1Why Replace TCE & Chlorinated Solvents? Heidi WilcoxSurface Solutions Laboratory (SSL)Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI)University of Massachusetts LowellNEWMOA September 28th, 2005
2Overview Who we are & what we do TURI & SSL DOES EVERYONE KNOW US ? Why TCE?About TCEHealthEnvironmental & WE regulations/thresholdsEPA/TURI GrantAlternativesVapor degreasing drop-ins (solvents)AqueousThe Database & how SSL can Help!
3Toxic Use Reduction Institute The Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI) researches, tests and promotes pollution prevention and alternatives to toxic chemicals used in Massachusetts industries and communitiesCame out of TUR Act of early 1990’sSister agency to OTANON REGULATORY!!!!!!
4The Surface Solutions Lab (SSL) TURI established the Surface Cleaning LaboratoryNow known as the Surface Solutions Laboratory (SSL)Designed with the capability to evaluate the effectiveness of different cleaning chemistries and equipment for a variety of substrates and contaminantsThe goal is to assist industry in the search for safer cleaning processesBy developing and promoting safer alternatives to hazardous solventsA special focus on aqueous/semi-aqueous cleaners
5The Elimination of Solvent Exposure in Surface Cleaning The focus of SSL is to replace hazardous solvents with a special focus on the halogenated hydrocarbons30% of trials have been to replace halogenated solvents30% were conducted to replace other hazardous solventsToluene, MEK, N-methyl-2-pyrollidone, etc.Others were contaminant driven concerns
6TCE Grant- TURI/OTA EPA Identify small, non-filing users of TCE (chlorinated solvents). Project is targeted at smaller businesses using chlorinated solvents, who may not have direct access to pollution prevention information & resourcesFocus primarily on cleaningVapor degreasing, Immersion, Hand wipe & OthersOffer technical assistance to reduce or eliminate chlorinated solvent useOffer compliance assistance with MACT standardsDisseminate information
7Why Focus on TCE?In 2003 the Mass Toxics Use Reductions Program (TURA) initiated a High Priority Substances Strategy (HPS)It recognized chemicals of greatest concern in the state & aimed to reduce or eliminate themTCE is on the TURA more Hazardous Substances listChemicals on the HPS were chosen based on their potential for negative impacts on human health and the environment & their LEVEL of use in Massachusetts
8What is TCE ? and... YES A GREAT METAL CLEANER??? A FABULOUS VAPOR DEGREASER???AN EXCELLENT SOLVENT???and...YES
9It is Also …… A man-made chlorinated solvent = C2HCl3 A potentially dangerous health hazardIdentified as a high priority substance by TURAMade the list because:It was determined to be especially TOXICIt was used in sufficient quantity in MAViable alternatives DO exist for most applications
10Work Environment Problems Hazardous solvents have been & continue to be used in cleaning applicationsThese chemicals pose a series of health threats or hazards for exposed workersThere exists a need to control and/or replace/substitute/eliminate such hazardsControl features are not always fool proofCan lead to worker & environmental exposures that will cost money
11Other Issues to Consider Environmental accountabilityIncreasing regulation on toxic solventsDisposal costs & other regulationsCommunity perceptionWE ARE HERE TO HELP INDUSTRY THRIVE & PROTECT WORKERS & THE ENVIRONMENT
12TCE Usage Patterns 80% = Vapor degreasing Fabricated metal parts Some textiles5% intermediate product in organic chemicals or pharmaceuticals5% solvent for dry-cleaning, pre and post spotting and chemical extractor10% exported(EPA 2004)
13Sources of TCE Exposure Potential Exposure RoutesBreathing vapors at work, near a factory that makes or used TCE, off gassing from consumer products (adhesive, paint etc…)Ingestion by eating contaminated foodDirect skin contact such as bathing or washing in contaminated water or directDrinking contaminated water (wastewater)Potentially 400,000 U.S. workers exposed annually(TCE fact sheet Lowell Center 2003)
14Workplace Exposure Limits OSHAPEL = 100 ppm TWA 8-hr wk shift200 ppm not to be exceeded during any 15 min. work period300 ppm for 5 minutes in any 2-hour work periodNIOSHREL = 25 ppm TWA 10-hour work shiftACGIHREL =50 ppm TWA 8-hour work shift100 ppm as STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit)
16Health Effects of TCE Inhalation Exposure (handout) Breathing Small AmountsCNS effectssleepinessfatigueheadacheconfusiondizzinesspoor coordinationloss of concentrationOther effectslung & skin irritationBreathing Large AmountsMay Cause;impaired heart functionunconsciousnessdeathLarge amounts for long period of time;(Chronic exposures)nerve damagekidney & liver damage
18TCE Exposure & Cancer Risk 9th Report on Carcinogens by National Toxicology Program (NTP) determined TCE to be an anticipated CarcinogenInternational agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) determined TCE to be a probable carcinogen to humansAnimal studies -Liver, Kidney, LungEpi. Studies – Kidney, Liver, Cervix, Lymphatic
19TCE Release Patterns TCE’s major environmental releases are; AIR - emissions from vapor degreasingWater - wastewater from metal finishing, paint and ink formation, electronics, textiles electronics component manufacturing and adhesive and rubber industries.
20Environmental FateVolatile & evaporates quickly into air during cleaning operations. Can break down into phosgene, a known lung irritantPrecipitation carries TCE to groundwater. TCE is listed as # 1 groundwater contaminant & is in over 60% of Super Fund sites.Atmospheric lifetime 1-2 weeksPersistence in soil & ground water is longer & can have a half life up to 10 months
21What Participants Asked For Drop in replacements for TCE in existing vapor degreasing equipmentEasiest for them, less time consumingRecently spent money on machinery
22How to Find Drop-in Replacements for TCE? Literature searchLook at viabilityChemically (VP, FP Surface Tension) (HANDOUT)Environmentally (ODP, GWP, VOC)Evaluate health risks (HANDOUT)Contact Vendors for samplesTest chemistriesDevelop testing matrix – soils & substratesImmersion & Vapor degreasing trials
23Where there is a Will there is a Way! Our Homemade Vapor Degreaser
24Identified Drop-In Solvents Alternatives to Chlorinated Solvents Identified 20 alternative drop-in solvent degreasersSix Classes of ChemicalsHydrochlorofluorocarbonHydrofluorocarbonHydrofluroethersBromopropaneVolatile MethylsilioxanesDichloroethyleneClassBase Chemical1Chlorinated hydrocarbon*2HCFC3HFC4HFE5nPB6Volatile Methylsilioxanes7Dichloroethylene*Replaced Solvents
26Chlorinated Solvents Trichloroethylene (TCE) ACUTE EFFECTS(SHORT TERM)CHRONIC EFFECTS(LONG TERM)CANCER HAZARDSInhaled, acts as CNS depressive & exposure can cause dizziness, unconsciousness,, nausea & vomiting.Repeated contact can cause irritation, blistering, roughening and cracking of exposed skin.It may cause mutations & possible impaired fetal development.Exposure can result in skin irritation and corneal injuryRepeated exposure can cause memory loss, headache, depression and weakness in the arms and legs.There is evidence that TCE causes lung kidney & liver cancer in animals.GI absorption is rapid if ingested and can produce CNS depression & chemical pneumoniaDrinking or ingesting large amounts may cause liver and kidney damage, impaired immune function.It may cause lung and liver cancer.Very high levels can cause irregular heartbeat which can be fatal.Breathing for long periods of time may cause impaired heart function, unconsciousness & deathNTP & IARC anticipated & probable human carcinogen
27HydroChloroFluoroCarbon AGC Chemicals - AK-225 ACUTE EFFECTS(SHORT TERM)CHRONIC EFFECTS(LONG TERM)CANCER HAZARDSCan cause eye and skin irritation and rednessProlonged inhalation exposure can cause hepatitis, heart irregularities or deathMay cause liver cancerExposure can cause shortness of breath & confusionShows liver enlargement in animal tests?High acute exposure can cause unconsciousness, cardiac irregularities and be fatal3 Rows and much less information know then about TCE
283 Rows and much less information know then about TCE HydroFluoroCarbon DuPont -Vertrel CCA, MCA, HD Degreaser C, Flux Remover CACUTE EFFECTS(SHORT TERM)CHRONIC EFFECTS(LONG TERM)CANCER HAZARDSCan cause eye & skin irritation, pain, redness and swelling. May also cause blurred visionProlonged inhalation exposure can cause liver & lung damageNot listed as a carcinogen b IARC, NTP, OSHA or ACGIHExposure can cause shortness of breath, confusion, dizziness and weaknessMay cause heart muscle damage, chemical pneumonia and pulmonary edema?High acute exposure can cause unconsciousness, cardiac irregularities and death3 Rows and much less information know then about TCE
29HydroFluoroEther 3M - Novec HFE 7100, 7200 & 71DE ACUTE EFFECTS(SHORT TERM)CHRONIC EFFECTS(LONG TERM)CANCER HAZARDSCan cause eye and skin irritation, swelling, itching, drying and blurred visionProlonged exposure could cause cardiac sensitization and CNS depressionNo available informationInhalation exposure can cause respiratory irritation such as cough, running nose, throat pain and headache?High acute exposure can cause CNS depression, dizziness, drowsiness, slurred speech, slowed reaction time & unconsciousness3 Rows and much less information know then about TCE
30N-Propyl Bromide EnviroTech - Ensolv, Ensolv A; Petroferm – Lenium GS, ES; Kyzen – Metalnox M6960 ACUTE EFFECTS(SHORT TERM)CHRONIC EFFECTS(LONG TERM)CANCER HAZARDSCan cause eye and skin irritation and rednessProlonged exposure may cause lung, liver and kidney damageNo available informationIngestion of a large amount can cause abdominal pain, nausea and vomitingExtended skin exposure may lead to pain, cracking and dermatitis?High inhalation can cause respiratory tract irritation, CNS depression and anesthetic effects3 Rows and much less information know then about TCE
31Issues with Solvent to Solvent Substitutions Often deemed viable alternative due to less environmental regulationsDoes this make them safer for worker?Are we trading one problem for another?nPB for TCE recent research ANA in Toronto (handout)J. Majersik, MD, University of UtahSevere human neurotoxin but less ODPPossible interim step NOT a solution!
32What ARE the BETTER Solutions? Aqueous CleanersCan be used dilutedPossibility of recycling and reuse of cleaner and waterHopefully eliminates need for air permits due to solvents or hazardous waste disposal permits and the costs associated with bothReformulate Cleaner – Green ChemistryProcess changeEliminate contaminant to be cleanedEliminate cleaning all togetherChange materials to avoid need for cleaning
34SSL Testing on Aqueous Alternatives (handout) Worked closely with over 20 companies trying to replace TCE in cleaningA wide range of industries are represented by these companiesAircraftElectronicsGeneral MfrMetal workingOpticalPlating
35Summary of Aqueous Alternatives Testing to TCE 21 Vendors44 Products11 Product Classes
37Alternative Cleaner Classifications # of ProductsAlkaline Aqueous23Caustic1Ester3HCFCNeutral Aqueous2OrganicPetroleum DistillateSemi-AqueousTerpene5Terpene-OrganicTerpene-Semi-Aqueous
38Cleaning Varies from Case To Case Process specific & pilot testing on potential replacement cleaning chemicals is recommendedVendor information & alternatives database is available on line at
39SOOOOO………IF WE CAN FIND A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE…..WHY NOT DO IT??
40More In Depth Information with Rich Bizzozero (OTA) Barriers & ChallengesMore In Depth Informationwith Rich Bizzozero (OTA)
41Tools & Resources for TUR Try it on your ownTalk to others industryUse supply chain opportunitiesUse SSL’s online Simple Solutions DatabaseObtain a list of alternatives that are substrate, contaminant and equipment specificCall & ask SSL/OTA/DEP for Help
42Questions????? Alternatives Assessment Information call 978 934 3133 Jason Marshall or Heidi Wilcox*************************************************Hands-on Solvent Substitution WorkshopTomorrow 1:30 – 3:3307B Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Surface Cleaning But Were Afraid to Get Your Hands Dirty!