Presentation on theme: "1 Beryllium Health and Safety Review Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Oxfordshire, UK January 15, 2007 Terry Civic, CIH Manager, Environmental Health and."— Presentation transcript:
1 Beryllium Health and Safety Review Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Oxfordshire, UK January 15, 2007 Terry Civic, CIH Manager, Environmental Health and Safety Brush Wellman Inc.
2 What it is Why it is used Beryllium Metal Lightest non-reactive metal (lithium is lightest) One third lighter than aluminum, six times stiffer than steel Transparent to X-ray Reflectivity (infrared enhancing) Thermal management Alloys (<2% Be) Conductivity Metal memory (lowest stress relaxation) Strength (use less metal) Corrosion resistance
3 Beryllium - Processing from Ore to beryllium product forms Beryl-Ore (imported) 3Be0Al2O 3 6SiO 2 Bertrandite-Ore ( BW Utah Mine ) Be 4 Si 2 O 7 (OH) 2 Extraction by chemical processing to Beryllium Hydroxide Be(OH) 2 Beryllium Pure Metal (Be) ® and AlBeMet ® Copper Beryllium Master Alloy Cu 4% Be Beryllium Oxide Ceramic (BeO) Arc Furnace Copper (Cu) + Carbon (C) + Beryllium Hydroxide Be(OH)2
5 Beryllium in National Defense Military fighter jets Fasteners, equipment supports and structural components such as rudders and wing leading edges Infrared sensors for fighter jet optical targeting, radar and navigation systems F-15 Strike Eagle, F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-18 Super Hornet, F-22 Raptor Unmanned surveillance and reconnaissance flight vehicles Real time imagery Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Optical Sensor Attack and reconnaissance helicopters Mast-mounted optical systems Super Cobra, Apache and Kiowa Warrior
6 Beryllium in National Defense Guided missile defense system Infrared and optical sensors Ground-based Interceptor Launch detection satellites Strategic missile defense systems Precision targeting Trident submarine Minuteman III ICBMs
7 Beryllium in Aerospace Telescopes Hubble Webb Spacecraft Mars Rover Space Shuttle Cassini Orbiter Optics in weather Forecasting satellites
8 Beryllium Products Containing 20% to 100% Beryllium Structural members on satellites and spacecraft Commercial guidance systems X-ray windows Optical instruments Aircraft parts High-end audio
9 Beryllium-containing Alloys Mechanical contacts in servers, workstations, notebooks, PDAs Terminal connectors in anti lock brakes Electrical and electronic connectors and magnetic shielding in cell phones Air Bag Sensors GPS satellite network
11 Beryllium-containing Materials Beryllium, in solid form and as contained in finished products, present no special health risks. Beryllium, in solid form and as contained in finished products, present no special health risks. Most end users do not handle beryllium in ways which generate dust, mist or fume. Most end users do not handle beryllium in ways which generate dust, mist or fume. However, like many industrial materials, beryllium present a health risk if handled improperly. However, like many industrial materials, beryllium present a health risk if handled improperly. The inhalation of beryllium-containing dust, mist or fume can cause a serious lung condition in some individuals. The inhalation of beryllium-containing dust, mist or fume can cause a serious lung condition in some individuals.
12 Development of Occupational Exposure Limits for Beryllium Eisenbud at AEC investigated occupational health hazards of beryllium and recommended three (3) standards: Eisenbud at AEC investigated occupational health hazards of beryllium and recommended three (3) standards: A peak exposure limit of 25 ug/m 3 for 30 minutes to protect against acute beryllium toxicity A peak exposure limit of 25 ug/m 3 for 30 minutes to protect against acute beryllium toxicity A ambient air standard of 0.01 ug/m 3 to protect the general public A ambient air standard of 0.01 ug/m 3 to protect the general public A daily 8 hour Time-Weighted Average (TWA) of 2 ug/m 3 to protect against CBD A daily 8 hour Time-Weighted Average (TWA) of 2 ug/m 3 to protect against CBD
13 Occupational Standards USA OSHA current standards are: USA OSHA current standards are: Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) 2 ug/m 3 as an 8-hour Time-Weighted Average 2 ug/m 3 as an 8-hour Time-Weighted Average Ceiling Limit Ceiling Limit 5 ug/m 3 as a limit not to be exceeded except for the Peak Limit 5 ug/m 3 as a limit not to be exceeded except for the Peak Limit Peak Limit Peak Limit 25 ug/m 3 as a thirty minute maximum duration concentration over the Ceiling Limit 25 ug/m 3 as a thirty minute maximum duration concentration over the Ceiling Limit Brush Wellman does not recommended using this limit Brush Wellman does not recommended using this limit
14 Occupational Standards ACGIH’s current standards are: ACGIH’s current standards are: Threshold Limit Value - Time-Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) Threshold Limit Value - Time-Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) 2 ug/m 3 2 ug/m 3 Threshold Limit Value -Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) Threshold Limit Value -Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) 10 ug/m 3 10 ug/m 3
15 Occupational Standards ACGIH ACGIH In 1999, ACGIH published a Notice of Intended Change (NIC) for beryllium that would lower the TLV-TWA to 0.2 ug/m 3 and eliminate the STEL In 1999, ACGIH published a Notice of Intended Change (NIC) for beryllium that would lower the TLV-TWA to 0.2 ug/m 3 and eliminate the STEL In 2005, ACGIH published a NIC for beryllium that would lower the TLV-TWA to 0.02 ug/m 3 and eliminate the STEL In 2005, ACGIH published a NIC for beryllium that would lower the TLV-TWA to 0.02 ug/m 3 and eliminate the STEL In 2006, published a Notice of Intended Change for its TLV for beryllium that would lower the TLV-TWA to 0.05 ug/m 3 and the TLV-STEL to 0.2 ug/m 3. In 2006, published a Notice of Intended Change for its TLV for beryllium that would lower the TLV-TWA to 0.05 ug/m 3 and the TLV-STEL to 0.2 ug/m 3.
16 Occupational Standards ACGIH ACGIH Brush Wellman provided comments to the ACGIH that stated their proposed revision to the TLV could not be supported by the majority of scientific evidence. Brush Wellman provided comments to the ACGIH that stated their proposed revision to the TLV could not be supported by the majority of scientific evidence. ACGIH elected not change the TLV at this time. ACGIH elected not change the TLV at this time.
17 Occupational Standards Department of Energy On December 8, 1999, DOE issued a rule (10 CFR Part 850) for Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention. The rule applies to all DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors. The rule does not apply to general industry. Established an 8-hour TWA of 2 µg/m 3 as the PEL for beryllium. The rule also established an Action Level for airborne beryllium concentrations of 0.2 µg/m 3.
18 Occupational Standards Department of Energy The Action Level is used to trigger key worker protection measures such as: Periodic exposure monitoring Exposure reduction and minimization measures Regulated areas Hygiene facilities and practices Respirator usage Protective clothing and equipment usage
19 Occupational Standards Department of Energy Department of Energy Established criteria for allowable surface levels of beryllium based on wipe sampling Established criteria for allowable surface levels of beryllium based on wipe sampling Free Release Criteria Free Release Criteria 0.2 µg/100 cm µg/100 cm 2 Removable Contamination Level Removable Contamination Level 3 µg/100 cm 2 3 µg/100 cm 2 Housekeeping Level Housekeeping Level 3 µg/100 cm 2 3 µg/100 cm 2
20 Occupational Standards Department of Energy Surface Limits Department of Energy Surface Limits These criteria are performance based, not health based These criteria are performance based, not health based These limits are very controversial within the DOE These limits are very controversial within the DOE The 0.2 µg/100 cm 2 is very difficult to attain The 0.2 µg/100 cm 2 is very difficult to attain These limits have resulted in very expensive cleanup costs These limits have resulted in very expensive cleanup costs
21 Occupational Standards NIOSH In 1975, recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.5 µg/m 3 as a TWA. Based on reports that beryllium poses a carcinogenic risk COSH 2 ug/m 3 AWE 0.5 µg/m 3 as an Action Level 0.25 µg/m 3 Alert Level
22 Occupational Exposure Limit Johnson study of AWE Cardiff Supports 2.0 ug/m 3 standard NIOSH Studies of Brush facilities Found cases of CBD with exposure below 2 ug/m 3 Did not find CBD or sensitization with exposures below 0.2 ug/m 3 BW supports the use of 0.2 ug/m 3 as an action level
23 Beryllium Toxicity First observed in the 1940’s Respiratory effects Acute beryllium disease (ABD) Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) Clinical Subclinical
24 Acute Beryllium Disease (ABD) Associated with high exposures to beryllium salts or low fired beryllium oxide Rapid onset of respiratory symptoms similar to pneumonia Last documented case was observed in the late 1960’s due to lower exposures to salts and elimination of low fired BeO.
25 Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) Conditions Individual must be sensitive or allergic to beryllium Respirable particulate less than 10 microns in size Exposure to beryllium particulate in the form of a dust, fume or mist All three conditions are required CBD is primarily a disease affecting the lung CBD is treatable but not curable
26 Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) Symptoms may include: Unexplained cough Shortness of breath, especially with activity Fatigue Unexplained weight loss and/or loss of appetite Fever Night sweats
27 Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) Diagnostic criteria prior to late 1980’s Individuals exhibit symptoms Changes in chest x-ray Reduced lung function Diagnostic criteria after late 1980’s Confirmed sensitization to beryllium Presence of pulmonary granulomas New diagnostic criteria has given rise to increased identification of CBD cases, many of which do not exhibit symptoms
28 Medical Surveillance for CBD Classic: clinical illness Annual medical history (cough, wheeze, shortness of breath) physical examination chest x-ray pulmonary function test
29 Medical Surveillance for CBD Sub-clinical disease Test for allergy using the beryllium blood lymphocyte proliferation test (BeBLPT) Follow with fiber optic bronchoscopy looking for: Lavage: lymphocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation (BeBALLPT) Biopsy: pulmonary granuloma Risks: Bleeding, pneumothorax, infection
30 Beryllium Sensitization Beryllium Blood Lymphocyte Proliferation Test (BeBLPT) Capable of identifying beryllium-sensitized individuals Not a reliable or predictive screening tool for CBD Substantial inter- and intra-laboratory disagreements among facilities that conduct the test
31 The Science Behind BeLPT Some individuals have T-cell lymphocytes that recognize beryllium When exposed, these persons mount an immune response mediated by T cells Once stimulated mature T cells proliferate BeLPT is a test result that is based on measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes
32 Problems with BeLPT? Sensitivity and Specificity values are wide and depend on who you listen to. It is clear that: The BeLPT is not a standardized, consistent test There is significant variability in results both within labs and more variability among labs BeLPT testing reveals significant numbers of reversals from positive to negative A negative BeLPT does not mean one is not sensitized to beryllium and will not test positive in the future A negative blood BeLPT does not mean one does not have CBD
33 Problems with BeLPT? It has been demonstrated that 1 to 2% of the general population tests positive. There are only a few places in the world that perform this testing. Tests are expensive. Fear is prevalent. Am I going to die? DOE Be Health & Safety Committee is working to develop criteria for testing that would address parameters for a better biological markers.
34 What does it mean to others? Metal-induced Granulomatous Lung Disease By Karin A. Pacheco, MD; and Lee S. Newman, MD, MA
35 Use of the BeBLPT BeBLPT is not recommended for screening by US Army US Air Force US Navy Useful as diagnostic tool and as part of well planned research
36 Potential Issues Some studies suggest particle size matters - not mass. Evidence that CBD is linked to genetics HLA-DPB1*E69 ( 2 sets)
37 Skin Effects Solid forms No effect on contact or temporary embedding Sensitization and/or granuloma when left in contact with tissues via cuts and open wounds.
38 The Skin Contact Debate Tinkle Study Cadaver skin study used plastic beads not beryllium Animal study Work was well done and results were optimized which is not unusual in animal research Shaved mice Used Nair which fissures the skin Used a defatting solvent as the liquid suspension carrying the BeO
39 The Skin Contact Debate We can anticipate more on the skin penetration issue in the future as it relates to other elements e.g. silica, carbon black, aluminum Whole body of research going on in nanotechnology as it relates to inhalation and dermal contact of small amounts of ultra-fine particles and their health effects
40 Ingestion GI absorption poor Not recognized per se as a source of occupational illness
41 Beryllium: The Cancer Issue Beryllium is listed by IARC (International Agency for Research of Cancer) and NTP (National Toxicology Program) as a carcinogen by inhalation; and, by the European Union as a Category 2 - Possible Human Carcinogen via inhalation Beryllium was classified as a carcinogen based on 1940s levels of exposures which were 100 to 1000 times the OSHA PEL Scientific studies have demonstrated that cancer does not occur when exposures to airborne beryllium are below the OSHA PEL
42 Cancer Studies Levy Study issued in 2002 Reanalysis of data and conclusions of the 1992 study by Ward Dr. Levy concluded “there is no statistical association between beryllium exposure in these workers and lung cancer when using the most appropriate population cancer rates.” No cancer risk associated with post 1950 facilities
43 Processing Risk Categories Low Inhalation Concern Operations that typically release non- respirable (>10 micrometer) particles, are not expected to generate significant ultra- fine particulate, and/or are not expected to result in exposures in excess of the 2.0 ug/m 3
44 Processing Risk Categories Likely Inhalation Hazards Operations which may release respirable (<10 micrometer) particles, may generate ultra-fine particulate, may generate beryllium oxide and/or may result in exposures in excess of the OSHA PEL. The use of the term "may generate ultra-fine particulate” to categorize the hazard of particular operations addresses the hypothesis that exposure to a large number of beryllium-containing particles with low mass and an aerodynamic diameter of 1 micrometer or less increases the risk of developing CBD.
45 Low Inhalation Concern Anodizing Assembly Example Metallic Beryllium Operations This list is not all-inclusive and variation can exist within specific processes. An exposure characterization of all beryllium alloy processing operations must be conducted to verify the adequacy of and need for engineering and work practice controls. Handling Hand Solvent Cleaning PlatingInspection Painting
47 Workplace Exposure Characterization Conduct air sampling by a qualified Industrial Hygienist Develop and utilize a sampling strategy which identifies the extent of exposure variation and provides confidence in the results Make air sample results available to employees The exposure assessment should include the evaluation of secondary exposure pathways such as housekeeping, particulate migration and/or solution control
49 Control Strategies Beryllium Management Planning (BMP) Technical interventions for the effective control of beryllium focus on achieving 8 operational goals: Technical interventions for the effective control of beryllium focus on achieving 8 operational goals: Keep Beryllium: Keep Beryllium: in the work area in the work area on the plant site on the plant site work areas & processes clean work areas & processes clean workers prepared workers prepared out of the lungs out of the lungs off of the skin off of the skin off of the clothing off of the clothing at the source at the source
50 Keep Beryllium Out of the Lungs Review all jobs and tasks using information on potential for operational upsets, equipment failure, historical information, and sampling data Use respiratory protection, with an adequate protection factor, where intelligence suggests respiratory protection will contribute to lowering the risk for beryllium sensitization or CBD
51 Keep Beryllium Out of the Lungs Ventilation & Engineering Controls - Use as the primary method of controlling exposure to airborne particulate Ventilation & Engineering Controls - Use as the primary method of controlling exposure to airborne particulate Work Practices – Develop and use to prevent airborne re-suspension of beryllium and to prevent particulate from coming in contact with worker skin, hair or personal clothing Work Practices – Develop and use to prevent airborne re-suspension of beryllium and to prevent particulate from coming in contact with worker skin, hair or personal clothing
52 Keep Beryllium Work Areas Clean Ensure procedures are in place and followed that maintain beryllium work areas to a “shipshape” standard of cleanliness. Shipshape cleanliness is defined as work areas that are orderly, well lit, and free of clutter and visible contaminant accumulation (visibly clean), and in which all surfaces are painted or otherwise maintained as visually attractive
53 Keep Beryllium Off the Skin Ensure procedures are in place and followed within beryllium operations to prevent: Skin contact with beryllium-containing solutions, salts, or fine particulate on surfaces Falling, spilling or splashing of liquids or dusts containing beryllium
54 Keep Beryllium Off of Clothing Ensure procedures are in place and followed which ensure that supplied work clothing is maintained in a visibly clean condition when there is potential for contact with beryllium- containing particulate or solutions Provide for over-garment protection of clothing when visible soiling may be anticipated When clothing is inadvertently visibly contaminated, the person must remove the clothing, shower, and don fresh clothing
55 Keep Beryllium in the Work Area Define where beryllium work areas as locations in the work site where beryllium processing occurs, or where support services are carried out Ensure procedures are in place and are followed to control the unintended transport of beryllium- containing solutions or particulate to other work areas, and to prevent the spread of beryllium to areas of the site where beryllium processing or manufacturing support services are not performed
56 Keep Beryllium at the Source Ensure procedures are in place and followed to evaluate work processes and prevent routes by which beryllium-containing particulate or solutions may escape on people, on product, on equipment, in the air, in cooling or lubricating fluids or in process water Ensure work practices are in place and followed to prevent the escape of beryllium- containing particulate or solutions
57 Keep Beryllium at the Source Where work practices alone won’t prevent escape, or where process or engineering modifications will substantially reduce escape potential, establish a list that includes all potential process and engineering changes. Establish and observe a management process for prioritization and decision making on implementing process or engineering changes. Design new facilities to limit lung exposure and skin contact, reduce clothing contamination and prevent beryllium migration away from processing areas
58 Keep Beryllium on the Plant Site Ensure procedures are in place and are followed to prevent beryllium particulate from leaving the plant site in an uncontrolled fashion Ensure employees, contractors and visitors who have the potential for becoming contaminated with beryllium on clothes and skin follow procedures Cover equipment or remove surface contamination
59 Keep Beryllium on the Plant Site Where there is exposure potential e.g. above the action level Change to company-supplied clothes or over garments before entering work areas, Remove and shower before leaving Launder PPE on site or at a qualified off-site facilities or package disposable garments in sealed plastic bag.
60 Keep Workers Prepared Ensure procedures are in place and followed to ensure that employees, new to beryllium and/or moving to new assignments, are trained and equipped to meet the criteria described above for lungs, skin, clothing and plant site from the first day of work for any job or task assigned
61 Control Strategies Health and Safety Management System (HSMS) Enabling Foundation: Health and Safety Management System (HSMS) Enabling Foundation: Commitment Commitment Organization Organization Communication Communication Education & Training Education & Training Measurement (Leading vs. Lagging) Measurement (Leading vs. Lagging)
62 Results and Lessons Early indication of success in new employee program Early indication of success in new employee program In new employees, lower rate of sensitization with no cases of CBD In new employees, lower rate of sensitization with no cases of CBD Need to continue to demonstrate effectiveness in preventing sensitization and CBD Need to continue to demonstrate effectiveness in preventing sensitization and CBD
63 End-of-Life Management Beryllium and beryllium-containing materials are not included in any end-of-life requirements or restrictions in European Union Directives: On End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV) (2000/53/EC and 2002/525/EC), On the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS) (2002/95/EC), or On waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) (2002/96/EC).
64 REACH Registration Evaluation Authorization of Chemicals
65 REACH Forming a Cooperative Consortium Pre-registration starts June 2008 We will be registering Be in 2010
66 REACH Since Be is a category 2 carcinogen may be subject to authorisation We are planning to seek a re- classification
67 Available Resources Publications Publications Material Safety Data Sheets Material Safety Data Sheets Safety Facts Safety Facts Frequently Asked Questions Frequently Asked Questions Health and Safety updates Health and Safety updates Others Others Personnel Personnel Brush Wellman Product Stewards and EHS personnel Brush Wellman Product Stewards and EHS personnel Product Stewardship Hotline at