Presentation on theme: "Tobacco Forms The drug contained in tobacco is nicotine Cigarettes"— Presentation transcript:
1Tobacco Forms The drug contained in tobacco is nicotine Cigarettes Smokeless tobaccoPipes and cigarsThe drug contained in tobacco is nicotineNicotine is highly addictive
2Harmful Substances in Tobacco carcinogen- a cancer-causing substanceSelected Harmful Substances in TobaccoSubstanceHazardArsenicpoisonous, carcinogenBenzopyrenecarcinogenCarbon Monoxidereduces oxygen capacity of bloodFormaldehydeHydrogen Cyanidereduces the cilia function in lungsNitrogen Dioxideirritates respiratory tractNitrous Oxidereduces number of WBC in lungsPhenolCarcinogenVinyl Chloride
3Harmful Substances in Tobacco The three substances in tobacco smoke which are especially harmful:NicotineCarbon monoxideTar- thick liquid which coats the lungsSmokeless tobacco is not a safe alternative to smokingContains many of the same chemicals and at least 28 different carcinogens
4Diseases Associated with Tobacco Use Respiratoryacute bronchitispneumoniachronic bronchitisemphysemalung cancertracheal cancerlaryngeal cancerasthmaCirculatorycoronary heart diseasestrokehypertensionatherosclerosisheart attack
5Diseases Associated with Tobacco Use Digestivemouth cancerthroat cancergum diseasetooth lossliver cancercolon canceracid refluxulcersEndocrinepancreatic cancerdiabetes
6Diseases Associated with Tobacco Use Urinarybladder cancerkidney cancerReproductiveinfertilitycervical cancermenstrual disorderslow birth weightSudden Infant Death Syndromemiscarriageectopic pregnancySkeletalosteoporosis
7Diseases Associated with Tobacco Use Othermacular degeneration (blindness)cataractsvocal cord polypschronic fatigue
8Primary Diseases from Tobacco Use Heart Diseasedamages walls of arteriesraises cholesterol levelsincreases blood pressureEmphysemadestroys alveoli in the lungsLung CancerMouth Cancer
9Second-Hand/Sidestream Smoke second-hand smoke- air that has been contaminated by tobacco smokesidestream smoke- smoke from the burning end of a cigaretteContains twice as much tar and nicotine as what the smoker inhales because it is not filteredLong-term exposure to second-hand smoke poses the same health risks as smoking
10Tobacco Addictionaddiction- a physical and/or psychological need for a drug or other substanceTobacco use typically leads to two types of dependence:physiological dependence- the body itself feels a direct need for a drugpsychological dependence- the mind sends the body the message that it needs more of a substance
11Physiological Dependence on Tobacco Nicotine increases the levels of a neurotransmitter involved in feelings of pleasure and reward (dopamine), making it highly addictiveWhen tobacco users go a period of time without nicotine, they experience withdrawalwithdrawal- unpleasant symptoms that occur when someone stops using an addictive substanceanxiety, depression, irritability, fatigue
12Psychological Dependence on Tobacco Tobacco use is often part of one’s habits, built into his or her daily routinePsychological dependence also results from false perceived effects of tobacco use:Provides energyHelps relaxControls weight“Benefits” are false, but if one believes that they are true, they reinforce the tobacco use
13Reasons Teens Begin Using Tobacco Attempt to appear sophisticated and maturePeer pressureBehavior modeled by others around themGlorified in movies, TV, and advertisementsRebellionOthers?
14Tobacco AdvertisingTobacco is intensely marketed. Only the automobile industry markets more heavily.Kids and teens constitute the majority of new smokers—tobacco advertising is designed to appeal to themEmphasis on youthful vigor, sexual attraction, and themes of independence
20Why is tobacco still legal? IT IS BIG BUSINESS!!!!!The tobacco industry spent $20,680,315 to lobby Congress in That amounts to a whopping $138,794 spent on lobbying for every day Congress was in session. That is on top of the $9,424,612 Big Tobacco gave in political contributions during the 2002 election cycle.
21KEY FACTS Percent of high school students who smoke: 28% Percent of 8th graders who smoke daily:5.5%Approximately 90 percent of smokers begin smoking before the age of 21.Most people who smoke would like to quitMost people who begin smoking do not think that they will become addicted1 in 5 U.S. deaths are attributable to smoking
22The Bottom Line Not that many people are smoking. If you don’t start when you are young, you probably will not start.If you do start when you are young, you probably will become addicted.
23Reasons Not to Smoke You will be healthier and live longer You won’t smellYou will save a great deal of moneyYou’ll keep your senses of smell and tasteYou will have fewer allergiesYou will not be confined to smoking areasYou will have more energy and staminaYou will have healthier skinYou will not hurt the health of others who have to breathe your smoke
24Alcohol How alcohol affects the body: Alcohol slows neurotransmitter function, depressing the central nervous systemActs on:Spinal cord- slows reactionsCerebellum- alters balance, posture, and coordinationCerebrum- impairs senses and judgement
26Factors in Individual Effects of Alcohol Size and genderFood in the stomachHow fast the person drinksOther substances in the bodyTolerance- when the body becomes used to a drug, it takes more of the drug to produce the same effect
27Short-Term Effects of Alcohol Blood-alcohol concentration (BAC)- amount of alcohol in the blood, expressed as a percentageOhio’s legal limit: 0.1%Euphoria (BAC=.03 to .12%)Become self confident and daringAttention span shortensJudgment becomes impairedFine motor control diminishes
28Short-Term Effects of Alcohol Excitement (BAC= .09 to .25%)Become sleepyTrouble understanding or remembering thingsReactions diminishMovements become uncoordinatedLoose balanceBlurred visionSenses diminish
29Short-Term Effects of Alcohol Confusion (BAC= .18% to .30%)DizzinessHighly emotionalSleepySlurred speechSensation of pain is reduced
30Short-Term Effects of Alcohol Stupor (BAC= .25% to .40%)Can barely moveCannot respond to stimuliMay vomitMay lapse in and out of consciousnessComa (BAC= .35% to .50%)UnconsciousBody temperature feels coolSlowed breathing and heart rateDeath (BAC above .50%)
31Long-Term Effects of Alcohol Abuse Depressed immune systemHeart diseaseCirrhosis- scarring of the liver, impairing liver functionCancer (mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, & liver)Kidney failureHypertensionMalnutritionUlcersImpotenceBone DeteriorationPersonality Disorders (aggression, anxiety, depression)Alcoholism- disease marked by physical and psychological dependence on alcohol
32Alcoholism 1 in 10 drinkers will become an alcoholic Youth who drink before the age of 15 are 4 times more likely to develop alcohol dependency than those who begin drinking at age 21.
33Recognizing Alcoholism Drinking increasing amounts of alcohol and becoming drunk oftenPlacing drinking ahead of other activitiesDrinking aloneExperiencing blackouts and not remembering what he/she said or didShows personality changes when drinkingMaking excuses for drinking, promising to quit (but doesn’t ), and/or refusing to admit how much he/she is drinkingTreatment is possible—involves admitting problem, detoxification, and counseling
34Alcohol and CrimeMore than 1 in 3 convicted offenders were drinking at the time of their offense.An estimated 50 to 75% of domestic violence cases involve alcohol.in 2006, 17,941 people were killed in alcohol-related crashes, representing 41% of all traffic fatalities.Over a third of all deaths among year-olds are alcohol related.NOTE: Minimum 6 month loss of license (even if no car is involved) and $500 fine for underage drinking
35DrugsDrug- any nonfood substance taken into the body that can change the structure or function of the body or mindDrug use, misuse, and abuse:Use- drug is taken when needed, as directed, for the purpose intendedMisuse- legal drug is used in a way that it is not intendedAbuse- taking drugs that are illegal or not intended to be taken into the body
36Drug Classifications (By Effect) stimulants- speed up the body’s functionsamphetamines, cocaine, nicotine, methamphetaminedepressants- slow down the body’s functionsbarbiturates, alcoholhallucinogens- distort moods, thoughts, and sensesLSD, PCPnarcotics- relieve pain and dull the sensesmorphine, codeine, oxycontonHighly addictive
37Marijuana Dried leaves of the hemp plant, usually smoked Active ingredient is Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)THC is able to bind to many receptors in the brain, resulting in a range of effects:Cerebellum- alters balance and coordinationCerebrum- weakens memory, alters sensory perception, results in erratic emotional responses
38Effects of Marijuana Abuse Effects of the drug on the individual depend on:How much THC is in itUser’s experience and expectationsHow it is takenWhether or not it is used with other drugs
39Short-Term Effects of Marijuana Abuse Impaired memoryDistorted perceptionDifficulty thinking and problem solvingLoss of coordinationIncreased heart rateAnxietyMarijuana is an addictive drugWithdrawal from THC has been shown to be like that of cocaine, heroine, and alcohol
40Long-Term Effects of Marijuana Abuse CancerMarijuana contains some of the same, and sometimes even more cancer-causing chemicals found in tobaccoLung diseaseMarijuana contains the same irritants (tar, chemicals) as cigarettesUsers develop coughing/wheezing and become more susceptible to colds and pneumoniaCompromised immune functionTHC damages lymphocytes and lymphatic tissue, weakening the body’s ability to fight infectious disease
41Long-Term Effects of Marijuana Abuse Amotivational syndromeCondition marked by chronic lethargy, lack of focus, and inability to concentrateFurther drug useMarijuana is a “gateway drug”Studies show that few young people use other illegal drugs without first using marijuanaDecreased testosterone levels in malesTHC is fat soluble, and it concentrates in tissues with high fat content. One of such areas is the testes.This inhibits testosterone production, possibly to the point where secondary female characteristics are observed
42Why do young people abuse marijuana? Misconceptions of dangersMisunderstanding of health consequencesIgnorance of possibilities of addiction and social disordersInfluence of popular cultureMarijuana has been a popular image toolSymbolizes an antisocial attitude
43InhalantsInhalants are a class of substances that are not drugs themselves, but have a drug effect when their vapors are inhaledSubstances are common household products (ex.- cleaning products, aerosols)The drug effect of inhalants is a result of oxygen deprivationChemicals and/or gasses displace oxygen in the blood, resulting in inadequate oxygen to the body, most notably to the brain
44Short-Term Effects of Inhalant Abuse Nausea, vomiting/diarrheaBlurred visionLoss of coordinationHeadacheChest painRunny or bloody noseRinging in the ears
45Inhalant Abuse Inhalants can be addictive Inhalants can kill at any time, even on the first useAsphyxia or suffocationChoking on vomitSudden Sniffing Death SyndromeInstant death from inhaling toxins. Toxins interfere with the heart’s pace-making mechanism, producing cardiac arrest
46Long-Term Effects of Inhalant Abuse Brain damageToxins dissolve protective covering around neuronsDamage to peripheral nervesNumbness, tingling, paralysisLung damageLiver damageKidney stonesToxins interfere with kidney’s ability to control blood pHLeukemiaMuscle atrophy
47Steroids Chemicals similar to the male sex hormone testosterone Anabolic- builds tissueAnabolic steroids can grow muscle at an increased rateSteroids enter the body’s cells and cause them to increase protein productionTaken in pill form or injected
48Consequences of Steroid Abuse For adolescents:Halted growth due to premature skeletal maturationFor males:Shrinking of the testiclesDevelopment of breastsBaldnessInfertilityFor females:Growth of facial hairDeepening of the voicechanges in or cessation of the menstrual cycle
49Long-Term Effects of Steroid Abuse StrokeEnlarged heart muscle & high blood pressureLiver cancerKidney disease“Roid Rage”- uncontrollable aggressive outbursts brought on by steroid usePsychological disorders (depression, inappropriate anger)
50Cocaine Stimulant powder made from the leaves of the coca plant. Snorted, smoked, or injectedCrack cocaine- a concentrated form which is smokedIncreases the activity of a neurotransmitter in the brain responsible for feelings of pleasure (dopamine)Results in a relatively brief high, often followed by a “crash” characterized by depression and withdrawal
51Short-Term Effects of Cocaine Abuse Increased respiration, heart rate, and blood pressureBecause of effects on the heart, it can kill at any time, even the first useDisturbances in heart rhythmIrritabilityHeadache/DizzinessInsomnia
52Long-Term Effects of Cocaine Abuse Heart attackStrokeRespiratory failureErosion of nasal septumMemory loss
53Ecstasy (MDMA) “Club drug” in tablet form Causes the release of a neurotransmitter which affects mood, sleep, and heart rateOver-stimulation of these receptors can damage themHas a synergistic effect with alcoholDangerously boosts the effects of both substances when used togetherIdentified as a gateway drug
54Short-Term Effects of Ecstasy HallucinationsMuscle tensionTremorsBlurred visionHyperthermiaCan lead to organ failure and deathCan kill at any time, even the first use
55Long-Term Effects of Ecstasy Nerve cell damagePsychiatric disturbancesAnxiety, panic attacks, depression, mood swingsCognitive impairmentMemory loss
56Risks of Substance Abuse Physical RisksChronic disease and organ damageDecreased energy and enduranceWeakened immune systemInjury
57Risks of Substance Abuse Mental/Emotional RisksADDICTIONDepressionInability to concentrateReduced ambitionUnstable mood
58Risks of Substance Abuse Social RisksSocial withdrawalStress on family and friendsPoor performance at work/schoolTrouble with the law
59Influences Boundary Makers vs. Boundary Breakers A line (boundary) is crossed when a person accepts negative consequences with a choiceTwo groups influence decisions with regard to this lineBoundary makers- recognize the value of having lines in place and influence you to stay within themBoundary breakers- disregard the value of having lines and have crossed them so many times that the lines don’t existOnce the line is crossed, it is much easier to cross it again and again
61What are the long-term results of having no boundaries and consequently no direction? KEY POINT: One is more apt to accept negative consequences when pressured to do so by a boundary breaker
62Influences Voids Void- an unfulfilled part of one’s life Voids may center on love, acceptance, occupation, and/or relationship to goalsVoids are very powerful, and people actively seek to fill themVoids may be filled by positive or negative activitiesExamples?KEY POINT: when a negative action fills a void, negative consequences are disregarded
63Influences Media Drug messages heavily center on youth and fun creates associations with these images and disassociates the products with their negative effectsThemes are very appealing to young people:AttractionFunSophisticated/Cool imageHumor
72AddictionAddiction- physical and/or psychological need for a drug or other substanceSigns of addiction:Using drugs on a regular basisLying about the amount/frequency of useThinking that drugs are necessary to have funAvoiding other people in order to use drugsGiving up activities that the person used to enjoyPressuring others to use drugsFrequent moods of depression and hopelessnessRegularly missing school or work
734 Stages of AddictionReinforcement- User has all desired results with few or no consequences. The belief is that use is fun and rewarding and cannot cause harm.Feeling Normal
744 Stages of AddictionTolerance- The body becomes used to the drug and needs greater amounts to get the desired effect.
754 Stages of AddictionDependency- Psychological belief that that the individual needs the drug to be normal. Signs of withdrawal begin to show.
764 Stages of AddictionAddiction- Individual physically and psychologically needs drug to feel normal. Severe withdrawal becomes progressively worse.
77Rule of 5 to 15If someone begins using a substance after the age of 18, he or she can develop an addiction within 5 to 15 yearsIf someone begins using a substance between the ages of 13 and 17, he or she can develop an addiction within 5 to 15 monthsIf someone begins using a substance before the age of 13, he or she can develop an addiction within 5 to 15 weeks
78ay no in a firm voice ell why not ffer another idea romptly leave Refusal SkillsSaying “no” effectivelyay no in a firm voiceell why notffer another idearomptly leave
79Tips for Assertive Refusal Use humor to break tensionUse “I” statements—don’t accuse or blame the personTake your time—collect your thoughtsStand up straight and maintain eye contactSpeak in a firm but polite voiceDon’t apologize for saying noWalk away from the situation
80Refusal Skills Scenarios group #1A group of friends is trying to convince you to go into town to buy some pot.group #2One of your older sibling’s friends wants you to have a cigarette with him/her.group #3At a party, your friends are drinking beer. They have invited you to join them.group #4You and your friends are offered ecstasy at a party. It appears that your friends are going to accept it.
81Refusal Skills Scenarios group #5You are hanging out at a friend’s house, and everybody is bored. Somebody suggests that it would be fun to “huff” the vapors from a cleanser in the garage.group #6You are working out at the gym. Somebody with great muscle definition tells you that you could get stronger a lot easier if you just take the steroids that he/she offers you.group #7While studying late for final exams, a friend of your older sibling tells you that the pills he/she has will wake you up and keep you alert, and that he/she will give you some for free.