2 What GHS? Logical and comprehensive approach to: Defining health, physical and environmental hazards of chemicalsCreating classification processes that use available data on chemicals for comparison with the defined hazard criteriaCommunicating hazard information, as well as protective measures, on Labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
3 The GHS itself is not a standard or a regulation The GHS itself is not a standard or a regulation. The GHS document (referred to as “the purple book”) establishes agreed hazard classification and communication provisions with explanatory information on how to apply the systemWhat is GHS?The GHS itself is not a standard or a regulationThe GHS document “the purple book” establishes agreed hazard classification and communication provisions with explanatory information on how to apply the system
4 Why is GHS Necessary?The primary purpose of GHS is to reduce illness and injury caused by chemicalsOSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard was published in 1983Resulted in a <42% in acute illness and injuries from chemicals
5 Why is GHS Necessary?In the US alone there are many different classification systems used by various authorities.This means that the same product can be non-hazardous or hazardous with different labels and SDSFlammability for example OSHA/NFPA Flammable degreescombustible degreesDOT Flammable degreescombustible degreesCPSC Flammable degrees (Consumer Product Safety Commission)Combustible degreesANSI Extremely flammable degrees (American National Standards Institute)Combustible degreesGHS Flammable degrees
6 GHS Benefits OverallEnhance the protection of human health and the environmentProvide a recognized framework to develop regulationsFacilitate international trade in chemicals whose hazards have been identified on an international basisReduce the need for testing and evaluation against multiple classification systems
7 GHS Timeline in USDecember 1, 2013 train employees on the new label systemJune 1, 2015 comply with all modified provisions of the final rule, except:Distributers may ship products labeled under the old system until Dec 1, 2015During transition may comply with 29CFR or current standard
8 GHS Major Elements Classification - Physical - Health - Environmental Communication- Labels- Safety Data Sheets
9 GHS ClassificationDefinitions changed to provide specific criteria for classification:health and physical hazardsClassifications of mixturesSpecific Criteria will help ensure:Evaluations of hazardous effects are consistent across manufacturersLabels and SDS’s are more accurateUntil GHS mixtures were not classified. Only the chemicals within the mixture
10 GHS ClassificationChemicals are first classified by one or more of three Hazard Classes:Physical, Health or EnvironmentalEach Hazard Class is divided onto hazard categoriesHazard categories may be further divided intodivisions, types, groups etc..When Hazard Categories are further divided the main thing to remember is the lower the letter or number the more hazardous the substance is.Example 1: Explosives “division 1.1” has mass explosion potential and “1.6” extremely insensititive with no mass explosion hazard.Example 2: Self reactive substances “Type A” can detonate or deflagrate rapidly as packaged “Type G” neither detonates nor deflagratesExample 3: Skin corrosion category “1A” <3 min exposure destruction to dermal tissue “3” reversible adverse effects in dermal tissue.
12 Physical Hazards Pyrophoric liquids Pyrophoric solids Self heating substancesSubstances which in contact with water emit flammable gassesOxidizing liquidsOxidizing solidsOrganic peroxidesCorrosive to metal
13 Health Hazards Acute toxicity Skin corrosion/irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritationRespiratory or skin sensitiveGerm cell mutantgencyCarcinogenicityReproductive toxicityMutagen: is an agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation to a speciesReproductive toxicity: an agent that can cause adverse effects on sexual function, fertility as well as developmental toxicity to unborn fetus
14 Health Hazards Target organ/systemic toxicity- single dose Target organ/systemic toxicity-repeated exposureAspiration toxicityAll significant health effects (not otherwise specifically included in the GHS) that can impair function are included in the non-lethal target organ/systemic toxicity classTarget organ for example would be the liver with alcoholSystemic refers to the entire body or system like the Central Nervous System for exampleAspiration is the drawing or inhaling of a foreign substance into the respiratory tract.Risks of aspiration include lung damage and pneumonia
15 Environmental Hazards Hazardous to aquatic environmentAcute aquatic toxicityChronic aquatic toxicityBioaccumulationRapid degradabilityBioaccumulation is the process producing an increase in the concentration of chemicals (usually toxins) in tissues of organisms with each increase in the trophic level of the food chain. Example if concentrations are found in minnows, the concentration will be higher in Crappie. The concentration will then be higher in larger predatory fish or birds.Rapid degradability means a chemical is capable of degrading rapidly. To be classified as Chronic Aquatic Toxicity the substance has a lack of rapid degradability
16 Hazard CommunicationOnce the chemical has been classified, the hazard(s) MUST be communicated to target audiencesThe international mandate for the GHS included to development of a harmonized communication system including:LabelsSafety Data Sheets (SDS)Easily understandable symbolsAdopting GHS means adopting the harmonized method of hazard communication.
17 Pictograms Pictogram is a communication: Intended to convey specific information9 pictograms to convey:Health hazardsPhysical hazardsEnvironmental hazards
18 Pictograms Health Hazard Carcinogen Mutagen Respiratory sensitizer Reproductive toxicityTarget organ toxicityAspiration toxicity
23 Pictograms Skull and crossbones Acute toxicity (fatal or toxic) Environment(non-mandatory)Aquatic toxicity
24 LabelsExisting systems have labels that look different for the same product. Which leads to confusion, consumer uncertainty and the need for additional resources to maintain different systems
25 Label ElementsSignal word: is a word that typically appears near the top of a label. Final rule requires the use of 1 of 2 signal wordsDANGERWARNINGHazard Statements describe the hazards associated with a chemical.Intended to form a set of standardized phrases about the hazards of chemical substancesHazard Statements are coded with the letter “H” and a 3 digit number for reference purposes when translating. Example H220 is the code for “Extremely flammable gas” Only the statement appears on the label
26 Hazard Statements, Physical Hazards CodePhysical hazard statementGHS Hazard ClassHazard CategoryH200Unstable explosiveExplosivesUnstableH201Explosive: mass explosive hazardDiv 1.1H202Explosive, severe projection hazardDiv 1.2H203Explosive: fire, blast or projection hazardDiv 1.3H204Fire or projection hazardDiv 1.4H205May mass explode in fireDiv 1.5H220Extremely flammable gasFlammable gasses1H221Flammable gas2
27 Hazard Statements, Health Hazards CodeHealth hazard statementGHS Hazard ClassHazard CategoryH300Fatal if swallowedAcute toxicity, oral1,2H301Toxic if swallowed3H302Harmful if swallowed4H303May be harmful if swallowed5H304May be fatal if swallowed and enters airwayAspiration hazard1H305May be harmful if swallowed and enters airways2H310Fatal in contact with skinAcute toxicity, dermalH311Toxic in contact with skinH312Harmful in contact with skin
28 Label ElementsPrecautionary statements Indicate how the product should be handled, used and stored to minimize risks to the user and the environment
29 Precautionary statements Label ElementsPrecautionary statementsGeneral statements- If medical advice is needed, have product container or label at hand- Keep out of reach of children- Read Label before use
30 Precautionary statements Label ElementsPrecautionary statementsPrevention statements- Obtain special instructions before use- Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read- Keep away from heat/sparks or open flames- Ground/bond container and receiving equipment- Wear protective gloves/clothing/eye protection- Use required PPE
31 Precautionary statements Label ElementsPrecautionary statementsResponse statements- IF SWALLOWED- IF ON SKIN- IF ON SKIN OR HAIR- IF INHALED- IF IN EYES- IF ON CLOTHING
32 Precautionary statements Label ElementsPrecautionary statementsStorage statementsStore in closed containerStore locked upStore in corrosive resistant containerMaintain air gap between stacks and palletsStore away from other materialsStore is dry place
33 Precautionary statements Label ElementsPrecautionary statementsstorage statementsStore in closed containerStore in well ventilated placeKeep container tightly closedDisposal statementsDispose of contents/container….
34 Safety Data Sheets (SDS) The GHS established a standardized 16 section format for SDS to provide a consistent sequence for presentation to SDS users. Items of primary concern to exposed employees and emergency responders are presented at the beginning of the document, while more technical information is presented laterEmergency response sections will always be 4, 5 and 6 which will mean less time spent searching a document if an emergency arises
35 SDS Format Section 1: identification Product identifier used on label Other means of identificationRecommended useRestrictions on useName, address and phone number of the chemical manufacturer, importer or responsible party
36 SDS format Section 2: Hazard(s) identification - Classification of the chemical in accordance with- Signal word- Hazard statements- Symbols
37 SDS Format Section 3: composition/information on chemicals - Chemical name and concentration if it’s a mixture- CAS number- Common name- Other unique identifiersIf a mixture is claimed (in accordance to paragraph (i) of ) as a trade secret the individual chemicals are still listed with associated hazards but exact percentages are not required. The SDS must state that chemical identity and/or exact percentages were withheld as a trade secret.
38 SDS Format Section 4: First aid measures - Description of measures for all routes of exposure- Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed- Identification of immediate medical attention or special treatment needed, if necessary
39 SDS Format Section 5: Fire-fighting measures - Suitable extinguishing media- Specific hazards arising from chemical fire- Special protective equipment or precautions for fire-fightersSuitable extinguishing agents might include Class A FFF foam, dry chem, or other agent if water makes the hazard worseSpecial hazards may include fatal gasses formed from burning chemicals to reactive properties of burning chemicals
40 SDS Format Section 6: Accidental release measures - Personal precautions, PPE and protective equipment- Methods for containment and clean up
41 SDS Format Section 7: Handling and storage - Precautions for safe handling- conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
42 SDS Format Section 8: Exposure controls - OSHA PEL ACGIH TLV and any other exposure limit used or recommended by the chemical manufacturerPEL-Permissible exposure limitACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial HygenistsTLV-Threshold limit value
43 SDS Format Section 9: Physical and Chemical properties - Appearance - Odor- pH- Flash point- Vapor density- Vapor pressure- IDLH- Upper/lower explosive limitThese are just a few examples of properties others are; specific gravity, solubility, auto-ignition temp, melting point, boiling point etc…
44 SDS Format Section 10: Stability and reactivity - Reactivity - Chemical stability- Possibility of hazardous reactions- Conditions to avoid- Incompatible materials- Hazardous decomposition products
45 SDS Format Section 11: Toxicological information - Information on likely routes of exposure- Symptoms related to exposure- Delayed effects from long term exposure- Numerical measures of toxicity- If product listed as carcinogen in NTPNTP-National Toxicology Program
46 Sections 12-15 are not mandatory SDS FormatSections are not mandatorySection 12: Ecological informationSection 13: Disposal considerationsSection 14: Transport informationSection 15: Regulatory informationSection 16: Other informationIncluding date of SDS or last revisionSection 12 could include ecotoxicity, persistence or degradability, bioaccumulative potential, mobility in soil etc…Section 14 could include UN number and proper shipping name, transport hazard class, packing group etc..