Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) Welcome to this introductory course on the Globally Harmonised."— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) Welcome to this introductory course on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals—known as the GHS.This course has been developed by the United Nations Institute of Training and Research (UNITAR) to provide a basic overview of this important international instrument.For those students who will be further involved with implementation of the GHS, either as a competent authority representative or as part of the regulated community, UNITAR is developing an advanced course to provide more in-depth information about the GHS once the basic course is completed.August 2011
2 Course ObjectivesUnderstand how and why the GHS was developedUnderstand the purpose, objectives and benefits of the GHSUnderstand the scope and application of the GHSBecome familiar with the basic elements of the GHSUnderstand the GHS in relation to other international agreements and standards
3 Background, Context, and Scope and Application of the GHS Chapter 1Background, Context, and Scope and Application of the GHSLesson 1: Background on the GHSLesson 2: Scope and Application of the GHS
4 Chapter 1: ObjectivesLearn what the GHS is, and who is responsible for itUnderstand why the GHS was developed, and how it relates to other international agreements and standardsLearn how the GHS was developed
5 Lesson 1: Background on the GHS This lesson will show:What is the GHSWhat is the “Purple Book”Why and how the GHS was developedWhat the role of the GHS is in chemical safety managementWho is responsible for the GHSHow GHS relates to other international agreements and standards on chemicals
6 The GHSThe Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is:An international system that harmonises the classification and labelling of hazardous chemicalsA logical and comprehensive approach for:Defining health, physical, and environmental hazards of chemicalsApplying agreed hazard criteria to classify chemicals based on their hazardous effectsCommunicating hazard information on labels and safety data sheets
7 United Nations (UN) publication of the GHS The Purple BookUnited Nations (UN) publication of the GHSOutlines the provisions in four parts:Introduction (scope, definitions, hazard communication)Classification criteria for physical hazardsClassification criteria for health hazardsClassification of environmental hazards
8 Annexes Annex 1 Allocation of label elements Annex 2 Classification and labeling summary tableAnnex 3 Codification of hazard statements, codification and use ofprecautionary statements and examples of precautionary pictogramsAnnex 4 Guidance on the preparation of Safety Data Sheets (SDS)Annex 5 Consumer product labeling based on the likelihood of injuryAnnex 6 Comprehensibility testing methodologyAnnex 7 Examples of arrangements of the GHS label elementsAnnex 8 An example of Classification in the Globally Harmonized SystemAnnex 9 Guidance on hazards to the aquatic environmentAnnex 10 Guidance on transformation/dissolution of metals andmetal compounds in aqueous mediaThese annexes comprise a significant part of the GHS text. While general principles are adopted in the first four parts that give the provisions of the GHS, the annexes provide considerable additional detail on how these provisions are to be applied. In addition, there is also guidance on a number of the provisions to further explain how the system can, and should, be implemented into countries.
9 Need for the GHSDevelopment of the GHS was a major undertaking for countries and international organizations.It involves complex issues and difficult policy concerns.With these difficulties, there were clearly important reasons to pursue such a complicated issue on an international basis.Chemicals—and the problems associated with their use—cross borders. How one country deals with them can have a significant impact on other countries.This creates an international need for a coordinated approach to managing chemicals. The first step for that is to establish an information base about the chemicals and their hazards.
10 Why was the GHS developed Chemicals contribute to improving the standard of living around the world:Purifying waterPromoting growth of foodImproving hygieneProducing essential goodsUse of these chemicals involves risks to safety and healthChemicals have made modern life safer, and more convenient, than times before their widespread use. However, that use must be evaluated for possible hazards to chemical users, and the risks of exposure must be controlled, to get the most benefit of chemical use without experiencing possible adverse effects.
11 How extensive is chemical use? The world’s largest substance data base is the Chemical Abstracts Service Registry:Currently has over 60 million organic and inorganic substances recordedNot all are produced on a regular basisPotential for harm to people is great:Chemicals cause a broad range of health effects and adverse effects on the environmentThe International Labor Organization (ILO) estimates that 25% of workplace deaths worldwide are due to chemical exposuresWhile the benefits of chemical use are clear in all countries, these benefits have to be balanced by the potential risks.This balancing may include the introduction of appropriate control measures to reduce the risk.However, in order to accomplish this, information must be available about the hazards of the chemicals involved.
12 Availability of chemical information Many countries have tried to address protection from chemicals through laws that require dissemination of information about their hazards:These laws are similar, but vary in definitions of hazards covered, information required on labels, and provisions for safety data sheetsThe result is a disparity in the extent of information provided, the form it is provided in, and the coverage of chemicals and peopleOther countries have no coverage
13 Results of conflicting requirements Extensive international trade in chemicals results in exposed people seeing a wide variety of labels and safety data sheetsDifferences in communication practices lead to differences in effectivenessThe broad range of provisions also leads to technical barriers to tradeSmall companies in particular are effectively left out of international trade by the difficulties of complying with all these requirements
14 These are illustrations of some of the hazardous chemical labels that may be seen in chemical trade. It is important to note that not only the appearance of the hazard warnings are different among these systems. The underlying definitions for the hazards are different as well—so these labels may also be conveying different messages about the hazards of the same chemical.
15 The GHS addresses these issues Provides a chemical classification and labelling system that is updated and maintained internationallyIncludes provisions for a common and coherent approach to classifying hazards and preparing labels and safety data sheetsResults in more effective communication worldwideFacilitates trade in chemicals
16 Benefits of the GHSProvides global benefits, as well as benefits to governments, industry, and chemical users (workers and consumers):Enhances the protection of human health and the environment through the provision of harmonised chemical safety and health informationReduces the need for duplicative testing of chemicalsProvides the informational infrastructure for chemical safety and health management programsIncreases efficiencies; reduces costs of compliance; lowers health care costs, etc.
17 How was the GHS developed? International mandate was adopted in the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development:“A globally harmonised hazard classification and compatible labelling system, including material safety data sheets and easily understandable symbols, should be available, if feasible, by the year 2000.”
18 Development of the GHSAgenda 21 of the UNCED agreements included the mandate, and instructed the developers to build on existing systemsThe process ultimately included numerous countries, multiple international organizations, and many stakeholder representativesThe GHS was developed based on consensus among the participants
19 What is the GHS based on?A meeting of experts convened by the ILO identified the following existing systems as the primary basis for the GHS:Requirements of systems in the United States for the workplace, consumers and pesticidesRequirements of Canada for the workplace, consumers and pesticidesEuropean Union directives for classification and labelling of substances and preparationsThe United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous GoodsWhile there were other countries that also had systems in place, these were the most extensive and the ones that had the broadest impact. Thus it was determined that harmonizing these approaches could provide a template for an international system. Where available, input on other systems was also used in the harmonization process.
20 Basis Principles of Harmonisation In order to guide the discussions, the participants agreed to a set of basic principlesKey among these was an agreement that the level of protection offered by existing systems would not be reduced as a result of harmonising the provisionsThis allowed countries to participate in negotiations on the basis that the protection of their current systems would be maintained or enhanced as a result of harmonisationThe process of harmonising the existing requirements was unique—there had never been an attempt to take well developed chemical regulatory requirements from different countries and develop a common approach to an issue.The first step was to ensure that all participants were basing their discussions on a common set of principles.In some countries, there was a concern that harmonisation would mean reducing protections to the level that was the least restrictive among the choices.It was clear that countries would not be able to take part in a process that led to a loss of protection in their national systems.Therefore, this key principle that harmonisation would either maintain or increase the level of protection for the participants allowed the process to move forward.
21 Hazard communication would be addressed in addition to classification Other principlesThe GHS would be based on the classification of hazards (i.e., intrinsic properties)Sectors would be able to choose those parts of the GHS relevant to themHazard communication would be addressed in addition to classificationComprehensibility (communicating information in an understandable manner) is keyValidated data can continue to be usedConfidential business information needs to be addressedOther principles evolved from discussions among the participants. First, a determination had to be made as to whether the resulting system would be based on hazard or considerations of the risks of exposure. The major existing systems were developed primarily on hazard considerations, and this was the basis for the process. However, as will be discussed later, all also include some consideration of risk, and the GHS does as well.Different sectors have different informational needs, and the GHS was designed from the outset to accommodate those needs in the overall approach.While classifying chemicals in the same way is an important concept, the outcome in terms of information on labels and data sheets is where differences are most evident. Therefore, it was also clear that the GHS would need to address both steps of the process.It was very important to the participants that the hazard communication part of the system be understandable to the target audiences. Without comprehensibility, the purposes of providing information could not be achieved.It was also important to ensure existing data are used as the basis for classification, both in terms of costs and animal welfare.All parties recognized that confidential business information does legitimately require protection, but not at the expense of safety and health concerns.
22 Who developed the GHS?The Interorganization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals’ Coordinating Group for the Harmonisation of Chemical Classification Systems managed the process of harmonisationThe Coordinating Group included representatives of interested countries, international organizations, and stakeholdersThe technical work was completed by technical focal points with expertise in the area involved
23 International organization responsibilities International Labor Organization (ILO): Secretariat for the Coordinating Group and the hazard communication work groupOrganization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD): Secretariat for health and environmental hazard criteria, including mixturesUnited Nations’ Subcommittee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods: Secretariat for physical hazard criteriaGiven the complicated technical information involved in developing the GHS, it was clear that multiple international organizations with varying expertise would be required.The Coordinating Group coordinated with these organizations to determine who had the capability to address the issues involved in the different aspects of the system, and assigned the work to the group with the most relevant expertise.
24 Who is responsible for implementing the GHS? The type of international legal instrument the GHS is considered to be is a “non-mandatory recommendation”The GHS provisions become mandatory in countries or regions that adopt the GHSOverseeing national or regional implementation is the responsibility of the competent authorities that adopt the GHS provisions. There is no international body that monitors implementation for complianceThe term “non-mandatory recommendation” refers to the type of legal instrument the GHS is considered to be. Unlike a mandatory instrument, such as a treaty, countries need not ratify the provisions. But if they choose to implement, the provisions become mandatory in the country or region through their own legal instruments. This is the same type of instrument that the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods is considered to be. Countries and regions recognize the benefits of adopting the provisions, and are therefore motivated to do so and make them mandatory in their own legal system.
25 Who is responsibleInternationally, the UN Subcommittee of Experts on the GHS is responsible for the maintenance, updating and promotion of the GHS:Over 30 countries have jointed the S/CObserver countries and stakeholders also participate
26 GHS as the Basis for National Chemicals Management Programmes The most important benefit of the GHS is to provide the information required by countries to establish a program for the sound management of chemicals.Without information, control measures cannot be identified and implemented. Classification, and subsequently communication of the information on labels and safety data sheets, provide the underlying infrastructure for chemical safety management.GHS as the Basis for National Chemicals Management Programmes
27 GHS/Other international instruments Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM)Rotterdam Convention/Prior Informed Consent (PIC)Stockholm Convention/Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)Basel Convention/Hazardous WasteILO Instruments re: chemicalsInternational Chemical Control Toolkit (Control Banding)There are a number of instruments available internationally to help countries and regions use chemicals safely. The GHS is complementary to these instruments, and facilitates their implementation by providing the information needed to make them work. Countries should be aware of the interface of the GHS with these instruments, and utilize all of them to promote safe use of chemicals across sectors.
28 Lesson 2: Scope and application of the GHS This lesson will show:What chemicals are covered in the GHSSectors affected by the GHSHow the hazard communication components are appliedThe Building Block approachPrinciples of hazard vs. riskPrinciples of consumer product labelling based on likelihood of injury
29 What chemicals are covered? All hazardous chemicals are covered:Includes substances, products, mixtures, preparations, formulations, and solutions.All chemicals have the potential to pose hazards, and require hazard classification and communication.The need for hazard information is dependent on the stage of the life cycle of the chemical. Some chemicals are already regulated based on risk at certain stages of their life cycle, and are thus exempt from the GHS hazard approach.
30 Chemical product life cycle This is an illustration of what is meant by the life cycle of chemicals. Regardless of the ultimate use of the chemical, it will generally pass through these stages at some point in its lifetime.
31 Application of the hazard communication components The need for labels and safety data sheets varies by the product and the stage of the life cycle:Pharmaceuticals, food additives, cosmetics, and pesticide residues in food will not be covered at the point of consumption (e.g., where a patient is taking a pharmaceutical), but will be covered in the workplace and in transportThese types of products are generally regulated based on risk where the consumer is exposed so are not subject to hazard communicationThe GHS addresses information needs at different stages for certain types of products.For chemicals that are intended for use by a consumer—the GHS only covers them when they are in the workplace (e.g., manufacturing facility) or in transport. At these stages, hazard information is required.For example, let’s consider a pharmaceutical intended to control high blood pressure. In the manufacturing facility, workers exposed to the pharmaceutical would receive GHS hazard information, as would workers involved in transport. However, once the pharmaceutical is packaged for distribution to the consumer or patient, a country’s pharmaceutical laws apply and a risk-based label that addresses dosage, etc. is applied rather than a GHS label.
32 Sectors affected by the GHS The GHS is intended to cover any place where people are exposed to hazardous chemicalsConsidering coverage of chemicals by sector is a convenient way to indicate different ways they may be covered due to differing exposuresHowever, countries may identify the sectors in any way that is appropriate to their regulatory system, as long as they consider all types of exposures
33 Sectors that may be considered Industrial workplace: Workers are a key sector to be considered. Chemicals are often present in all types of workplaces, from manufacturing facilities to construction, retail services to health care.Agriculture (pesticides): Involves both workplace and consumer exposures, and is often regulated separately by countries.
34 Sectors, cont.Transport (emergency response): Another subset of occupational exposures that is often regulated separately. Involves many provisions beyond classification and labelling (e.g., packaging). These are addressed in the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. Also impacts public exposures.Consumer Products (public): Involves products sold to the general public, and exposures of vulnerable populations (e.g., children).
35 Building block approach The GHS includes all of the regulatory tools needed to cover any of the sectors, hazards, or chemicals present:Competent authorities can choose their own scope of coverage from the comprehensive choices presented in the GHSCoverage may vary among sectors in the same countryThe GHS provides the building blocks to construct an appropriate regulatory systemThe building block approach allows those implementing the GHS to take into consideration the needs of different sectors, as well as the current scope of regulation in their own country or region. Some of these areas that are left to the competent authority to decide will be discussed when we discuss the provisions of the GHS.
36 Expected sector application Transport: similar to current transport system covering physical hazards, acute toxicity, corrosivity, and aquatic toxicity; pictograms used to convey hazardsWorkplace: all types of health and physical hazards; labels and safety data sheets, supplemented by trainingConsumers: labels primary focusThis illustrates one aspect of the building block approach. The UN transport system covers those hazards identified as being of particular concern to the transport sector—the system does not cover most of the health effects included in the GHS. The transport sector is harmonised with the other sectors in terms of the hazards they both cover—where the transport sector and the industrial sector in a country cover a particular hazardous effect, they will use the same criteria for the hazard categories they both cover. But the industrial sector may cover more categories of the effect, or more types of hazards, than transport will. The building block approach allows competent authorities to make this type of differentiation between sectors.
37 Differentiating hazard vs. risk GHS is based primarily on the identification of the intrinsic properties of chemicals (hazards) that may cause harmRisk is the likelihood of the harm, and is characterized by relating the expected exposure to the hazard identifiedHazard x Exposure = RiskThe difference between a hazard and a risk is often difficult to understand, particularly because some languages use the terms interchangeably, or do not have a word for one or the other of these concepts.The differentiation is important for understanding the context in which it is used in the GHS.
38 GHS Hazard Classification The purpose of the GHS is to provide information about the hazards of a chemical in order to help people determine the appropriate protections. This involves identifying the hazard; assessing the severity of the effect; and communicating the information to users.When chemical users have information about the hazards, they can relate it to the exposure where it is used, and thus determine the risk. This is referred to as risk assessment. Determining the way to protect people is risk mitigation. Risk assessment and risk mitigation are uses of the GHS hazard classifications.The GHS is based primarily on hazards, and the classification process in the GHS is a process of hazard assessment.The results of a hazard assessment, when considered with other available information about exposures, can lead to a risk assessment, and subsequent identification of risk mitigation procedures.
39 Hazard Assessment Process This is an illustration of the process used to assess hazards in general. For physical hazards, there is no true dose response assessment—but there are considerations regarding the amount of the hazardous substance/mixture being handled, as well as the presence of precipitating factors that could trigger the hazard and the possibility of an adverse outcome (e.g., a source of ignition for a flammable material). The GHS addresses the steps in this process, providing a hazard classification (based on identifying the hazard, and determining the severity of effect), and communicating that information to users.
40 Risk AssessmentWhile not included in the GHS, once a hazard is assessed, the risk can also be determined. The hazard classification information form GHS can be used in concert with exposure information (quantitative or qualitative) to arrive at a determination and characterization of the risk where used. Use of GHS information in this way can further lead to selection and implementation of appropriate control measures, and thus protection of exposed or affected people.
41 Optional consumer product labels Some systems provide information on consumer labels regarding chronic health hazards only after considering risk (not based on hazards alone)Since labels are the only means to provide information to consumers, these systems consider it important to consider the likelihood of injury before providing information on chronic effectsAnnex 5 of the GHS outlines general principles for this process while not addressing harmonisation of risk-based labelling for consumer products
42 Lesson 1 Classification Lesson 2 Hazard Communication Chapter 2Technical Overview of the GHSLesson 1 Classification Lesson 2 Hazard Communication
43 Chapter 2 ObjectivesBe familiar with the main elements of the GHSUnderstand who is responsible for development of the elementsLearn what hazards are covered by the GHSLearn what the GHS hazard communication tools include and how the information is obtained by users
44 Lesson 1: Classification This lesson will show:How classification is done under the GHS, and who is responsible for itWhat physical, health, and environmental hazards are covered under the GHS
45 What is hazard classification? The GHS describes the process as follows:Identification of relevant data regarding the specific hazard of the substance or mixture.Subsequent review and quality check of those data to ascertain the hazards associated with the substance or mixture.A decision on whether the substance or mixture will be classified as a hazardous substance or mixture and the degree of hazard, where appropriate, by comparison of the data with agreed hazard classification criteria.As was illustrated in the previous graphics, the GHS classification process is one of hazard assessment. This requires full knowledge of the available scientific literature on a chemical, and assessment of the data to determine how it relates to the hazard criteria in the GHS,
46 Key definitions“Hazard class” means the nature of the physical, health or environmental hazard, e.g., flammable solid, carcinogen, oral acute toxicity“Hazard category” means the division of criteria within each hazard class, e.g. oral acute toxicity includes five hazard categories and flammable liquids include four hazard categories
47 Acute ToxicityThis table is taken from the GHS to describe the criteria for acute toxicity. In this particular example, route of entry for the material is also relevant to the classification. Thus the criteria are described by route of entry, and the numerical definitions of the different hazard categories are included.To again illustrate the application of the building block approach to this hazard class—the transport sector will be covering Categories 1 through 3. Most industrial sectors will also include Category 4, and perhaps 5 as well. Others may limit Category 5 coverage to consumer products with vulnerable exposed populations. All are permitted under the building block approach, as long as the categories adopted are consistent with the criteria in the GHS.
48 Who classifies hazards? The GHS is designed to be a “self” classification system, i.e., chemical manufacturers classify their products based on evaluation of data and expert judgmentSome competent authorities may choose to classify chemicals, and provide lists of classificationsChemical users do not have to undertake the classification process, but can rely on the information provided by their suppliers with the products when they purchase themKnowledge of chemicals, and expertise regarding hazardous effects, is necessary to properly classify a chemical under the GHS. Expert judgment allows a classifier to place a chemical in the proper hazard class and category (classify the chemical) by exercising expertise, and characterizing the hazard appropriately after reviewing available data.Recognizing the type of professional expertise needed to do this classification properly, some competent authorities have been preparing lists of the classifications of chemicals for industry to consult. There have also been suggestions for an international list to be developed, and the Subcommittee is examining that issue.
49 How were the criteria developed? Physical hazard criteria were based on the existing definitions in the UN transport system, revised to address other sectorsHealth and environmental hazard criteria in existing systems were compared and analyzedThe most current scientific information was reviewed (and will be updated as necessary by the Subcommittee)Negotiators agreed to harmonised approaches based on the information assembled
50 These are the physical hazards covered by the GHS These are the physical hazards covered by the GHS. In countries where the UN TDG recommendations have been adopted may find that chemicals in their country are already classified in accordance with the GHS in terms of physical hazards, which will facilitate implementation.
51 Health HazardsHazard ClassHazard CategoryAcute Toxicity12345Acute Toxicity: OralAcute Toxicity: DermalAcute Toxicity: InhalationSkin Corrosion/Irritation1A1B1CSerious Eye Damage/Eye Irritation2A2BRespiratory or Skin SensitisationGerm Cell MutagenicityCarcinogenicityReproductive Toxicity - FertilityLactationSpecific Target Organ Toxicity - Single ExposureSpecific Target Organ Toxicity - Repeated ExposureAspiration hazardThese tables illustrate the concepts of hazard classes and hazard categories. The classes address the overall effect, and the categories subdivide the class to convey the concept of severity of effects. As discussed previously, competent authorities may choose not to adopt all classes, or not adopt the less severe hazard categories. This is related to the building block approach.
52 1 2 3 4 Environmental Hazards Hazard Class Hazard Category Environmental HazardsHazard ClassHazard CategoryAquatic toxicity, acute123Aquatic toxicity, chronic4Hazardous to the ozone layer
53 Mixture Classification Where test data are available for the complete mixture, the classification will generally be based on that data.Where test data are not available for the mixture itself, then bridging principles included and explained in each specific chapter should be considered to see whether they permit classification of the mixture. Bridging principles allow extrapolation of data from similar mixtures to perform classifications of untested mixtures.While most hazard information addresses substances, most people are exposed to mixtures. These are rarely tested to determine their hazardous effects in mixture form. Thus the GHS had to develop an approach for untested mixtures to ensure that the best information available is used to assess them.
54 Mixture Classification, cont. In addition, for health and environmental hazards:If (i) test data are not available for the mixture itself, and (ii) the available information is not sufficient to allow application of the above mentioned bridging principles, then the agreed method(s) described in each chapter for estimating the hazards based on the information known will be applied to classify the mixture.Bridging principles provide a means to use existing data to extrapolate to a mixture. For example, where a substance is diluted by water, the GHS provides a dilution principle to determine the hazard category for the mixture. In addition, many other health hazards have cut-offs or concentration limits to determine whether the mixture poses the hazardous effect involved.
55 Lesson 2: Hazard communication This lesson will show:The purpose of hazard communication in the GHSThe core label elements on a GHS labelHow to read a label and find the GHS informationHow to identify the elements of a safety data sheet (SDS) in the GHSHow to find information in a GHS SDSHow confidential business information is addressed in the GHS
56 Hazard communication tools Once the hazards are identified in the classification process, the information must be provided to:Downstream users and handlersProfessionals providing services or designing protective measures for those exposedInformation provided must be accurate, comprehensive, and provided in an understandable mannerInformation tools and needs may vary by sector
57 Comprehensibility principles Information should be conveyed in more than one way.Comprehensibility should consider the findings of existing studies and data.Phrases indicating degree of hazard should be consistent across different hazard types.Words and phrases should retain comprehensibility when translated into other languages.Format and color of the label elements and SDS format should be standardized.The hazard communication tools convey information to users and professionals to help ensure that the chemical is handled appropriately. To that end, the GHS is designed to make sure these tools are comprehensible—or understandable to the people who must use the information to design appropriate protective measures, or take steps to protect themselves. To help ensure that the system accomplishes this, the developers of the GHS reviewed available scientific literature regarding the comprehensibility of labels and safety data sheets. The lessons learned from these studies were used to develop principles to guide the development of the system. This was particularly difficult since the GHS is intended to be used in many different cultures. One of the annexes of the GHS provides information about comprehensibility testing. This allows competent authorities to test the understanding of the GHS label elements in their country. Where the elements are not recognized or understood, the competent authority can use the comprehensibility testing to determine where to focus training and awareness activities.
58 Tools availableLabelling/PlacardsSafety Data Sheets (SDSs)/Transport DocumentsTraining
59 Tools available by sector Workplace/industrial sector: labels, SDSs, specific trainingAgriculture/pesticides: labels, specific training, SDSs in some situationsConsumers: labelsEmergency responders: labels, placards, specific training, transport documentsTransport: labels, placards, transport documents, specific training
60 Hazard vs. risk communication GHS is a hazard communication system—the information is provided on the basis of the intrinsic properties of the chemicalIt is difficult for suppliers to fully understand the exposures that may be generated by their usersThe information provided should lead to risk mitigation—having hazard information allows users to choose appropriate protective measures
61 Confidential business information The GHS recognizes that there is legitimate confidential business information regarding chemicals, and that there is a legitimate safety and health need for disclosure of that information in some situationsThe GHS provides principles regarding CBI that countries should follow when addressing this issue
62 CBI PrinciplesLimit to chemical names/concentrationsIndicate information has been withheldDisclose CBI to competent authority on requestDisclose to medical professionals in emergenciesNon-emergency disclosure should be done where there is a need and a means to protect confidentialityProcess for challenges to disclosure
63 Understand and read GHS labels Harmonised label elements:Symbol/pictogramSignal wordHazard statement(s)Other core information to be providedProduct identifierSupplier identificationPrecautionary statement(s)
64 Allocation of label elements This illustrates the elements of a GHS label.The GHS does not specify a format for the label, but does specify that the harmonised label elements, also referred to as the core information, needs to be located together on the label.Labels need to be legible and easily read, as well as placed on the container so they can be readily accessed.
65 These are the pictograms used in the GHS, with the hazard classes they are applied to. The first two rows were taken from the international transport system, and thus many will already be familiar with them.Training will be required for many users to be able to identify these pictograms accurately. This is one of the reasons countries conduct comprehensibility testing. It helps them determine which pictograms require more training to understand.
66 As a comparison, these are the transport pictograms As a comparison, these are the transport pictograms. They have different colors and backgrounds that are used to convey other aspects of the hazard. They do not include words on labels or markings, so hazard is conveyed solely through the pictogram. The symbols appear in the upper portion of the frame.The GHS pictograms are the same shape as the transport pictograms so users will know that this shaped pictogram conveys hazard. However, transport participants in the harmonisation process were concerned that transport workers be able to differentiate the hazards of concern to them when labels serve a dual purpose (for example, a label on a large drum that will be seen by both transport workers and manufacturing facility workers). Since transport doesn’t cover chronic health effects, for example, transport workers will be trained not to respond to the pictograms on the label to convey those types of effects.
67 Signal words serve two purposes in the GHS: Get the attention of the label readerIndicate the severity of the hazardThere are two signal words in the GHSDangerWarning
68 Hazard statementsDescribe the hazards covered by the GHSIndicate the degree of severity of the hazardText of the statements has been harmonisedHarmonised statements are assigned to each hazard class and category, and have been codified (a numbering system has been applied to them for ease of reference)Example: H318 Causes serious eye damage.
69 Allocation of harmonised label elements The GHS includes an appendix which specifies the harmonised label elements for each hazard class and category:PictogramSignal wordHazard statement
70 This is an example of how the GHS specifies the label information for a given hazard class: acute toxicity (oral). There are five categories in this hazard class, and as can be seen, the pictograms, signal words, and hazard statements reflect the changing degree of severity of the effect.
71 Other required information Precautionary statements are required. The GHS includes possible statements, but they have not yet been harmonisedThere are 5 types of statements: General, Prevention, Response, Storage, and DisposalThese have been assigned to hazard classes and categories, and codified (numbered).Example: P280 Wear eye protection/face protection.
72 Precautionary pictograms Some systems may choose to illustrate precautionary information using pictograms. These are not harmonised in the GHS.
73 Product and supplier identification Chemical identity required for substancesFor mixtures either:All the ingredients contributing to the hazard of the mixture/alloy, orAll the ingredients contributing to any health hazards presented by the product other than irritation and aspirationSupplier identification required on all labels, including name, address, and phone number
74 Other label provisions Supplementary information may also be required or permitted by competent authorities to provide other items such as directions for useCompetent authorities should also specify how often labels are to be updated
75 ToxiFlam Manufacturing Company GHS LabelToxiFlam(Contains XYZ Hazardous Ingredients)Toxic if SwallowedHighly Flammable Liquid and VapourIF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a Poison Control Center or physician. Rinse mouth.Do not eat, drink, or use tobacco when using this product. Wash hands thoroughly after handling. Wear protective gloves and eye/face protection.Keep container tightly closed. Keep away from heat/sparks/open flame. No smoking. Ground containers and receiving equipment. Use explosion-proof electrical equipment. Take precautionary measures against static discharge. Use only non-sparking tools. Store in cool/well-ventilated place.In case of fire, use water fog, dry chemical, carbon dioxide or “alcohol” foam.ToxiFlam Manufacturing CompanyRoute 66, MyTown, TX
76 Combination GHS/transport label This illustrates a label for the same product that has a dual purpose, i.e., it would be used for transport compliance in addition to being in the workplace. In this instance, the pictograms are the transport pictograms—the GHS specifies that where the label is dual purpose, the pictograms are only presented once and in the transport format. Therefore, workers who may encounter these labels will have to be trained to recognize the transport version of the pictograms as well.
77 Workplace labelingThere are many containers in workplaces that are not provided by a supplier, and therefore must be labelled by the employer. It is very important for the employer to consider all aspects of the workplace when determining what needs to be labelled. This may include pipes and piping systems, reactor vessels, and portable containers of various sizes and uses. Practical accommodations are sometimes necessary, but some type of container identification is necessary to protect the workers.The GHS allows competent regulatory authorities to determine whether different types of labels can be used in the workplace. While such labels will have to present the same hazard information, there are workplace labelling systems that present the information in different ways to help facilitate comprehension in workplaces where many different containers may be present. For example, numerical ratings of hazards are used in some workplace systems.
78 GHS safety data sheetComprehensive sources of information about substances and mixturesProvides information about the hazards, but also information to establish risk management programsAudiences for the 16 sections vary, but include workers, safety engineers, physicians, and other professionals providing protection to exposed people
79 SDS16 sections specified in a given order of informationInformation in the beginning sections have a broad audienceMore detailed, technical information included in following sectionsRequired for substances/mixtures meeting criteria; mixtures containing chronic hazards above cut-offs; and unclassified substances or mixtures as required by competent authorities
80 Minimum SDS Information by Section The GHS provides the 16 sections, as well as the information that is to be included in each section.
84 Other Issues Related to Implementation Chapter 3Other Issues Related to Implementation
85 UNITAR Steps to Implementation UNITAR has identified the following outcomes as leading to a successful implementation process:Multi-stakeholder engagement and collaborationSituation and gap analysisAwareness raising and trainingNational GHS-implementing legislationSectoral implementation plansHigh-level endorsement of a National GHS Implementation Strategy (“road map” for future activities)
87 Participatory Process Questions to consider re: stakeholder involvement:What types of groups are relevant?What is the nature of participation by business and industry, and civil society”What types of resources are available to support involvement?How will lead organizations/points of contact be identified?Implementation in different countries will vary depending on the existing regulatory system. The most successful implementation will involve all stakeholders, and have a participative process to ensure comprehension and buy-in.
88 Types of Activities to Involve Stakeholders Information and awareness raising meetingsIndustry or civil society-specific workshopsTraining and information-sharingCommitteesReview/comment on draft policies/legislationDevelop networking and alliancesInvolvement in the UN Subcommittee of Experts on GHS
89 Depends on a number of factors: Legislative optionsDepends on a number of factors:Existing industrial infrastructureLegal frameworksImplementation capacityUNITAR Guidance Document: Developing a National GHS Implementation Strategy (2010)
90 Common Implementation Issues GHS Building Block approach and its application vs. international harmonisation for each sectorNeed to improve “harmonisation” of implementation as an on-going process (e.g. consultation with trading partners, transition times, regional coordination, sharing experience, etc.)Countries need to recognize that to be harmonised, they must give up some of their existing requirements while maintaining overall protections
91 ContactsTraining and Capacity Building Programmes in Chemicals and Waste Management UNITAR Palais des Nations CH-1211 Geneva 10 Switzerland Fax: Website: www2.unitar.org/cwg
92 ContactsOrange House Partnership npo/VZWPostal address: Kampendaal 83, 1653 Dworp (Brussels), BelgiumVisiting address: Rond Point Schuman 9, 6th floor, Brussels, Belgium Tel:Website:
93 Photo CreditsUNITAR (Zambian chemical worker)US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (chemical incidents)US Environmental Protection Agency (heavy equipment operation)