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Tobacco Forms The drug contained in tobacco is nicotine Cigarettes

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1 Tobacco Forms The drug contained in tobacco is nicotine Cigarettes
Smokeless tobacco Pipes and cigars The drug contained in tobacco is nicotine Nicotine is highly addictive

2 Harmful Substances in Tobacco
carcinogen- a cancer-causing substance Selected Harmful Substances in Tobacco Substance Hazard Arsenic poisonous, carcinogen Benzopyrene carcinogen Carbon Monoxide reduces oxygen capacity of blood Formaldehyde Hydrogen Cyanide reduces the cilia function in lungs Nitrogen Dioxide irritates respiratory tract Nitrous Oxide reduces number of WBC in lungs Phenol Carcinogen Vinyl Chloride

3 Harmful Substances in Tobacco
The three substances in tobacco smoke which are especially harmful: Nicotine Carbon monoxide Tar- thick liquid which coats the lungs Smokeless tobacco is not a safe alternative to smoking Contains many of the same chemicals and at least 28 different carcinogens

4 Diseases Associated with Tobacco Use
Respiratory acute bronchitis pneumonia chronic bronchitis emphysema lung cancer tracheal cancer laryngeal cancer asthma Circulatory coronary heart disease stroke hypertension atherosclerosis heart attack

5 Diseases Associated with Tobacco Use
Digestive mouth cancer throat cancer gum disease tooth loss liver cancer colon cancer acid reflux ulcers Endocrine pancreatic cancer diabetes

6 Diseases Associated with Tobacco Use
Urinary bladder cancer kidney cancer Reproductive infertility cervical cancer menstrual disorders low birth weight Sudden Infant Death Syndrome miscarriage ectopic pregnancy Skeletal osteoporosis

7 Diseases Associated with Tobacco Use
Other macular degeneration (blindness) cataracts vocal cord polyps chronic fatigue

8 Primary Diseases from Tobacco Use
Heart Disease damages walls of arteries raises cholesterol levels increases blood pressure Emphysema destroys alveoli in the lungs Lung Cancer Mouth Cancer

9 Second-Hand/Sidestream Smoke
second-hand smoke- air that has been contaminated by tobacco smoke sidestream smoke- smoke from the burning end of a cigarette Contains twice as much tar and nicotine as what the smoker inhales because it is not filtered Long-term exposure to second-hand smoke poses the same health risks as smoking

10 Tobacco Addiction addiction- a physical and/or psychological need for a drug or other substance Tobacco use typically leads to two types of dependence: physiological dependence- the body itself feels a direct need for a drug psychological dependence- the mind sends the body the message that it needs more of a substance

11 Physiological Dependence on Tobacco
Nicotine increases the levels of a neurotransmitter involved in feelings of pleasure and reward (dopamine), making it highly addictive When tobacco users go a period of time without nicotine, they experience withdrawal withdrawal- unpleasant symptoms that occur when someone stops using an addictive substance anxiety, depression, irritability, fatigue

12 Psychological Dependence on Tobacco
Tobacco use is often part of one’s habits, built into his or her daily routine Psychological dependence also results from false perceived effects of tobacco use: Provides energy Helps relax Controls weight “Benefits” are false, but if one believes that they are true, they reinforce the tobacco use

13 Reasons Teens Begin Using Tobacco
Attempt to appear sophisticated and mature Peer pressure Behavior modeled by others around them Glorified in movies, TV, and advertisements Rebellion Others?

14 Tobacco Advertising Tobacco is intensely marketed. Only the automobile industry markets more heavily. Kids and teens constitute the majority of new smokers—tobacco advertising is designed to appeal to them Emphasis on youthful vigor, sexual attraction, and themes of independence






20 Why is tobacco still legal?
IT IS BIG BUSINESS!!!!! The tobacco industry spent $20,680,315 to lobby Congress in That amounts to a whopping $138,794 spent on lobbying for every day Congress was in session. That is on top of the $9,424,612 Big Tobacco gave in political contributions during the 2002 election cycle.

21 KEY FACTS  Percent of high school students who smoke: 28%
Percent of 8th graders who smoke daily: 5.5% Approximately 90 percent of smokers begin smoking before the age of 21. Most people who smoke would like to quit Most people who begin smoking do not think that they will become addicted 1 in 5 U.S. deaths are attributable to smoking

22 The Bottom Line  Not that many people are smoking. If you don’t start when you are young, you probably will not start. If you do start when you are young, you probably will become addicted.

23 Reasons Not to Smoke You will be healthier and live longer
You won’t smell You will save a great deal of money You’ll keep your senses of smell and taste You will have fewer allergies You will not be confined to smoking areas You will have more energy and stamina You will have healthier skin You will not hurt the health of others who have to breathe your smoke

24 Alcohol How alcohol affects the body:
Alcohol slows neurotransmitter function, depressing the central nervous system Acts on: Spinal cord- slows reactions Cerebellum- alters balance, posture, and coordination Cerebrum- impairs senses and judgement

25 Alcohol

26 Factors in Individual Effects of Alcohol
Size and gender Food in the stomach How fast the person drinks Other substances in the body Tolerance- when the body becomes used to a drug, it takes more of the drug to produce the same effect

27 Short-Term Effects of Alcohol
Blood-alcohol concentration (BAC)- amount of alcohol in the blood, expressed as a percentage Ohio’s legal limit: 0.1% Euphoria (BAC=.03 to .12%) Become self confident and daring Attention span shortens Judgment becomes impaired Fine motor control diminishes

28 Short-Term Effects of Alcohol
Excitement (BAC= .09 to .25%) Become sleepy Trouble understanding or remembering things Reactions diminish Movements become uncoordinated Loose balance Blurred vision Senses diminish

29 Short-Term Effects of Alcohol
Confusion (BAC= .18% to .30%) Dizziness Highly emotional Sleepy Slurred speech Sensation of pain is reduced

30 Short-Term Effects of Alcohol
Stupor (BAC= .25% to .40%) Can barely move Cannot respond to stimuli May vomit May lapse in and out of consciousness Coma (BAC= .35% to .50%) Unconscious Body temperature feels cool Slowed breathing and heart rate Death (BAC above .50%)

31 Long-Term Effects of Alcohol Abuse
Depressed immune system Heart disease Cirrhosis- scarring of the liver, impairing liver function Cancer (mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, & liver) Kidney failure Hypertension Malnutrition Ulcers Impotence Bone Deterioration Personality Disorders (aggression, anxiety, depression) Alcoholism- disease marked by physical and psychological dependence on alcohol

32 Alcoholism 1 in 10 drinkers will become an alcoholic
Youth who drink before the age of 15 are 4 times more likely to develop alcohol dependency than those who begin drinking at age 21.

33 Recognizing Alcoholism
Drinking increasing amounts of alcohol and becoming drunk often Placing drinking ahead of other activities Drinking alone Experiencing blackouts and not remembering what he/she said or did Shows personality changes when drinking Making excuses for drinking, promising to quit (but doesn’t ), and/or refusing to admit how much he/she is drinking Treatment is possible—involves admitting problem, detoxification, and counseling

34 Alcohol and Crime More than 1 in 3 convicted offenders were drinking at the time of their offense. An estimated 50 to 75% of domestic violence cases involve alcohol. in 2006, 17,941 people were killed in alcohol-related crashes, representing 41% of all traffic fatalities. Over a third of all deaths among year-olds are alcohol related. NOTE: Minimum 6 month loss of license (even if no car is involved) and $500 fine for underage drinking

35 Drugs Drug- any nonfood substance taken into the body that can change the structure or function of the body or mind Drug use, misuse, and abuse: Use- drug is taken when needed, as directed, for the purpose intended Misuse- legal drug is used in a way that it is not intended Abuse- taking drugs that are illegal or not intended to be taken into the body

36 Drug Classifications (By Effect)
stimulants- speed up the body’s functions amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine, methamphetamine depressants- slow down the body’s functions barbiturates, alcohol hallucinogens- distort moods, thoughts, and senses LSD, PCP narcotics- relieve pain and dull the senses morphine, codeine, oxyconton Highly addictive

37 Marijuana Dried leaves of the hemp plant, usually smoked
Active ingredient is Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) THC is able to bind to many receptors in the brain, resulting in a range of effects: Cerebellum- alters balance and coordination Cerebrum- weakens memory, alters sensory perception, results in erratic emotional responses

38 Effects of Marijuana Abuse
Effects of the drug on the individual depend on: How much THC is in it User’s experience and expectations How it is taken Whether or not it is used with other drugs

39 Short-Term Effects of Marijuana Abuse
Impaired memory Distorted perception Difficulty thinking and problem solving Loss of coordination Increased heart rate Anxiety Marijuana is an addictive drug Withdrawal from THC has been shown to be like that of cocaine, heroine, and alcohol

40 Long-Term Effects of Marijuana Abuse
Cancer Marijuana contains some of the same, and sometimes even more cancer-causing chemicals found in tobacco Lung disease Marijuana contains the same irritants (tar, chemicals) as cigarettes Users develop coughing/wheezing and become more susceptible to colds and pneumonia Compromised immune function THC damages lymphocytes and lymphatic tissue, weakening the body’s ability to fight infectious disease

41 Long-Term Effects of Marijuana Abuse
Amotivational syndrome Condition marked by chronic lethargy, lack of focus, and inability to concentrate Further drug use Marijuana is a “gateway drug” Studies show that few young people use other illegal drugs without first using marijuana Decreased testosterone levels in males THC is fat soluble, and it concentrates in tissues with high fat content. One of such areas is the testes. This inhibits testosterone production, possibly to the point where secondary female characteristics are observed

42 Why do young people abuse marijuana?
Misconceptions of dangers Misunderstanding of health consequences Ignorance of possibilities of addiction and social disorders Influence of popular culture Marijuana has been a popular image tool Symbolizes an antisocial attitude

43 Inhalants Inhalants are a class of substances that are not drugs themselves, but have a drug effect when their vapors are inhaled Substances are common household products (ex.- cleaning products, aerosols) The drug effect of inhalants is a result of oxygen deprivation Chemicals and/or gasses displace oxygen in the blood, resulting in inadequate oxygen to the body, most notably to the brain

44 Short-Term Effects of Inhalant Abuse
Nausea, vomiting/diarrhea Blurred vision Loss of coordination Headache Chest pain Runny or bloody nose Ringing in the ears

45 Inhalant Abuse Inhalants can be addictive
Inhalants can kill at any time, even on the first use Asphyxia or suffocation Choking on vomit Sudden Sniffing Death Syndrome Instant death from inhaling toxins. Toxins interfere with the heart’s pace-making mechanism, producing cardiac arrest

46 Long-Term Effects of Inhalant Abuse
Brain damage Toxins dissolve protective covering around neurons Damage to peripheral nerves Numbness, tingling, paralysis Lung damage Liver damage Kidney stones Toxins interfere with kidney’s ability to control blood pH Leukemia Muscle atrophy

47 Steroids Chemicals similar to the male sex hormone testosterone
Anabolic- builds tissue Anabolic steroids can grow muscle at an increased rate Steroids enter the body’s cells and cause them to increase protein production Taken in pill form or injected

48 Consequences of Steroid Abuse
For adolescents: Halted growth due to premature skeletal maturation For males: Shrinking of the testicles Development of breasts Baldness Infertility For females: Growth of facial hair Deepening of the voice changes in or cessation of the menstrual cycle

49 Long-Term Effects of Steroid Abuse
Stroke Enlarged heart muscle & high blood pressure Liver cancer Kidney disease “Roid Rage”- uncontrollable aggressive outbursts brought on by steroid use Psychological disorders (depression, inappropriate anger)

50 Cocaine Stimulant powder made from the leaves of the coca plant.
Snorted, smoked, or injected Crack cocaine- a concentrated form which is smoked Increases the activity of a neurotransmitter in the brain responsible for feelings of pleasure (dopamine) Results in a relatively brief high, often followed by a “crash” characterized by depression and withdrawal

51 Short-Term Effects of Cocaine Abuse
Increased respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure Because of effects on the heart, it can kill at any time, even the first use Disturbances in heart rhythm Irritability Headache/Dizziness Insomnia

52 Long-Term Effects of Cocaine Abuse
Heart attack Stroke Respiratory failure Erosion of nasal septum Memory loss

53 Ecstasy (MDMA) “Club drug” in tablet form
Causes the release of a neurotransmitter which affects mood, sleep, and heart rate Over-stimulation of these receptors can damage them Has a synergistic effect with alcohol Dangerously boosts the effects of both substances when used together Identified as a gateway drug

54 Short-Term Effects of Ecstasy
Hallucinations Muscle tension Tremors Blurred vision Hyperthermia Can lead to organ failure and death Can kill at any time, even the first use

55 Long-Term Effects of Ecstasy
Nerve cell damage Psychiatric disturbances Anxiety, panic attacks, depression, mood swings Cognitive impairment Memory loss

56 Risks of Substance Abuse
Physical Risks Chronic disease and organ damage Decreased energy and endurance Weakened immune system Injury

57 Risks of Substance Abuse
Mental/Emotional Risks ADDICTION Depression Inability to concentrate Reduced ambition Unstable mood

58 Risks of Substance Abuse
Social Risks Social withdrawal Stress on family and friends Poor performance at work/school Trouble with the law

59 Influences Boundary Makers vs. Boundary Breakers
A line (boundary) is crossed when a person accepts negative consequences with a choice Two groups influence decisions with regard to this line Boundary makers- recognize the value of having lines in place and influence you to stay within them Boundary breakers- disregard the value of having lines and have crossed them so many times that the lines don’t exist Once the line is crossed, it is much easier to cross it again and again

60 Boundaries No Boundaries

61 What are the long-term results of having no boundaries and consequently no direction?
KEY POINT: One is more apt to accept negative consequences when pressured to do so by a boundary breaker

62 Influences Voids Void- an unfulfilled part of one’s life
Voids may center on love, acceptance, occupation, and/or relationship to goals Voids are very powerful, and people actively seek to fill them Voids may be filled by positive or negative activities Examples? KEY POINT: when a negative action fills a void, negative consequences are disregarded

63 Influences Media Drug messages heavily center on youth and fun
creates associations with these images and disassociates the products with their negative effects Themes are very appealing to young people: Attraction Fun Sophisticated/Cool image Humor









72 Addiction Addiction- physical and/or psychological need for a drug or other substance Signs of addiction: Using drugs on a regular basis Lying about the amount/frequency of use Thinking that drugs are necessary to have fun Avoiding other people in order to use drugs Giving up activities that the person used to enjoy Pressuring others to use drugs Frequent moods of depression and hopelessness Regularly missing school or work

73 4 Stages of Addiction Reinforcement- User has all desired results with few or no consequences. The belief is that use is fun and rewarding and cannot cause harm. Feeling Normal

74 4 Stages of Addiction Tolerance- The body becomes used to the drug and needs greater amounts to get the desired effect.

75 4 Stages of Addiction Dependency- Psychological belief that that the individual needs the drug to be normal. Signs of withdrawal begin to show.

76 4 Stages of Addiction Addiction- Individual physically and psychologically needs drug to feel normal. Severe withdrawal becomes progressively worse.

77 Rule of 5 to 15 If someone begins using a substance after the age of 18, he or she can develop an addiction within 5 to 15 years If someone begins using a substance between the ages of 13 and 17, he or she can develop an addiction within 5 to 15 months If someone begins using a substance before the age of 13, he or she can develop an addiction within 5 to 15 weeks

78 ay no in a firm voice ell why not ffer another idea romptly leave
Refusal Skills Saying “no” effectively ay no in a firm voice ell why not ffer another idea romptly leave

79 Tips for Assertive Refusal
Use humor to break tension Use “I” statements—don’t accuse or blame the person Take your time—collect your thoughts Stand up straight and maintain eye contact Speak in a firm but polite voice Don’t apologize for saying no Walk away from the situation

80 Refusal Skills Scenarios
group #1 A group of friends is trying to convince you to go into town to buy some pot. group #2 One of your older sibling’s friends wants you to have a cigarette with him/her. group #3 At a party, your friends are drinking beer. They have invited you to join them. group #4 You and your friends are offered ecstasy at a party. It appears that your friends are going to accept it.

81 Refusal Skills Scenarios
group #5 You are hanging out at a friend’s house, and everybody is bored. Somebody suggests that it would be fun to “huff” the vapors from a cleanser in the garage. group #6 You are working out at the gym. Somebody with great muscle definition tells you that you could get stronger a lot easier if you just take the steroids that he/she offers you. group #7 While studying late for final exams, a friend of your older sibling tells you that the pills he/she has will wake you up and keep you alert, and that he/she will give you some for free.

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