Presentation on theme: "Basic Fire Safety for the Mining Industry. Costs in Lives and property damage Fire kills more Americans than all natural disasters combined Every."— Presentation transcript:
Basic Fire Safety for the Mining Industry
Costs in Lives and property damage Fire kills more Americans than all natural disasters combined Every year more than 5000 people die in fires and over 25,000 are injured Estimated property loss of over 9 billion dollars. What would your losses be?
Fire prevention Through proper safety training Good maintenance of electrical and mobile equipment Good housekeeping Proper storage and clean up of combustible and flammable liquids Good communications between management, labor, state and federal agencies Basically “all fires” in the mining industry can be avoided
Diesel fuel precautions Flammable or combustible liquid spillage or leakage shall be removed in a timely manner or controlled to prevent a fire hazard. All diesel-powered machines are required to have at least one 10A:60B:C portable fire extinguisher Two portable fire extinguishers must be installed when a 5 gallon diesel fuel safety can is carried on the vehicle Good housekeeping You can prevent a fire incident by using “common sense”. HOUSEKEEPING No person shall smoke or use an open flame where flammable or combustible liquids, including greases, or flammable gases are-- (a) Used or transported in a manner that could create a fire hazard; or (b) Stored or handled.
Waste or rags containing flammable or combustible liquids that could create a fire hazard shall be placed in the following containers until disposed of properly A program for regular cleanup and removal of accumulations of coal and float coal dusts, loose coal, and other combustibles shall be established and maintained. Coal dust, including float coal dust deposited on rock-dusted surfaces, loose coal, and other combustible materials, shall be cleaned up and not be permitted to accumulate in active workings, or on diesel- powered and electric equipment therein. Solid Combustible precautions Gasoline precautions Underground-Industrial Minerals Gasoline should not be stored underground. Storage for this purpose means quantity in excess of the amount that will used in a 24 hour period. A fire extinguisher should be installed on any internal
Surface & Underground –Industrial Minerals Circuits shall be protected against excessive overload by fuses or circuit breakers of the correct type and capacity. Maintenance and Inspection of Electrical Equipment
Fire Drills Familiarize yourself on the fire alarm system. Fire alarm procedures or systems shall be established to promptly warn every person who could be endangered by a fire. Fire alarm systems shall be maintained in operable condition. Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. Who will come if you call and how long will it take.
Escapeway drills- what is required? Industrial Minerals-Surface Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures prior to an accident occurring. These procedures shall be coordinated in advance with available cooperative firefighting and support organizations.
Not all materials burn the same way. Materials are grouped by classification of Fire. This determines how to extinguish the fire. Where are the fire extinguishers located and how many Where are the fire hoses, fire valves, nozzles Is there enough pressure to extinguish the fire Remember To be forewarned is to be forearmed What happens if a fire occurs?
The Fire Triangle Now represents the “smoldering” mode of combustion. Three things are needed for conditions to be right for a fire to get started.
The Fire Tetrahedron Represents the “flaming” mode of combustion The chemical chain reaction has been added to properly represent a “burning” fire. If one of these four items are taken away, the fire will extinguish
What about the By-products of the Fire? Carbon Monoxide-Incomplete combustion-poisonous Carbon Dioxide-Complete combustion-displaces oxygen Diesel Particulate Matter-unburned diesel fuel- carcinogen(cancer causing) Carcinogen products-products from the chemicals to treat belts and cables to be flame resistant, however will be releases at high temperatures of a fire. Smoke-unburned materials-can contain all of the above
Use ventilation to control by-products and heat Make sure that all persons in fire area are notifiedMake sure that all persons in fire area are notified Keep the ventilation at your back, don’t expose yourself to the heat and the by-products of the fireKeep the ventilation at your back, don’t expose yourself to the heat and the by-products of the fire
Class A Materials are: Solids Wood Paper Plastic Rubber “A” stands for “ash”
Takes place as wood, coal, conveyor belts or any carbon based products decomposes from the action of the heat Remember, it is the vapors that burn, not the solid. How does a solid burn?
How to extinguish a Class A fire Adding water Class A fires only Use a fire extinguisher Usually Class A, B & C fires Place a lid on it, Usually oily rags or paper in a waste container Limit material burning Shovel away material Add rock dust to remaining fuel
Examples Reported fires since fires due to use of stoves near combustible materials 8 fires due to use of stoves near combustible materials 1 fire set deliberately by outside persons 1 fire set deliberately by outside persons 5 belt fires 5 belt fires 1 electrical fire 1 electrical fire
Class B Materials are: Liquids Gasoline, Oil, Diesel fuel Greases, Hydraulic fluid Gases; i.e. Acetylene, Propane Natural Gas Natural Gas “B” stands for “boil”
Special care when using flammable and combustible liquids The “ flash point” is when at the right temperature, vapors are released that will ignite Flammable Liquids Flash point under 100 o F Gasoline(-42 o F)Gasoline(-42 o F) Toluene(73 o FToluene(73 o F Benzene(12 o F)Benzene(12 o F) Cleaning fluidsCleaning fluids Combustible Liquids Flash point over 100 o F & under 164 o F Diesel fuel(110 o F)Diesel fuel(110 o F) Kerosene(102 o F)Kerosene(102 o F) Home heating fuel(120 o F)Home heating fuel(120 o F) Hydraulic fluidsHydraulic fluids
Kitchen Fire Instructions
How to extinguish a Class B fire Not recommen ded Water can cause the fire to spread Remove excess liquid fuel or shut off bottled gas cylinders Put a lid on it No oxygen, no fire Use a BC or ABC fire extinguisher
Class C Materials are: “Energized” Electrical Equipment & Cables Equipment & Cables Always treat “C” fires as though power is still on! Once the power has been removed, you can probably treat it like a Class A or B fire, but remember that cables & equipment can hold electricity even after the power is off! “C” stands for “current”
Not recommended Water can conduct electricity May not work because of the high temperature of the electric arc Shut off the power May still have A or B fire remaining Use a BC or ABC fire extinguisher How to extinguish a Class C fire
Class D materials include Combustible Metals Magnesium Titanium Zirconium Sodium Potassium Lithium Calcium Zinc D stands for “ding”
Class D materials are usually in alloy type metals They are usually started by a Class A-B-C fire, and will burn at extremely high temperatures Not recommend ed- The O 2 and H 2 in the water will accelerate the fire Not recommended- Unsure if ABC extinguisher will put out Unsure of dangerous by- product from the reaction of the chemicals Shovel away all materials that can be ignite by the high heat generated Attempt to isolate the fire by covering with sand or rock dust
Class K This covers the new synthetic oils & greases that are the market & the new ones being developed New synthetic oils & greases for industry Problem… ABC type fire extinguishers may not work on these fires, a special Class K extinguisher may be needed! Inquire about what new products that are available on mine sites that would fall into this new category
Fire Extinguighers Dry Chemical Ordinary Base “BC”Ordinary Base “BC” Sodium BicarbonateSodium Bicarbonate Potassium BicarbonatePotassium Bicarbonate Potassium ChloridePotassium Chloride Do not use on “A” fires, will put out only surface area, heated core may re-ignite Multipurpose “ABC”Multipurpose “ABC” Monoammonium PhosphateMonoammonium Phosphate Ammonium PhosphateAmmonium Phosphate Barium SulfateBarium Sulfate
When are fire extinguishers to be examined? Fire extinguishers shall be inspected visually at least once a month to determine that they are fully charged and operable. At least once every twelve months, maintenance checks shall be made of mechanical parts, the amount and condition of extinguishing agent and expellant, and the condition of the hose, nozzle, and vessel to determine that the fire extinguishers will operate effectively.
Classification of extinguishers Type(s) of fire it can put out How much fire a “lay person” can put out For example, a 5:A will put out five square foot surface area of Class A fire A 20:BC will put out a twenty square foot surface area of Class B or C fire. A properly trained person can extinguish 2 to 3 times the amount listed on the rating.
P.Pull the pin A.Aim low S.Squeeze the trigger/handle S.Sweep side to side It is important that you should attend an actual “hands on” fire extinguisher class to be proficient in their use
What should you do once the fire is extinguished? Check the area closely for any signs of reignition Clean up all unburned and burned materials Report the incident to the proper officials What caused the fire, and determine any safety precautions to prevent future incidents Be careful the fire fighter or persons themselves did not expose themselves to any noxious, toxic or carcinogen products.