Presentation on theme: "U NHEALTHY DIET. F OOD POISONING Food poisoning is an ever-present threat that can be prevented with proper care and handling of food products. It is."— Presentation transcript:
F OOD POISONING Food poisoning is an ever-present threat that can be prevented with proper care and handling of food products. It is estimated that between 24 and 81 million cases of food borne diarrhea disease occur each year in the United States, costing between $5 billion and $17 billion in medical care and lost productivity.
CAUSES OF FOODPOISONING Microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasitic) natural toxins, and chemical residues. Bacteria. The mechanisms by which food-borne bacteria cause illness include the production of toxin in food before it is eaten or the production of toxin in the intestine, multiplication of the organism in the intestine
Illness is usually characterized by rapid onset, within hours or days, of vomiting and diarrhea, which may last a few hours or days in healthy people.
Common Bacteria Causing Food Poisoning IncubationMain SymptomsBacteria Produce toxins in food: 2 – 6 hours VomitingStaphylococcus aureus 1 – 16 hours Vomiting or diarrheaBacillus cereus 12 – 96 hours Headache, double vision, paralysis, death Clostridium botulinum (botulism)
Common Bacteria Causing Food-Borne Illness IncubationMain SymptomsBacteria Release toxins in intestines: 8 – 22 hours Diarrhea, stomach painsClostridium perfringens Rapid multiplication in intestine: 6 – 48 hours Diarrhea, fever, headache, some vomitingSalmonellaspecies 2 – 8 days Fever, headache, diarrhea, stomach pains, nauseaCampylobacterspecies 1 – 5 days Cramps, vomiting, fever, bloody diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) Escherichia coli 1 – 7 days Diarrhea, vomiting, fever, crampsShigellaspecies 1 – 7 days Diarrhea, fever, severe abdominal and joint painYersinia enterocolitica
Food-handling practices commonly linked to outbreaks of bacterial food-borne disease Bacillus CereusStaphylococus AureusClostridium PerfringensSalmonellaFactor contributing to outbreaks √√√ √ Food prepared too early √√√ √ Stored at room temperature √√√√ Not properly cooked √√ √ Not properly reheated √ Undercooked √ Contaminated canned food √ Not properly thawed √ Cross contamination √√ Improper warm holding √ Infected food handler
P REVENTION Normally a large number of food-poisoning bacteria must be present to cause illness. Therefore, illness can be prevented by (1) controlling the initial number of bacteria present, (2) preventing the small number from growing, (3) destroying the bacteria by proper cooking (4) avoiding re-contamination
P REVENTION OF FOOD POISONING Wash your hands, utensils and food surfaces often Wash knives and cutting surfaces with hot, soapy water after contact with raw meat or poultry. Keep raw foods separate from ready-to-eat foods Separate your meat and poultry products from the rest of your groceries. Tightly wrap raw meat packages in plastic bags so that leaking juices won't contaminate other food. Use separate cutting boards for raw meats and other ready-to-eat foods such as breads and vegetables..
Use one plate for raw meats and use another plate after the meat is cooked Cook foods to a safe temperature Cook meat and poultry thoroughly Tightly wrap meat, poultry and fish so the juices don't drip on other food as they thaw in the refrigerator Cook food immediately after defrosting Don't drink unpasteurized milk or dairy products Don't eat raw or undercooked eggs or foods that may contain them Don't leave high-risk foods at room temperature for more than two hours, or above 90 F for more than one hour.
Don't eat raw oysters. Make sure all fish and shellfish are thoroughly cooked Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly before eating them Divide large volumes of food into small portions for rapid cooling in the refrigerator. Hot, bulky foods in the refrigerator can raise the temperature of foods already cooled.
Serve hot foods immediately or keep them heated above 140 degrees F. The temperature range in which most bacteria grow is between 40 degrees F (5 degrees C) and 140 degrees F (60 degrees C). Raw and cooked foods should not be kept in this danger zone any longer than absolutely necessary. Remember the danger zone is between 40 degrees F and 140 degrees F. When in doubt, throw it out
T O THAW FOOD SAFELY, CHOOSE ONE OF THESE OPTIONS : Thaw in the refrigerator. This is the safest way to thaw meat, poultry, and seafood. Simply take the food out of the freezer and place it on a plate or pan that can catch any juices that may leak. Normally, it should be ready to use the next day. Thaw in cold water. For faster thawing, you can put the frozen package in a watertight plastic bag and submerge it in cold water. Be sure to change the water every 30 minutes. Note: If you thaw this way, be sure to cook the food immediately. Thaw in the microwave. Faster thawing can also be accomplished in the microwave. Simply follow instructions in your owner’s manual for thawing. As with thawing in cold water, food thawed in the microwave should be cooked immediately. Cook without thawing. If you don’t have enough time to thaw food, just remember, it is safe to cook foods from a frozen state—but your cooking time will be approximately 50% longer than fully thawed meat or poultry.
S TORAGE T IMES FOR THE R EFRIGERATOR AND F REEZER HTTP :// WWW. FOODSAFETY. GOV / KEEP / CHARTS / STORAGETIMES. HTML CategoryFood Refrigerator (40 °F or below) Freezer (0 °F or below) Salads Egg, chicken, ham, tuna & macaroni salads 3 to 5 daysDoes not freeze well Hot dogsopened package1 week1 to 2 months unopened package2 weeks1 to 2 months Luncheon meatopened package or deli sliced3 to 5 days1 to 2 months unopened package2 weeks1 to 2 months Bacon & SausageBacon7 days1 month Sausage, raw — from chicken, turkey, pork, beef 1 to 2 days1 to 2 months Hamburger & Other Ground Meats Hamburger, ground beef, turkey, veal, pork, lamb, & mixtures of them 1 to 2 days3 to 4 months Fresh Beef, Veal, Lamb & PorkSteaks3 to 5 days6 to 12 months Chops3 to 5 days4 to 6 months Roasts3 to 5 days4 to 12 months Fresh PoultryChicken or turkey, whole1 to 2 days1 year Chicken or turkey, pieces1 to 2 days9 months Soups & StewsVegetable or meat added3 to 4 days2 to 3 months LeftoversCooked meat or poultry3 to 4 days2 to 6 months Chicken nuggets or patties3 to 4 days1 to 3 months Pizza3 to 4 days1 to 2 months
V IDEO ON FOOD HYGIENE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DizdkUayQBw
F OOD CARCINOGENS The occurrence of carcinogens in some foods, either as natural constituents or as contaminants that develop during harvesting, processing, or cooking, is now well established
CARCINOGENS OF N ATURAL O RIGIN IN THE H UMAN D IET : Carcinogens from food-containing molds: Aflatoxins'' (Aspergillus) common contaminants of foods that are harvested and/or stored under warm, humid conditions especially peanuts, corn, and some grains Gossypol from unrefined cotton seed oil (used in cooking in Egypt). Ethyl carbamate" wines. beers,(heavy alcohol consumption is correlated to cancers of the head and neck, oropharynx, esophagus, and rectum.)
T HE MECHANISM OF ALCOHOL CARCINOGENICITY a direct carcinogenic action, a solvent effect facilitating carcinogen transport across mucous membranes (cigarette products), Enzyme induction leading to carcinogen bioactivation, Contaminating carcinogens of alcohol production (nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos from filters), as well as associated malnutrition and host immunosuppression.
C ONTAMINANT CARCINOGENS heterocyclic amines cooked meats polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons smoked foods – acrylamideacrylamide Some Food additives
heterocyclic amines(cooked meats) has been shown to induce lymphomas in mice, colon and mammary carcinomas in female rats, and colon and prostate tumors in male rats polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during meat or fish grilling and are found in the smoke that rises when the fat from the meat drips on to the hot coals
this contamination can be prevented if a barrier(e.g foil) is inserted between the source of the hydrocarbon and the meat Pre-cooking meats in a microwave oven for 2–3 minutes before grilling shortens the time on the hot pan, and removes heterocyclic amine (HCA) precursors, which can help minimize the formation of these carcinogensmicrowave oven
Reports from the Food Standards Agency have found that the known animal carcinogen acrylamide is generated in fried or overheated carbohydrate foods (such as french fries and potato chipsFood Standards Agency acrylamide carbohydratefrench fries potato chips Up to one half of breast cancers and Up to 75% of colon and rectal cancers can be prevented by a healthy choice of foods, the proper body weight, and regular exercise
F OOD THAT HAS ANTICARCINOGENIC ACTIVITY diallyl disulfide in garlic selenium is the best compelling cancer prevention agent known to be effective in humans to date.In Nuts, Tuna, Beef, Cod, Turkey, Nut,cereals, fish
F OODS THAT DISCOURAGE CANCER INCLUDE : Fruits & Vegetables Whole Grains Nuts & Seeds Roots & Tubers Spices/herbs
R ECOMMENDATIONS 1. Keep meat consumption to reasonable Level – Recommend not > 3 oz/day 2. Choose low-fat meats to grill 3. Maintain optimal body weight 4. Choose a diet rich in a variety of plant-based foods. 5. Eat plenty of vegetables and fruits.
6. be physically active. 7. Do no drink alcohol. 8. Select foods low in fat and salt. 9. Prepare and store foods safely. 10. Do not use tobacco in any form 11. Do not stuck to fixed types of food for long time