Presentation on theme: "Drugs/Addiction Mrs. Gennaro. Prescription Medicine Prescription Medicine- Medicines that are dispensed only with the written approval of a licensed."— Presentation transcript:
Prescription Medicine Prescription Medicine- Medicines that are dispensed only with the written approval of a licensed physician or nurse-practitioner. Pharmacist dispenses these medicine. Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines- Medicines you can buy without a doctor’s prescription. These medications can be used to make highly addictive, illegal drugs.
Prescription Medicine Medicine Misuse- Using a medicine in ways other than the intended use Failing to follow instructions on or in the package Giving a prescription to a person for whom it was not prescribed (taking another person’s medicine) Taking too much or too little Taking medicine for longer or shorter period than prescribed or recommended Mixing medicines without the knowledge or approval of your doctor
Prescription Medicine Medicine Abuse- Intentionally taking medications for non-medical reasons. To lose weight or stay awake while studying To fit in with peers (Pill parties) Taking medicine that is prescribed to someone else Drug overdose- A strong sometimes fatal reaction to taking a large amount of a drug.
Nicotine/Carcinogen Addictive Drug- Substance that causes physiological or psychological dependence. Nicotine- Addictive drug found in tobacco leaves Stimulant- Drug that increases the action of the central nervous system, the heart, and other organs. Nicotine is a stimulant It raises blood pressure and increases the heart rate
Tobacco Tobacco is an addictive and toxic drug. It’s a Carcinogen- A cancer-causing substance.
What’s in tobacco smoke? Tar- Thick, sticky, dark fluid, produced when tobacco burns. Tar damages a smoker’s respiratory system by paralyzing and destroying cilia, the tiny hair like structures that line the upper airways and protect the body against infection Tar also destroys the alveoli or air sacs, which absorb oxygen and rid the body of carbon dioxide.
What’s in tobacco smoke? Carbon Monoxide- Colorless, odorless, and poisonous gas Carbon monoxide deprives the body’s tissues and cells of oxygen. Carbon monoxide increases the risk of: High blood pressure Heart disease Hardening of the arteries Other circulatory problems
Other than cigarettes Cigars- Contain significantly more nicotine and produce more tar and carbon monoxide than cigarettes. One cigar contains as much nicotine as an entire pack of 20 cigarettes. Pipe and cigar smokers also increase the risk of developing cancers of the lips, mouth, throat, larynx, lungs, and esophagus.
Smokeless Tobacco? Smokeless Tobacco- Tobacco that is sniffed through the nose, held in the mouth, or chewed. Smokeless (spit) tobacco products are not a safe alternative to smoking Nicotine and carcinogens in these products are absorbed into the blood through the mucous membranes in the mouth or the digestive track The harmful chemicals of smokeless tobacco are absorbed into the body at levels up to 3 times longer than that of a smoked cigarette. Leukoplakia- Thickened, white, leathery- looking spots on the inside of the mouth that can deelop into oral cancer.
Effects of Tobacco Use Short-Term Effects- Brain chemistry changes- Nicotine causes the body to crave more of the drug. May experience withdrawal symptoms (headaches, nervousness, and trembling) Respiration and heart rate increase- Breathing during physical activity becomes difficult and endurance is decreased (may cause irregular heart rate) Taste buds dulled/ appetite reduced- Lose much ability to enjoy foods Bad breath, yellowed teeth, smelly hair, skin and clothes- Continuous tobacco use leads to permanent unattractive effects
Effects of Tobacco Use Long-Term Effects- Overtime tobacco use can cause damage to may body systems *People who are exposed to others who smoke can also suffer many health problems* Chronic Bronchitis- Occurs when the cilia in the bronchi become so damaged they are useless (tar builds up in the lungs causing chronic coughing and excessive mucus secretion Emphysema- Disease that destroys the tiny air sacs in the lungs. The air sacs become less elastic, making it more difficult for the lungs to absorb oxygen A person with emphysema uses up to 80% of there energy just to breathe
More Long-Term Effects Lung Cancer- Develops when the cilia in the bronchi are destroyed. Cancerous cells can multiply, block the bronchi, and move to the lungs. Nearly 90% of lung cancer deaths are caused by smoking Coronary heart disease and stroke- Caused by nicotine. Nicotine constricts blood vessels (cuts down on blood flow to limbs) Nicotine also contributes to plaque build up in the blood vessels, which can lead to hardened arteries called Arteriosclerosis Weakened Immune system- Long-term tobacco use makes the body more vulnerable to disease.
Other Drug Categories Psychoactive Drugs- Alter perception, thought, and mood- Could create illusions in the mind Some consequences: Side effects Overdoes Aids and hepatitis Stillborn Children Depressants- Slows down the heart and breathing rates, lowers blood pressure, relaxes muscles, and relieves tension Types: Alcohol Tranquilizers Narcotics- (Opium, codeine, or morphine)
Other Drug Categories Stimulants- Increases heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rates. Types: Amphetamines Cocaine Crack (Gives a feeling of excitement and being alert) Hallucinogens- Alerts perception, thought and mood Types: LSD PCP Marijuana Inhalants- Enter the blood stream directly from the lungs Major damages to the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, and brain
Facts about Alcohol Ethanol- The type of alcohol in alcoholic beverages. Powerful and additive drug Fermentation- Chemical action of yeast on sugars
Effects of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol is a Depressant (even though the initial reaction of alcohol tries to mask its true effects) Intoxication- The state in which the body is poisoned by alcohol or another substance and the person’s physical and mental control is significantly reduced. Alcohol Abuse- Excessive use of alcohol
Depressants Slow down the heart and breathing rates. Lowers blood pressure Relaxes muscles and relieves tension Some other depressants Tranquilizers Narcotics (opium, codeine, or morphine)
Overview Problems associated with alcohol Confusion Decreased Alertness Poor Coordination Blurred Vision Drowsiness Blackouts Death Problems associated with alcohol (in the body) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Addiction/Alcoholism Liver damage (cirrhosis and hepatitis)
Driving Under the Influence Blood alcohol concentration (BAC)- Amount of alcohol in a person’s blood, expressed as a percentage. DUI or DWI DUI-Driving Under the Influence Driving While Intoxicated
Blood Alcohol Concentration Levels Body weight in pounds Drinks per hour 100120140160180200220240 10.050.040.03 0.02 20.090.080.070.060.05 0.04 220.127.116.11.090.080.070.06
Blood Alcohol Concentration Calculation Hour12 Number of Drinks21 BAC at start of hourA. 0.00E. 0.06 BAC from tableB. 0.080.04 BAC (Start+Table)C. 0.08F. 0.10 Alcohol processedD. -0.02-0.02 BAC at end of hourE. 0.06G. 0.08 *A subtraction of 0.02 is made because that is the body breaking down some of the alcohol. * For ages 18-22 a blood alcohol level of.02 is considered illegal. * A blood alcohol level of.08 and above is considered the illegal.
Questions to talk about together Why do you think some teens experiment with alcohol even though underage drinking is illegal and unsafe? What can adults do to discourage drinking among teens? What responsibility do you think teens have to discourage their friends from drinking? Their Classmates? Other teens who they might not even know?
What Influences Alcohol Use Peer Pressure Family Media Messages
Alcohol and the Law If under 21 it is illegal to Buy Possess Consume Teens who break the law can be Arrested Fined Sentenced to a youth detention cetner
Alcohol and violence Teens who drink alcohol are more likely to be victims or perpetrators of: Violent Crimes (Rape) Aggravated Assault Robbery They are also more likely to be involved in fights, resulting in school or police attention
Consequences Consequences of DUI or DWI- Harm to the driver and others Severely restricted driving privileges and/or immediate confiscation of driver’s license Alcohol-related injuries, property damage, and death Living with regret and remorse from these consequences Loss of parental trust and respect Arrest, jail time, court appearance, and a heavy fine or bail A police record and possible lawsuits Higher insurance rates- Up to 3 times higher than those for non-drinking peers
Alcohol and Sexual Activity Alcohol use and sexual activity are a dangerous mixture. Alcohol impairs judgment and lowers inhibitions and compromises moral standards
Alcohol Binge Drinking- Drinking 5 or more alcoholic drinks at one sitting Sometimes done on a bet or dare Alcohol Poisoning- Sever and potentially fatal physical reaction to an alcohol overdose
Effects of Alcohol Poisoning Symptoms that indicate alcohol poisoning include Mental confusion, coma, inability to be roused, vomiting, and seizures Slow respiration-10 seconds between breaths or fewer than 8 breaths a minute Irregular heartbeat Hypothermia or low body temperature- pale or bluish skin color Sever dehydration from vomiting
Alcohol Alcoholism- A disease in which a person has a physical or psychological dependence on drinking that contain alcohol. Alcoholic- An addict who is dependent on alcohol
Stages of Alcoholism Stage 1- Abuse Alcoholism may begin with social drinking. A physical and psychological dependence develops. (Person may experience memory loss and blackouts and may begin to lie or make excuses to justify his or her drinking. Stage 2-Dependense The person cannot stop drinking and is physically dependent on alcohol. Drinker tries to hide the problem, but performance on the job, at school, and at home suffers. Stage 3- Addiction Final stage of alcoholism. The liver may be already damaged, and so less alcohol may be required to cause drunkenness. (If the alcoholic stopped drinking, he or she would experience severe withdrawal symptoms.
Steps to Recovery Step 1- Admission Person admits to having a drinking problem and asks for help. Step 2- Detoxification Person goes through detoxification, a process in which the body adjusts to functioning without alcohol. Step 3- Counseling Person receives counseling to help him or her learn to change behaviors and live without alcohol. Step 4- Recovery Person takes responsibility for his or her own life.
Drinking while pregnant Drinking during the first few weeks of pregnancy can be especially harmful to a baby’s central nervous system. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)- A group of alcohol-related birth defects that include physical and mental problems Fetal Alcohol Syndrome are both severe and lasting.
Alcoholics might display Craving- A strong need to drink Loss of control- Cannot limit drinking Physical dependence- May experience withdrawal symptoms- nausea, sweating, shakiness, and anxiety Tolerance- Alcohol amount increases to feel its effects Health, family, and legal problems- driving citations increase, arguments increase, poor relationships with family