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HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASES. HEALTH Defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well- being of a person. Healthy people are efficient at.

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Presentation on theme: "HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASES. HEALTH Defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well- being of a person. Healthy people are efficient at."— Presentation transcript:


2 HEALTH Defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well- being of a person. Healthy people are efficient at work. This increases productivity and economic prosperity.

3 FACTORS THAT AFFECT HEALTH Balanced diet Personal hygiene Regular exercise Good habits

4 HOW TO ACHIEVE GOOD HEALTH ? Knowledge about diseases, their cause and effect Vaccination/ immunisation Control of vectors Proper disposal of waste Consumption of clean food and water Maintenance of hygiene

5 INFECTIOUS DISEASE TYPES disease viralbacterialprotozoanfungalhelminthes

6 INFECTIOUS DISEASES Sl. No.Causal agentDiseases 1virusCommon cold, polio, measles 2bacteriaTyphoid, pneumonia, plague, diphtheria, tetanus 3protozoaMalaria, amoebiasis 4fungiringworm 5helminthesAscariasis, filariasis, taeniasis





11 Acquired after birth Pathogen specific Present only in vertebrates ACQUIRED IMMUNITY

12 Specificity- ability to distinguished many different foreign molecule Memory Capacity to distinguish self and nonself molecules/ cells

13 ACQUIRED IMMUNITY Acquired immunity Humoral / antibody mediated immunity Cell mediated immunity

14 HUMORAL IMMUNITY Consists of antibodies in body fluids. Produced by B- lymphocytes in response to antigen. Collectively antibodies called immunoglobulins. Types of immunoglobulins- Ig A, Ig D, Ig E, Ig M, Ig G.

15 ANTIBODY Has 4 polypeptide chains Held together in the form of ‘Y’ Tips of upper 2 arms bind to antigen and form antigen-antibody complex. Two chains are long (heavy or H) and 2 are short Light or L) chains. So the antibody referred to as H 2 L 2.




19 CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY Mediated by T lymphocytes Two groups of lymphocytes- cytotoxic/ killer T cells and helper T cells. Killer T cells kill specific target cell by various mechanisms.

20 CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY Helper T cells activate specific B cells to produce antibodies. T lymphocytes responsible for graft rejection.

21 ACTIVE VS PASIVE IMMUNITY ACTIVEPASSIVE Antibodies develop by our own cells. Antibodies develop in other vertebrates and injected into our body. Takes time to develop immunity. Response is faster. Stays for longer period.Stays for short period. E.g. immunity developed due to natural exposure to antigen or by vaccination. E.g. immunity to infants in colostrums, tetanus antitoxin

22 IMMUNE RESPONSE Primary immune response- Immunity developed in the body due to first encounter with an antigen. Takes longer time to develop It is feeble and declines rapidly. Secondary immune response- Produced by memory cells, formed during primary response. Heightened immune response in a shorter time. Stays for longer time.

23 VACCINATION AND IMMUNISATION Based on memory of immune system. Generates antibodies that neutralise toxin or pathogen. Produce memory cells.

24 ALLERGY Hypersensitive reaction of the immune system to certain antigens of environment. Allergen is the substance that cause allergy. The antibodies produced in response to allergen is Ig E type. Common symptoms- sneezing, watery eyes, rashes, running nose, difficulty in breathing.

25 LYMPHOID ORGAN Lymphoid organ primary Bone marrow thymus secondary Spleen Lymph nodes, tonsils

26 AIDS-TRANSMISSION By sexual contact with the infected person. Transfusion of contaminated blood. Sharing infected needles. Infected mother to child through placenta.

27 HIGH RISK INDIVIDUALS Who multiple sexual partner Drug addict (taking drugs intravenously) Repeated blood transfusion persons Children born to an infected woman



30 Virus enters into the body, enters macrophages. RNA of virus replicates into DNA by reverse transcriptage. Viral DNA incorporates with cell DNA. Infected macrophage cell produce virus particles.

31 LIFE CYCLE OF HIV Virus then enters helper T cells, replicates and form progeny viruses. Progeny viruses attack other T cells, thus no. of T cells decrease in blood. The person is unable to protect himself/herself from infection.

32 PREVENTION OF AIDS NACO and NGO are trying to educate people about AIDS. Steps taken by WHO- Use of disposal needles Checking blood for HIV Free distribution of condoms and advocating safe sex

33 PREVENTION OF AIDS Controlling drug abuse Regular checkup for HIV in susceptible populations Diagnosing AIDS by ELISA test Treatment with anti- retroviral drugs( partially effective)

34 CANCER- CAUSES Due to physical, chemical and biological agents which bring about uncontrolled proliferation of cells. Physical carcinogen – UV ray, X ray, gamma ray Chemical carcinogen – aniline rays, chemicals of tobacco Tumor viruses (oncogenic virus)

35 CHARACTERISTICS OF CANCER CELLS Breaking down of regulatory mechanism which control normal cell growth. So, uncontrolled cell division and differention. Do not show contact inhibition. Show metastasis

36 TYPES OF TUMOUR BENIGN Remain confined in their original location Do not spread Cause little damage MALIGNANT Proliferating cells, grow rapidly. Cells show metastasis Cause more damage

37 DIAGNOSIS OF CANCER Biopsy and histopathological studies of tissue Blood and bone marrow test (for leukemia) MRI, CT scan or radiography Use of antibodies against cancer specific antigen

38 TREATMENT OF CANCER Surgery Radio therapy Chemotherapy Immunotherapy

39 DRUGS Kinds of drugs Opioids Cannabinoids Coca-alkanoids Barbiturates Amphetamines Benzodiazepines LSD

40 PREVENTION OF DRUGS Avoid undue peer pressure Educating and counseling to face problems, stress, to accept failure etc Help from parents and peers Professional and medical help

41 THIS PRESENTATION WAS BROUGHT TO YOU BY: "The belief in a thing makes it happen." - Frank Lloyd Wright

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