginning of the document, while more technical information is presented later Emergency response sections will always be 4, 5 and 6 which will mean less time spent searching a document if an emergency arises

35 SDS Format Section 1: identification Product identifier used on label
Other means of identification Recommended use Restrictions on use Name, address and phone number of the chemical manufacturer, importer or responsible party

36 SDS format Section 2: Hazard(s) identification
- Classification of the chemical in accordance with - Signal word - Hazard statements - Symbols

37 SDS Format Section 3: composition/information on chemicals
- Chemical name and concentration if it’s a mixture - CAS number - Common name - Other unique identifiers If a mixture is claimed (in accordance to paragraph (i) of ) as a trade secret the individual chemicals are still listed with associated hazards but exact percentages are not required. The SDS must state that chemical identity and/or exact percentages were withheld as a trade secret.

38 SDS Format Section 4: First aid measures
- Description of measures for all routes of exposure - Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed - Identification of immediate medical attention or special treatment needed, if necessary

39 SDS Format Section 5: Fire-fighting measures
- Suitable extinguishing media - Specific hazards arising from chemical fire - Special protective equipment or precautions for fire-fighters Suitable extinguishing agents might include Class A FFF foam, dry chem, or other agent if water makes the hazard worse Special hazards may include fatal gasses formed from burning chemicals to reactive properties of burning chemicals

40 SDS Format Section 6: Accidental release measures
- Personal precautions, PPE and protective equipment - Methods for containment and clean up

41 SDS Format Section 7: Handling and storage
- Precautions for safe handling - conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

42 SDS Format Section 8: Exposure controls
- OSHA PEL ACGIH TLV and any other exposure limit used or recommended by the chemical manufacturer PEL-Permissible exposure limit ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygenists TLV-Threshold limit value

43 SDS Format Section 9: Physical and Chemical properties - Appearance
- Odor - pH - Flash point - Vapor density - Vapor pressure - IDLH - Upper/lower explosive limit These are just a few examples of properties others are; specific gravity, solubility, auto-ignition temp, melting point, boiling point etc…

44 SDS Format Section 10: Stability and reactivity - Reactivity
- Chemical stability - Possibility of hazardous reactions - Conditions to avoid - Incompatible materials - Hazardous decomposition products

45 SDS Format Section 11: Toxicological information
- Information on likely routes of exposure - Symptoms related to exposure - Delayed effects from long term exposure - Numerical measures of toxicity - If product listed as carcinogen in NTP NTP-National Toxicology Program

46 Sections 12-15 are not mandatory
SDS Format Sections are not mandatory Section 12: Ecological information Section 13: Disposal considerations Section 14: Transport information Section 15: Regulatory information Section 16: Other information Including date of SDS or last revision Section 12 could include ecotoxicity, persistence or degradability, bioaccumulative potential, mobility in soil etc… Section 14 could include UN number and proper shipping name, transport hazard class, packing group etc..

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