Who Will GHS Effect, and How Much Will It Cost ? OSHA estimates that over 5 million workplaces in the United States would be affected by the revised Hazard Communication Standard (HCS). A total of approximately 43 million employees could be exposed to hazardous chemicals. Included among these 5 million workplaces are an estimated 90,000 establishments that create hazardous chemicals; these chemical producers employ almost 3 million workers. The revised Hazard Communications Standard's (HCS) total cost, an estimated initial $201 million a year on an annualized basis for the entire United States. 5
GHS Overview The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is now aligned with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS). This update to the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) will provide a common and coherent approach to classifying chemicals and communicating hazard information on labels and safety data sheets. 6
Major Changes to Consider The three major changes in the new Hazard Communication standard are hazard classification, labels, and safety data sheets. 7
Benefits of the GHS Updates Benefits of GHS Standard include greater awareness of safety hazards, decrease accidents, reduce compliance cost over time, and international database of chemical classifications. Standardization of regulations among U.S. regulatory agencies. 8
How Does OSHA Define Chemicals? 9 Chemical means any substance, or mixture of substances. Hazardous chemical means any chemical which is classified as a physical hazard or a health hazard, a simple asphyxiant, combustible dust, pyrophoric gas, or hazard not otherwise classified. * New language to definition
New Language to the Definition Explained 10 Simple asphyxiation - OSHA has provided label elements for simple asphyxiants which include the signal word "warning" and the hazard statement "may displace oxygen and cause rapid suffocation". Combustible dust - A combustible particulate solid that presents a fire or deflagration hazard when suspended in air or some other oxidizing medium over a range of concentrations, regardless of particle size or shape. Pyrophoric gas hazards - Pyrophoric gases must be addressed both on container labels and SDSs. OSHA has provided label elements for pyrophoric gases which include the signal word "danger" and the hazard statement "catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air".
Simple Asphyxiation 11 Simple asphyxiates are inert gases or vapors that displace oxygen from air when present in high concentration. Many simple asphyxiants have little or no warning properties. For some of the agents, the major hazard is their flammable or explosive properties Simple asphyxiants include: H: Hydrogen, Helium; E: Ethane, Ethylene; N: Nitrogen, Neon; C: Carbon dioxide; A: Acetylene, Argon; M: Methane; and P: Propane, Propylene.
Pyrophoric Gas 12 Pyrophoric materials are substances that ignite instantly upon exposure to oxygen. They can also be water-reactive, where heat and hydrogen (a flammable gas) are produced. Examples of pyrophoric gas are: Arsine, Silane, Disilane, Dichlorosilane, Diborane, and Phosphine.
Combustible Dust 13 Combustible dust. A combustible particulate solid that presents a fire or deflagration hazard when suspended in air or some other oxidizing medium over a range of concentrations, regardless of particle size or shape. These dusts include, but are not limited to: Metal dust such as aluminum and magnesium. Wood dust Coal and other carbon dusts Plastic dust and additives Biosolids Other organic dust such as sugar, flour, paper, soap, and dried blood. Certain textile materials. The right concentration of finely divided chemical dust suspended in air is exposed to a sufficient source of ignition to cause ignition (combustion) of the dust.
Review of Identifying Chemical Hazards and Effects 14 Routes of Entry to the Human body Inhalation - Over an 8-hour working day, more than 2,800 liters of air will be breathed in and out of the lungs. Ingestion – Some chemicals can be absorbed very quickly into the bloodstream through the walls of the stomach and small intestines. Skin Absorption – Skin covers 100% of the body providing largest exposure. Injection – Needles, puncture wounds. Tear ducts – absorption typically not thought about.
Dose Response Relationship (Chemicals and the Human Body) 15 Dose – How much of the chemical was absorbed through your body? Duration – How long were you exposed to the chemical? Sensitivity – How sensitive are you or coworkers to chemicals? This relationship is the most fundamental and pervasive concept in toxicology. To understand the potential hazard of a specific chemical, toxicologists must know both the type of effect it produces and the amount, or dose, required to produce that effect. You Should Know Too!!
GHS Health Hazards classification of Chemicals 16 Health Hazards are divided into 10 groups: (1910.1200 Appendix A Health Hazard Criteria (Mandatory) Acute toxicity Skin corrosion/irritation Respiratory or skin sensitization Serious eye damage/eye irritation Germ cell mutagenicity Carcinogenicity Reproductive toxicology Target organ systemic toxicity- single exposure Target organ systemic exposure- repeated exposure Aspiration toxicity
GHS Physical Hazards Classification of Chemicals 17 Explosives Flammable gases Flammable aerosols Oxidizing gases Gases under pressure Flammable liquids Flammable solids Self-Reactive substances Pyrophoric liquids Pyrophoric solids Self-heating substances Substances which, in contact With water, emit flammable gases Oxidizing liquids Oxidizing solids Organic peroxides Corrosive to metals Physical hazards are divided into 16 groups: 1910.1200 Appendix B Physical Criteria (Mandatory)
GHS Environmental Hazards Classification of Chemicals Chemicals classified as environmental hazards are done so because of the risk they pose to the aquatic environment. They can be classified as having: Acute aquatic toxicity Chronic aquatic toxicity Bioaccumulation potential Rapid degradability 18
GHS Labels The required elements of new GHS label are: Product Identifier/ Supplier Information: Each chemical container, including secondary packaging such as crates and master cases. This must include the name, address, and telephone number of the manufacturer or supplier of the product. Symbols (hazard pictograms): Convey health, physical and environmental hazard assigned to a GHS hazard class and category Signal words: Either “Danger” or “Warning” are used to indicated the severity of the hazard Hazard statements: Standard phrases assigned to a hazard class and category Precautionary Statement: describe recommended measures that should be taken to minimize or prevent 19
Label Requirements Product Identifier/ Supplier Information 20 Product Identifier is how the hazardous chemical is identified. This can be (but is not limited to) the chemical name, code number or batch number. The manufacturer, importer or distributor can decide the appropriate product identifier. The same product identifier must be both on the label and in section 1 of the SDS.
21 Label Requirements: Signal Word The signal word indicates the relative degree of severity of a hazard. The signal words used in the GHS are: "Danger" for the more severe hazards, and "Warning" for the less severe hazards. Signal words are standardized and assigned to the hazard categories within endpoints. Some lower level hazard categories do not use signal words. Only one signal word corresponding to the class of the most severe hazard should be used on a label.
Label Requirements: Hazard Statements 22 Hazard statements are standardized and assigned phrases that describe the hazard(s) as determined by hazard classification. An appropriate statement for each GHS hazard should be included on the label for products possessing more than one hazard. Ex: high flammability liquid and vapor
Label Requirements: Precautionary Statement 23 Describes recommended measures that should be taken to minimize or prevent adverse effects resulting from exposure to the hazardous chemical or improper storage or handling. There are four types of precautionary statements: prevention (to minimize exposure); response (in case of accidental spillage or exposure emergency response, and first-aid); storage; and disposal. Ex: If on skin, immediately rinse area with water.
Optional Label Information: Supplementary Information 24 The label producer may provide additional instructions or information that it deems helpful. It may also list any hazards not otherwise classified under this portion of the label. This section must also identify the percentage of ingredient(s) of unknown acute toxicity when it is present in a concentration of ≥1% There is also no required format for how a workplace label must look and no particular format an employer has to use; however, it cannot contradict or detract from the required information.
Old HAZ COM Labels National Fire Protection Assoc. (NFPA) 25
Old HAZ COM Labels Hazardous Material Identification System (HMIS) 26
Arrangement The GHS hazard pictograms, signal word and hazard statements should be located together on the label. The actual label format or layout is not specified in GHS. 28
Pictograms There are nine hazard pictograms, each with a red outline, white background and black symbol. The can represent a variety of hazards 29 As of June 1, 2015 all labels will be required to have pictograms
30 What does this symbol mean to you? What does this symbol mean to OSHA? FLAME Over Circle Oxidizers
31 What does this symbol mean to OSHA? FLAME Flammable Pyrophorics Self heating Emits flammable gas Self reactives Organic peroxides What does this symbol mean to you?
32 What does this symbol mean to OSHA? Exploding Bomb Explosives Self- Reactive Organic Peroxide What does this symbol mean to you?
33 What does this symbol mean to you?!?! What does this symbol mean to OSHA? Skull and Crossbones Acute Toxicity (fatal or toxic)
34 What does this symbol mean to you? What does this symbol mean to OSHA? Corrosion Skin Corrosion / Burns Eye Damage Corrosive to Metals
35 What does this symbol mean to OSHA? Gas Cylinder Gases Under Pressure What does this symbol mean to you?
36 What does this symbol mean to OSHA? Health Hazard Carcinogen Mutagenicity Reproductive Toxicity Respiratory Sensitizer Target Organ Toxicity Aspiration Toxicity What does this symbol mean to you?
37 What does this symbol mean to OSHA? Environmental (non-mandatory) Aquatic Toxicity What does this symbol mean to you?
38 What does this symbol mean to OSHA? Exclamation Mark Irritant (skin & eye) Skin Sensitizer Acute Toxicity Narcotic Effects Respiratory Tract Irritant Hazardous to Ozone Layer (non mandatory) What does this symbol mean to you?
SDS Safety Data Sheets 41 What is the difference between the GHS SDS and existing MSDS/SDS? SDS are in use globally. So it is useful to have an understanding of the similarities and differences in the existing MSDS/SDS content and format. The GHS Safety Data Sheets are similar to the current 16-section ISO/ANSI requirements, with the exception of sections 2 and 3 (which are reversed) Sections 1 through 8 contain general information about the chemical, identification, hazards, composition, safe handling practices, and emergency control measures (e.g., fire fighting). This information should be helpful to those that need to get the information quickly Sections 9 through 11, and 16 contain other technical and scientific information
SDS Sections (16 Total) 42 1. Identification of all the substances or mixture and of the supplier 2. Hazards identification 3. Composition/information on ingredients 4. First aid measures 5. Firefighting measures 6. Accidental release measures 7. Handling and storage 8. Exposure controls/personal protection 9. Physical and chemical properties 10. Stability and reactivity 11. Toxicological information 12. Ecological information 13. Disposal considerations 14. Transport information 15. Regulatory information 16. Information on preparation and revision of the SDS
Workshop Activity 43 Review the Gasoline SDS (safety data sheet) or pull a new SDS sheet for a commonly used chemical at your location. Discuss label elements if YOU were creating the label at YOUR workplace! Remember to find the appropriate pictogram, signal word, and hazard statement to best ability. Review with entire class.
Chemical Manufacturers and Importers Chemical Manufacturers and Importers Requirements Chemical manufacturers or importers must classify the hazards of chemicals which they produce or import. For each chemical, the chemical manufacturer or importer shall determine the hazard classes, and, where appropriate, the category of each class that apply to the chemical being classified. Chemical manufacturers and importers must develop a safety data sheet for each hazardous chemical they produce or import. The chemical manufacturer, importer, or distributor will ensure that each container of hazardous chemicals leaving the workplace is labeled, tagged, or marked. 44
GHS Timeline Dec. 1, 2013 - Employers must complete all training regarding the new labels as well as redesigned safety data sheets June 1, 2015 - Chemical manufacturers, importers and distributors must be producing new labels and safety data sheets Dec. 1, 2015 - Distributors must have new labels and safety data sheets on any delivered containers June 1, 2016 - Employers must have their hazard communication programs and workplace signs updated. 45
Control Measures Engineering Controls Administrative Controls Personal Protective Equipment 46
“An Informed Employee Is a Safer Employee” K:Risk Control\Ref Library\Training Programs\Haz Comm\HazcommPres 2005 47
Questions? Please remember to sign-in and return your completed evaluation sheets. Thank you! 48
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