2Prescription Medicine Prescription Medicine- Medicines that are dispensed only with the written approval of a licensed physician or nurse-practitioner.Pharmacist dispenses these medicine.Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines- Medicines you can buy without a doctor’s prescription.These medications can be used to make highly addictive, illegal drugs.
3Katie Couric Video http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=3541371n
5Prescription Medicine Medicine Misuse- Using a medicine in ways other than the intended useFailing to follow instructions on or in the packageGiving a prescription to a person for whom it was not prescribed (taking another person’s medicine)Taking too much or too littleTaking medicine for longer or shorter period than prescribed or recommendedMixing medicines without the knowledge or approval of your doctor
6Prescription Medicine Medicine Abuse- Intentionally taking medications for non-medical reasons.To lose weight or stay awake while studyingTo fit in with peers (Pill parties)Taking medicine that is prescribed to someone elseDrug overdose- A strong sometimes fatal reaction to taking a large amount of a drug.
8Nicotine/CarcinogenAddictive Drug- Substance that causes physiological or psychological dependence.Nicotine- Addictive drug found in tobacco leavesStimulant- Drug that increases the action of the central nervous system, the heart, and other organs.Nicotine is a stimulantIt raises blood pressure and increases the heart rate
9Tobacco Tobacco is an addictive and toxic drug. It’s a Carcinogen- A cancer-causing substance.
10What’s in tobacco smoke? Tar- Thick, sticky, dark fluid, produced when tobacco burns.Tar damages a smoker’s respiratory system by paralyzing and destroying cilia, the tiny hair like structures that line the upper airways and protect the body against infectionTar also destroys the alveoli or air sacs, which absorb oxygen and rid the body of carbon dioxide.
11What’s in tobacco smoke? Carbon Monoxide- Colorless, odorless, and poisonous gasCarbon monoxide deprives the body’s tissues and cells of oxygen.Carbon monoxide increases the risk of:High blood pressureHeart diseaseHardening of the arteriesOther circulatory problems
13Other than cigarettesCigars- Contain significantly more nicotine and produce more tar and carbon monoxide than cigarettes.One cigar contains as much nicotine as an entire pack of 20 cigarettes.Pipe and cigar smokers also increase the risk of developing cancers of the lips, mouth, throat, larynx, lungs, and esophagus.
14Smokeless Tobacco?Smokeless Tobacco- Tobacco that is sniffed through the nose, held in the mouth, or chewed.Smokeless (spit) tobacco products are not a safe alternative to smokingNicotine and carcinogens in these products are absorbed into the blood through the mucous membranes in the mouth or the digestive trackThe harmful chemicals of smokeless tobacco are absorbed into the body at levels up to 3 times longer than that of a smoked cigarette.Leukoplakia- Thickened, white, leathery-looking spots on the inside of the mouth that can deelop into oral cancer.
15Effects of Tobacco Use Short-Term Effects- Brain chemistry changes- Nicotine causes the body to crave more of the drug. May experience withdrawal symptoms (headaches, nervousness, and trembling)Respiration and heart rate increase- Breathing during physical activity becomes difficult and endurance is decreased (may cause irregular heart rate)Taste buds dulled/ appetite reduced- Lose much ability to enjoy foodsBad breath, yellowed teeth, smelly hair, skin and clothes- Continuous tobacco use leads to permanent unattractive effects
16Effects of Tobacco UseLong-Term Effects- Overtime tobacco use can cause damage to may body systems*People who are exposed to others who smoke can also suffer many health problems*Chronic Bronchitis- Occurs when the cilia in the bronchi become so damaged they are useless (tar builds up in the lungs causing chronic coughing and excessive mucus secretionEmphysema- Disease that destroys the tiny air sacs in the lungs. The air sacs become less elastic, making it more difficult for the lungs to absorb oxygenA person with emphysema uses up to 80% of there energy just to breathe
17More Long-Term Effects Lung Cancer- Develops when the cilia in the bronchi are destroyed. Cancerous cells can multiply, block the bronchi, and move to the lungs.Nearly 90% of lung cancer deaths are caused by smokingCoronary heart disease and stroke- Caused by nicotine.Nicotine constricts blood vessels (cuts down on blood flow to limbs)Nicotine also contributes to plaque build up in the blood vessels, which can lead to hardened arteries called ArteriosclerosisWeakened Immune system- Long-term tobacco use makes the body more vulnerable to disease.
19Other Drug CategoriesPsychoactive Drugs- Alter perception, thought, and mood- Could create illusions in the mindSome consequences:Side effectsOverdoesAids and hepatitisStillborn ChildrenDepressants- Slows down the heart and breathing rates, lowers blood pressure, relaxes muscles, and relieves tensionTypes:AlcoholTranquilizersNarcotics- (Opium, codeine, or morphine)
20Other Drug CategoriesStimulants- Increases heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rates.Types:AmphetaminesCocaineCrack(Gives a feeling of excitement and being alert)Hallucinogens- Alerts perception, thought and moodLSDPCPMarijuanaInhalants- Enter the blood stream directly from the lungsMajor damages to the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, and brain
22Facts about AlcoholEthanol- The type of alcohol in alcoholic beverages.Powerful and additive drugFermentation- Chemical action of yeast on sugars
23Effects of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol is a Depressant (even though the initial reaction of alcohol tries to mask its true effects)Intoxication- The state in which the body is poisoned by alcohol or another substance and the person’s physical and mental control is significantly reduced.Alcohol Abuse- Excessive use of alcohol
24Depressants Slow down the heart and breathing rates. Lowers blood pressureRelaxes muscles and relieves tensionSome other depressantsTranquilizersNarcotics (opium, codeine, or morphine)
25Overview Problems associated with alcohol Confusion Decreased AlertnessPoor CoordinationBlurred VisionDrowsinessBlackoutsDeathProblems associated with alcohol (in the body)Fetal Alcohol SyndromeAddiction/AlcoholismLiver damage (cirrhosis and hepatitis)
26Driving Under the Influence Blood alcohol concentration (BAC)- Amount of alcohol in a person’s blood, expressed as a percentage.DUI or DWIDUI-Driving Under the InfluenceDriving While Intoxicated
27Blood Alcohol Concentration Levels Body weight in poundsDrinks per hour10012014016018020022024010.050.040.030.0220.090.080.070.06126.96.36.199
28Blood Alcohol Concentration Calculation Hour12Number of DrinksBAC at start of hourA. 0.00EBAC from tableB. 0.080.04BAC (Start+Table)C. 0.08F. 0.10Alcohol processedD-0.02BAC at end of hourE. 0.06G. 0.08*A subtraction of 0.02 is made because that is the body breaking downsome of the alcohol.* For ages a blood alcohol level of .02 is considered illegal.* A blood alcohol level of .08 and above is considered the illegal.
29Questions to talk about together Why do you think some teens experiment with alcohol even though underage drinking is illegal and unsafe?What can adults do to discourage drinking among teens?What responsibility do you think teens have to discourage their friends from drinking? Their Classmates? Other teens who they might not even know?
30What Influences Alcohol Use Peer PressureFamilyMedia Messages
31Alcohol and the Law If under 21 it is illegal to BuyPossessConsumeTeens who break the law can beArrestedFinedSentenced to a youth detention cetner
32Alcohol and violenceTeens who drink alcohol are more likely to be victims or perpetrators of:Violent Crimes (Rape)Aggravated AssaultRobberyThey are also more likely to be involved in fights, resulting in school or police attention
34Consequences Consequences of DUI or DWI- Harm to the driver and others Severely restricted driving privileges and/or immediate confiscation of driver’s licenseAlcohol-related injuries, property damage, and deathLiving with regret and remorse from these consequencesLoss of parental trust and respectArrest, jail time, court appearance, and a heavy fine or bailA police record and possible lawsuitsHigher insurance rates- Up to 3 times higher than those for non-drinking peers
35Alcohol and Sexual Activity Alcohol use and sexual activity are a dangerous mixture.Alcohol impairs judgment and lowers inhibitions and compromises moral standards
36AlcoholBinge Drinking- Drinking 5 or more alcoholic drinks at one sittingSometimes done on a bet or dareAlcohol Poisoning- Sever and potentially fatal physical reaction to an alcohol overdose
37Effects of Alcohol Poisoning Symptoms that indicate alcohol poisoning includeMental confusion, coma, inability to be roused, vomiting, and seizuresSlow respiration-10 seconds between breaths or fewer than 8 breaths a minuteIrregular heartbeatHypothermia or low body temperature- pale or bluish skin colorSever dehydration from vomiting
38AlcoholAlcoholism- A disease in which a person has a physical or psychological dependence on drinking that contain alcohol.Alcoholic- An addict who is dependent on alcohol
39Stages of Alcoholism Stage 3- Addiction Stage 1- Abuse Alcoholism may begin with social drinking. A physical and psychological dependence develops. (Person may experience memory loss and blackouts and may begin to lie or make excuses to justify his or her drinking.Stage 2-DependenseThe person cannot stop drinking and is physically dependent on alcohol. Drinker tries to hide the problem, but performance on the job, at school, and at home suffers.Stage 3- AddictionFinal stage of alcoholism. The liver may be already damaged, and so less alcohol may be required to cause drunkenness. (If the alcoholic stopped drinking, he or she would experience severe withdrawal symptoms.
40Steps to Recovery Step 1- Admission Person admits to having a drinking problem and asks for help.Step 2- DetoxificationPerson goes through detoxification, a process in which the body adjusts to functioning without alcohol.Step 3- CounselingPerson receives counseling to help him or her learn to change behaviors and live without alcohol.Step 4- RecoveryPerson takes responsibility for his or her own life.
41Drinking while pregnant Drinking during the first few weeks of pregnancy can be especially harmful to a baby’s central nervous system.Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)- A group of alcohol-related birth defects that include physical and mental problemsFetal Alcohol Syndrome are both severe and lasting.
42Alcoholics might display Craving- A strong need to drinkLoss of control- Cannot limit drinkingPhysical dependence- May experience withdrawal symptoms- nausea, sweating, shakiness, and anxietyTolerance- Alcohol amount increases to feel its effectsHealth, family, and legal problems- driving citations increase, arguments increase, poor relationships with family