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TOWARD A TOBACCO-FREE SOCIETY Chapter 11. Psychoactive Drugs and Changes in Brain Chemistry  Psychoactive drugs produce most of their key effects by.

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Presentation on theme: "TOWARD A TOBACCO-FREE SOCIETY Chapter 11. Psychoactive Drugs and Changes in Brain Chemistry  Psychoactive drugs produce most of their key effects by."— Presentation transcript:

1 TOWARD A TOBACCO-FREE SOCIETY Chapter 11

2 Psychoactive Drugs and Changes in Brain Chemistry  Psychoactive drugs produce most of their key effects by acting on brain chemistry in a characteristic fashion  Consider the route of entry for different types of drugs  Ex. Oral drugs dissolve in stomach absorbed into bloodstream liver, heart and lungs heart brain  The more quickly a drug reaches the brain, the more likely the user is to become dependent

3  Once in the brain, psychoactive drugs act on one or more neurotransmitters by increasing/decreasing their concentrations and actions  Ex. Dopamine is thought to play a role in reinforcement  Heroin, nicotine, alcohol, and amphetamines also affect dopamine levels Psychoactive Drugs and Changes in Brain Chemistry

4 Who Uses Tobacco? 4  71 million Americans smoke  24% of men and 18% of women smoke  The more education a person has, the less likely they are to smoke

5 Figure 11.1 Annual Mortality Among Smokers Attributable to Smoking 5

6 6 Figure 11.1 Annual Morbidity Among Smokers Attributable to Smoking

7 Why People Use Tobacco  A nicotine addiction  Nicotine is a powerful psychoactive drug Many researchers consider nicotine the most physically addictive of all psychoactive drugs Reaches the brain via the bloodstream in seconds

8 Why People Use Tobacco  Loss of control  Tobacco users live according to a rigid cycle of need and gratification; on avg. can go for no more than 40 min. between doses of nicotine  Tolerance and withdrawal  Sudden abstinence from nicotine produces predictable withdrawal symptoms: severe cravings, insomnia, confusion, tremors, difficulty concentrating, fatigue, muscle pains, headache, nausea, etc., increased heart rate and bp

9 Why People Use Tobacco 9  Social and Psychological Factors  Secondary reinforcers are activities the smoker associate with tobacco use  Genetic Factors  CYP2A6  DRD2 (reward gene)

10 Why Start in the First Place? 10  90% of all new smokers in this country are children and teenagers  1,300 children and adolescents start smoking every day  Average age to start  13 for smoking  10 for spit tobacco  Rationalizing the dangers, invincible  Emulating smoking in the media??

11 Health Hazards 11  Contains hundreds of damaging chemical substances  Unfiltered cigarettes = 5 billion particles per cubic mm 50,000 times more than in an equal volume of smoggy urban air  Condensed particles in the cigarette produce a sticky brown mass called cigarette tar

12 Carcinogens and Poisons in Tobacco Smoke 12  43 chemicals are linked to development of cancer  Benzo(a)pyrene is a carcinogen- research has found that this causes mutations in lung cancer cells identical to those found in many lung cancer patients  Urethane- also a carcinogen (directly causes cancer)  Cocarcinogens (ex. formaldehyde)  Combine with other chemicals to cause cancer  Poisonous substances  Arsenic  Hydrogen cyanide  Carbon monoxide  Contains amounts 400 times greater than is considered safe in industrial workplaces  Displaces oxygen in red blood cells  Additives  Humectants, sugars, bronchodilators, ammonia, things to make sidestream smoke less obvious

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14 “Light” and Low-Tar Cigarettes 14  Low-tar, low-nicotine, or filtered cigarettes  No such thing as a safe cigarette  Users often smoke more, inhale more deeply, blocking ventilation holes  Less likely to quit than smokers of regular cigarettes  As of June 2010, federal law prohibited the use of terms such as “light” and “mild”

15 Menthol Cigarettes 15  About 70% of African American smokers smoke menthol cigarettes  These individuals absorb more nicotine and metabolize it slower than other groups  Anesthetizing effect of menthol, means smokers inhale more deeply and hold smoke longer in the lungs

16 Immediate Effects of Smoking 16  Nicotine can either Excite or Tranquilize the Nervous System Depending on Dosage  Constricts blood vessels, elevates HR and BP  Stimulates adrenal glands to discharge adrenaline  In adults can increase alertness, concentration, information processing, etc.) opposite effect in young people  Can act as a sedative, and relieve symptoms of anxiety and irritability  Depresses hunger

17 The Long-Term Effects of Smoking 17  Cardiovascular Disease  Coronary heart disease (CHD) causes just as many deaths from smoking as lung cancer  Atherosclerosis leading to angina pectoris and myocardial infarction (heart attack)

18 The Long-Term Effects of Smoking 18  Lung cancer and other cancers  The risk of developing lung cancer increases w/ number of cigarettes smoked each day and number of years smoking  Research has linked smoking to cancers of the trachea, mouth, esophagus, larynx, pancreas, bladder, kidney, breast, cervix, stomach liver, colon and skin  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  Emphysema and Chronic bronchitis

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20 Additional Health, Cosmetic, and Economic Concerns 20 Ulcers Impotence Reproductive health problems Dental diseases Diminished physical senses Injuries Cosmetic concerns Economic costs

21 Cumulative Effects 21  People who smoke before 15 yrs. old and continue to smoke are half as likely to live to 75 versus those who did not smoke  Smokers spend one-third more time away from their jobs because of illness than nonsmokers  Both men and women show a greater rate of acute and chronic diseases

22 Other Forms of Tobacco 22  Spit (smokeless) tobacco  Contains at least 28 chemicals known to cause cancer  Cigars and pipes  Users do not need to inhale in order to ingest nicotine - its absorbed through gums and mouth  Cigars contain more tobacco than cigarettes more nicotine

23 The Effects of Smoking on the Nonsmoker 23  Environmental Tobacco smoke (ETS)  Consists of mainstream smoke (exhaled by smokers) and sidestream smoke (smoke from burning end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe)  Sidestream smoke has twice the tar and nicotine,~ 3X the benzo(a)pyrene, CO, and ammonia  EPA designated ETS as a class A carcinogen and Surgeon General has concluded that there is no safe level of exposure to ETS.

24 ETS Effects 24  Develop cough, headaches, nasal discomfort, eye irritation, breathlessness, and sinus problems  Allergies will be exacerbated  Causes 3,000 deaths due to lung cancer  Contributes to about 35,000 heart disease deaths each year  Nonsmokers can be affected by effects of ETS hours after they leave a smoky environment  Carbon monoxide lingers in bloodstream 5 hours later

25 Infants, Children, and ETS 25  Children exposed to ETS are more likely to have  SIDs and low-birth weight  Bronchitis, pneumonia, and asthma  Reduced lung function  Middle-ear infections  Lung cancer, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis later in life

26 Smoking and Pregnancy 26  Estimated 4600 infant deaths in the U.S.  Increased risk of miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight, SIDS, and long term impairments in growth and intellectual development

27 What Can Be Done? 27  The best way to avoid all of the added chemicals in cigarettes is to stop smoking right now!! This very minute!! THE BENEFITS OF QUITTING ARE IMMEDIATE!  Action at many levels  CDC-Tips From Former Smokers  Smokefree.gov  Individual action-Talk with your friends and family who have quit smoking and see what helped them, 'quit smoking' products

28 How A Tobacco User Can Quit 28  The benefits of quitting  Options for quitting  “Cold-turkey”  Changes to routines  Over-the-counter prescription products  Support from family and friends  Smoking cessation programs  Free telephone quitlines QUITNOW

29 TOWARD A TOBACCO-FREE SOCIETY Chapter 11


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