Presentation on theme: "Phytochemicals n Phyto = plants n Compounds in plants that protect them from pests, viruses, bacteria & sun damage. n Only in plant foods. –5-9 servings."— Presentation transcript:
Phytochemicals n Phyto = plants n Compounds in plants that protect them from pests, viruses, bacteria & sun damage. n Only in plant foods. –5-9 servings of fruits & veggies recommended each day. n Antioxidants are phytochemicals that decrease free radicals.
Antioxidants reduce free radicals n Every cell needs oxygen to generate energy, but this process forms some unstable molecules. n These unstable oxygen molecules stabilize themselves, by stealing electrons from nearby molecules – creating free radicals. n Antioxidants are the police force that minimize the stealing. You want enough police on the force to out number the thieves (free radicals). n Free radicals may lead to cancer, heart disease, memory loss & impaired eyesight.
Antioxidant Power n Tufts University designed a test to measure the antioxidant strength of food. n Grind food & spin, then toss in free radicals. n Strive for 3,500 “antioxidant points” per day (serving size = ½ c.)
Tomato (189) n Benefits –Provides 80% of American’s lycopene. –Lycopene protects against prostate & lung cancer. –10 servings/week decreased prostate cancer 35%. n Cooking frees lycopene –Red tomatoes –Tomato soup –Pasta sauce –Pizza sauce
Yellow Corn (402) n Provides 2 carotenoids –Lutein & zeaxanthin. Both lutein and zeaxanthin found in macula of eye n Benefits –Can help prevent loss of our sharp vision. Macular (retina) degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in elderly.
Orange (750) n Benefits –Promotes heart health by reducing inflammation, LDL cholesterol and risk of stroke. –Juice & peel may help prevent cancer of stomach, mouth, lung, breast and skin. –Boosts enzymes that collect & remove carcinogens & encourages cell death in diseased cells.
Orange Peel: Study n Examined eating habits of 475 Arizonians n Those who used orange (or lemon) peels in cooking – as little as once a month – reduced their risks of squamous cell carcinoma (type that can spread) of the skin 50%.
Broccoli (890) n Benefits: –Sulforaphane is a cancer fighter. Boosts enzymes that collect & remove carcinogens & encourages cell death in diseased cells. –Carcinogen exposed rats: Those that received Sulforaphane – had 60% less mammary tumors.
Cranberries (1750) n Benefits –Prevents urinary tract infections –The tannins prevent bacteria from adhering to the walls of the bladder or urethra. –1 cup of cranberry juice or dried cranberries are effective.
Strawberries (1540) n Benefits –Protects the aging brain from oxidative damage –Ellagic acid in seeds prevent tumors of the esophagus and colon
Strawberries: Study n Put rats in 100% oxygen for 48 hours and their brain activity went from the equivalent of 18 years to 60 years old. n For 2 months, fed rats a strawberry-fortified diet*. n Put strawberry fed rats in 100% oxygen for 48 hours & their brains looked normal– no aging. *Same results with blueberries & spinach.
Ellagic Acid: Benefits n In lab studies shown to battle cancer by: –Decreasing the activity of enzymes that create certain carcinogens –Boosting enzymes that “package” carcinogens to be taken out –Encouraging cell death in diseased cells –Ellagic acid in strawberry, raspberry & blackberry seeds
Raspberries (1220) n Benefits –Same cancer protective compounds as strawberries but 50% more ellagic acid. –Most fiber of any fruit (double the fiber of strawberries) – 8 g fiber per 1/2 cup. n Jamba Juice with berries!
Red Wine (985) n Benefits –Helps reduce LDL (bad cholesterol) oxidation –Red wine has the most benefits White wine =196 points –5 oz/day for women –10 oz/day for men.
Spinach (1260) n Benefits –One of the best foods to eat for your eyes! Zeaxanthin & lutein protect from macular (retina) degeneration- leading cause of blindness in the elderly. –Stops cataracts. Lens doesn‘t replace old cells. –Especially important for: blue eyes – iris lets more damaging light in people with family history
Kale ( 1770) n Benefits –Destroys more “free radicals” than any other vegetable! –Stops cataracts - similar benefits as spinach. n Get kale fresh – it becomes bitter with age
Kale & Spinach: Study n Nurses Health Study with over 77,000 nurses over age 45 followed for 12 years n Ate spinach 2/week: 35% less cataracts n Ate kale at least 1/week: 40% less cataracts
Blueberries (2400) n Benefits –Destroys more “free radicals” than any other fruit! –Blueberries and strawberries have been called the “brain-berries” because they reverse some aspects of brain aging. n Eat fresh – cooking can damage the antioxidant power
Blueberries*: Study n Study with aging rats (65–70 in human years) with decline in memory, motor skills and balance. n Two months fed a diet with 1-2% blueberries (equiv ½-1 c blueberries). n “Rat Olympics”: Showed improvement in coordination and balance. Kept balance twice as long as control group. n How? Developed new brain cells quicker or receptors on brain cells communicated better. –*Same results with strawberries & spinach
Supplements n Studies show the health benefits are in food, not supplements. n Beta-carotene: –Two major studies on nearly 50,000 people found it increased lung cancer rates in smokers. n Vitamin E: –Study with 10,000 older men & women. After 4 ½ years it failed to cut the risk of heart disease or stroke.