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Cancer and Prevention. Cancer Environmental agents, genetic factors, and weaknesses in the body’s immune system can contribute to the development of cancer.

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Presentation on theme: "Cancer and Prevention. Cancer Environmental agents, genetic factors, and weaknesses in the body’s immune system can contribute to the development of cancer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cancer and Prevention

2 Cancer Environmental agents, genetic factors, and weaknesses in the body’s immune system can contribute to the development of cancer Cancer – Abnormal, uncontrolled cellular growth

3 Tumors Benign versus malignant tumors – Malignant Tumor or Neoplasm: Cancerous and capable of spreading – Benign Tumor: Noncancerous and nonspreading A total of 1,529,560 new cancer cases are projected to occur in the United States in 2010 (American Cancer Society) 15 million new cancer cases per year by 2020, says WHO (World Health Organization)

4 How Cancer Spreads: Metastasis Metastasis = spread of cancer cells from one part of the body to another – Blood vessels – Lymphatic system Secondary tumors or metastases Carcinogen: Any substance that causes cancer


6 Common Cancers: Lung Cancer Leading cause of cancer death Chief risk factor = smoking Smoking causes about 3000 lung cancer deaths per year Symptoms = Persistant cough, chest pain Treatment = Combination of surgery, radiation, chemotherapy Survival rate = 15% after five years

7 Common Cancers: Colon and Rectal Cancer Second leading cause of cancer death Risk factors – Age – Preexisting polyps – Heredity – Inactivity and obesity – Diets high in red meat, smoked foods, simple sugars – Excessive alcohol consumption – Smoking

8 Common Cancers: Colon and Rectal Cancer Symptoms – Bleeding from the rectum – Change in bowel habits Testing – Stool blood test – Sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy Treatment – Surgery is primary method of treatment

9 Common Cancers: Breast Cancer Most common cancer in women and second to lung cancer in the number of cancer deaths among women Causes/risk factors – Heredity – Long-term exposure to high blood levels of estrogen Early onset of menstruation Late onset of menopause No children or first child after age 30 Obesity Current use of HRT (hormone replacement therapy) Alcohol use – Inactivity – Diet low in vegetables and fiber

10 Common Cancers: Breast Cancer Early detection – Mammography (low-dose X ray) after age 40 – Clinical breast exams – Breast awareness and self-examinations Diagnosis – Ultrasonography : Imaging method using high-pitched sound – Biopsy = removal and examination of a small piece of body tissue Treatment – Surgery (lumpectomy, mastectomy) – Chemotherapy or radiation, social support

11 Common Cancers: Prostate Cancer Most common cancer in men and second to lung cancer in the number of cancer deaths among men Risk factors – Age – African American ethnicity – Heredity – Lifestyle factors Diets high in calories, dairy products, and animal fat and low in plant foods Obesity and inactivity History of STDs

12 Common Cancers: Prostate Cancer Detection and diagnosis – Rectal exam – PSA (prostate-specific antigen) blood test – Ultrasound – Biopsy Treatment – Surgery – Radioactive seeds Survival rate = 98% at 5 years

13 Cancers of the Female Reproductive Tract Cervical cancer – Linked to infection with HPV (genital warts) – Detected with the Pap test = scraping of cells from the cervix for examination – Abnormal cells are monitored over time; if they progress toward malignancy, they are removed

14 Cancers of the Female Reproductive Tract Uterine or endometrial Cancer – Risk factors similar to those for breast cancer – Usually detected by pelvic examination – Treatment = surgery, possibly combined with radiation and chemotherapy – Survival rate = 96% at 5 years

15 Cancers of the Female Reproductive Tract Ovarian cancer – Risk factors similar to breast and endometrial cancer Anything that lowers the lifetime number of ovulation cycles reduces risk – Usually has no symptoms and is difficult to detect – Treatment = surgery – Survival rate is low due to late detection Other female reproductive tract cancers – Clear cell cancer of vagina or cervix is more common among daughters of women who took DES during pregnancy

16 Common Cancers Oral cancer – Key risk factors are tobacco use (including spit tobacco) and consumption of alcohol – Easy to detect but difficult to treat Testicular cancer – Rare overall, but most common cancer in men age 20–35 years – Can be detected with self-examination

17 Skin Cancers Most common type of cancer when cases of the highly curable forms are included Primary risk factor is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation – UVA: Longer wavelength; damages connective tissue, leads to premature aging of the skin, causes skin cancer – UVB: Shorter wavelength; causes sunburn, damages eyes and immune system, causes skin cancer

18 Skin Cancers Basal cell carcinoma: cancer of the deepest layers of the skin Squamous cell carcinoma: cancer of the surface layers of the skin Melanoma: Malignant tumor of the skin that arises from pigmented cells, usually a mole; the most dangerous form of skin cancer


20 Preventing Skin Cancer Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants, hats, sunglasses Use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a high SPF (30+) Apply sunscreen 30 minutes before sun exposure, 15–30 minutes after exposure begins, and frequently after that; apply extra if you are using DEET Avoid sun exposure between 10 AM and 4 PM Check UV index Avoid tanning salons

21 UV Index

22 Other Cancers Pancreatic cancer: very deadly form of cancer Bladder cancer Kidney cancer Brain cancer Leukemia = cancer of white blood cells Lymphoma = cancer that begins in the lymph nodes

23 Cancer Treatment Surgery Radiation – Treatment with high energy x-rays targeted on the cancer site to kill or shrink cancerous cells – Often kills surrounding healthy cells as well as cancerous cells Chemotherapy – Drugs kill rapidly growing cancer cells – Administered via the blood stream – These drugs are highly toxic and kill healthy cells – Side Effects include pain, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, ulcers, anemia, immune system suppression, weight loss, muscle atrophy

24 Causes of Cancer Cell Development DNA Mutations Epidemiologic factors Chemical Carcinogens Radiation Damage Viruses Inactivity and Obesity Nutrition Stress

25 The Causes of Cancer: Role of DNA DNA basics – DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical substance that carries genetic information – Chromosome = threadlike body in a cell nucleus that contains molecules of DNA – Gene = section of chromosome that contains the instructions for making a particular protein

26 The Causes of Cancer: Role of DNA DNA mutations and cancer – A mutated gene no longer contains the proper code for producing its protein – Oncogene: Gene involved in the transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell Cancer promoters = compounds that accelerate cell growth

27 Epidemiological Factors Epidemiology – Study of disease incidence in populations Studies of cancer involve: – Age – Genetics – Lifestyle – Diet and Bodyweight – Geographic Region – Race

28 Percentage of All Cancer Deaths Linked to Risk Factors

29 Chemical Carcinogens Any substance that produces cancer – Cigarettes – Talc A mineral, produced by the mining of rocks. Processing eliminates trace minerals from the talc, but does not separate minute fibers which are very similar to asbestos. Talc is found in baby powder, deodorants, chalk, crayons, soap, insulating materials, paints, asphalt filler, paper, and in food processing.

30 Top 12 Cancer Causing Household Chemicals Air Fresheners Ammonia Bleach Carpet and Upholstery Shampoo Dishwasher Detergent Drain Cleaners Laundry Detergent Dishwashing Liquid Furniture Polish Mold and Mildew Cleaners Oven Cleaners Toilet Bowl Cleaners From the United States Government, Environmental Protection Agency, Office of the Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Washington, DC 20660

31 Radiation Damage and Viruses Radiation Damage – X-Rays and Sunlight Viruses – Take over the cell to reproduce themselves – Hepatitis B and C (may cause liver cancer) – Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (may cause cervical cancer) – Epstein-Barr Virus/Mononucleosis (may cause nasopharyngeal cancer)

32 Stress and Diet Stress may suppress the immune system Diet: – Being overweight or obese is linked with an increased risk of cancers of the breast (among women after menopause), colon, endometrium, esophagus, and kidney – Drinking water may decrease the risk of bladder cancer Water dilutes the concentration of cancer- causing substances in the urine and shortens the time in which they are in contact with the bladder lining

33 Cancer Causing Foods Hot dogs, bacon, ham, pepperoni, sausage, lunch meats, pickled and smoked foods Nitrates and Nitrites are found in processed meats. They combine with stomach acids and chemicals in foods to form nitrosamines, which are powerful carcinogens Charred, Burned, or Grilled Meats – Numerous toxic, mutagenic by-products are formed. According to the National Cancer Institute, cancers of the colon, stomach and other digestive system malignancies are associated with high intake of charred or burned meats.

34 Cancer Causing Foods Doughnuts, french fries, tator tots, hash browns, potato chips, crackers – The frying of starchy foods in high heat produces acrylamides – Acrylamide is a tumor causing agent and neurotoxin which has adverse effects on the brain and reproductive system (

35 Cancer Causing Foods Soft Drinks: – A government analysis showed that some soft drinks had high levels of benzene – a chemical linked to leukemia. It confirmed that the preservative sodium benzoate may break down to form benzene in drinks containing either ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or citric acid. Coca-Cola was sued as part of an effort to eliminate ingredients that may create benzene.

36 Cancer Causing Foods Alcohol: – Raises the risk of cancers of the mouth, pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), esophagus, liver, breast, and colon (American Cancer Society) – People should limit their intake to no more than 2 drinks per day for men and 1 drink per day for women. A drink is defined as 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits (American Cancer Society)

37 Cancer Causing Foods Carrageenan is a seaweed derivative used in a wide variety of foods and cosmetics. In its original form, it has not been classified as a carcinogen, but in it’s broken down form it has been classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Saccharin or Sweet ‘N Low, is an artificial sweetener that is known to cause cancer Artificial Colors, or FD&C Colors Green #3, Blue #1, Blue #2, Red #3, Yellow #6 found in candy, baked goods, gelatin, and sausages Causes allergic reactions and cancer (brain, thyroid, kidney, and adrenal) in lab animals

38 Dietary Guidelines for Cancer Prevention Eat a variety of colorful vegetables, fruits spices and herbs that are rich in the 3 A’s – cancer fighters/phyters (phyto – Greek for plant) The 3 A’s – Antioxidants – Anti-inflammatories – Anticarcinogens

39 The 3 A’s of Cancer and Nutrition Antioxidants – Prevent free radical formation which if unchecked causes damage to DNA Anti-inflammatories – Prevent elevated rates of cell division which may increase “mistakes” in DNA Anticarcinogens – Prevent DNA damage and allow time for DNA repair Good News! MANY DELICIOUS FOODS PROVIDE ALL 3

40 Antioxidant Foods Fruits – Cranberries, blueberries, blackberries, strawberries, cherries, plums, grapes, pomegranate, raspberries, kiwi, guava, tomatoes Vegetables – Kale, spinach, beets, brussels sprouts, bell peppers, sweet potatoes, carrots, broccoli, red cabbage, artichoke, garlic (raw) Legumes – Red beans, pinto beans, kidney beans

41 Antioxidant Foods Nuts – Pecans, walnuts, hazelnuts Spices and Herbs – Cloves, cinnamon, oregano, turmeric, cumin, basil, sage, thyme, peppermint, dill weed, paprika Vitamin E (as mixed tocopherols) in whole grains and natural, cold pressed oils Green Tea

42 Anti-inflammatory Foods Omega 3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) – Green leafy vegetables, mackerel, herring, sardines Omega 6 fatty acids – Flaxseed, borage and blackcurrant seed oils, pumpkin and sunflower seeds (raw), olives, olive oil Natural salicylates (reduce inflammation) – Turmeric, ginger, sage, rosemary, thyme, curry, apricots, broccoli, strawberries, cherries, blackberries, plums, pineapples, capsaicin (active ingredient in chili peppers) Green tea, cocoa and red wine

43 Anticarcinogen Foods Spices – Curry powder-a combination of turmeric and cumin and may include coriander, ginger, garlic, chilies, pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, cardamom and tamarind – Turmeric, Cumin, Saffron, – Capsaicin-"Capsaicin inhibits the growth of human prostate cancer cells in petri dishes and mice," Dr. H. Phillip Koeffler, director of hematology and oncology at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and a professor of medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles. Citrus fruits Brazil nuts (excellent source of selenium)

44 Anticarcinogen Foods Herbs – Fennel – Parsley-contains three times as much vitamin C as oranges, and twice as much iron as spinach (Dr. Mercola, DO) Green tea Pomegranates Tomatoes (excellent source of lycopene) Asparagus Broccoli-rich in selenium, contains twice the vitamin C of an orange, has almost as much calcium as whole milk--and the calcium is better absorbed (Dr. Mercola, DO)

45 Anticarcinogens Vitamin D – New Findings Functions: – Calcium uptake and bone breakdown regulation – Carbohydrate and insulin regulation – Brain and nervous system function – mood and cognition May prevent prostate, breast and colorectal cancer Relationship thought to be associated with Vitamin D and UV light exposure

46 Foods of Special Benefit Onions, garlic, and leeks may help liver and kidney detoxification Mushrooms are a rich source of beta glucans. Beta-glucans have been used to treat people with gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. They may be able to stimulate the immune system. Mushrooms (cooked) induce natural killer cells and are rich in potassium

47 Foods of Special Benefit Black Raspberries – highly effective at killing cancer cells in vitro and in animal studies (Ohio State, USDA) Resveratrol-chemical found in the skins of grapes and berries (blueberries, blackberries, cranberries ) – Red wine and red grape juice are good sources

48 Foods of Special Benefit Green Tea – Contains polyphenols-antioxidant chemicals in plants – Emerging clinical studies suggest that the polyphenols in green tea, may play an important role in the prevention of cancer – In one study of 472 women with various stages of breast cancer, researchers found that women who consumed the most green tea experienced the least spread of cancer (particularly premenopausal women in the early stages of breast cancer) (University of Maryland Medical Center)

49 Dietary Guidelines for Cancer Prevention Eat a varied plant-based diet Eat 5–9 servings of fruits and vegetables each day – Cruciferous vegetables – Citrus fruits and berries – Dark-green leafy vegetables – Dark-yellow, orange, or red fruits or vegetables Eat high-fiber foods Limit consumption of meat and total fat; favor monounsaturated and omega-3 polyunsaturated fats Limit consumption of charred, blackened, cured, smoked meat and fish Be moderate in consumption of alcohol

50 SOURCE: National Cancer Institute


52 Cancer Nutrition Therapy Smaller, more frequent meals. Have a meal or snack every 1 to 2 hours Eat more when feeling better Avoid fatty or overly sweet foods Do not recline immediately after eating Replace fluids and electrolytes Use foods with pleasant aromas Add high-calorie condiments, sauces, dressings Add extra ingredients during food preparation Avoid low-calorie foods and beverages

53 Preventing Cancer Avoid tobacco Control diet and weight Exercise regularly Protect skin from sun Avoid environmental and occupational carcinogens Be aware of warning signs, and get recommended screening tests



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