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2012 Environmental Protection and Green Technology Workshop Environmental Impact Assessment Yuh-Ming Lee Professor Institute of Natural Resource Management.

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Presentation on theme: "2012 Environmental Protection and Green Technology Workshop Environmental Impact Assessment Yuh-Ming Lee Professor Institute of Natural Resource Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 2012 Environmental Protection and Green Technology Workshop Environmental Impact Assessment Yuh-Ming Lee Professor Institute of Natural Resource Management National Taipei University November 11, 2012

2 2 Contents  Introduction  Environmental Assessments EIA, HRA, LCA EIA, HRA, LCA  Procedure of Environmental Impact Assessment  Strategic Environmental Assessment  Extended Materials on EIA Mekong River Commission Environmental Training Kit: Course D - EIA Procedures and Decision Making Mekong River Commission Environmental Training Kit: Course D - EIA Procedures and Decision Making  Conclusion  Q&A

3 3 Introduction  Personal Information Affiliation: Professor, Institute of Natural Resource Management, National Taipei Univ. Affiliation: Professor, Institute of Natural Resource Management, National Taipei Univ. Education: Ph.D., Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, the Johns Hopkins University Education: Ph.D., Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, the Johns Hopkins University Experience: Commissioner, Environmental Impact Assessment Review Committee, Taiwan EPA Experience: Commissioner, Environmental Impact Assessment Review Committee, Taiwan EPA Contact: Contact:  Environmental Impact Assessment “LOOK before you LEAP!”

4 4 Environmental Assessment  Project: Effect on the Environment Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Strategic Environmental Assessment => Strategy Strategic Environmental Assessment => Strategy  Product: Environmental Profile (Eco-Profile) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Eco-Profile, Eco-Footprint (Carbon, Water) … Eco-Profile, Eco-Footprint (Carbon, Water) …  Chemicals: Effect on Human Health Health Risk Assessment (HRA) Health Risk Assessment (HRA) Acute Toxicity vs. Carcinogen Acute Toxicity vs. Carcinogen A Priori and Scientific Evaluation Public Participation and Information Disclosure

5 5 Life Cycle Assessment  International Standard ISO and (Revision in 2006) ISO and (Revision in 2006)  Definition: LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from-cradle-to-grave (i.e., from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, and disposal or recycling).  LCA can help avoid a narrow outlook on environmental concerns by: Compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; Compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; Evaluating the potential impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; Evaluating the potential impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; Interpreting the results to help you make a more informed decision. Interpreting the results to help you make a more informed decision.

6 6 LCA ISO Standards (1404x)  ISO Standards (ICS : Product life-cycles) ISO 14040:2006 Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Principles and framework ISO 14040:2006 Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Principles and framework ISO 14044:2006 Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Requirements and guidelines ISO 14044:2006 Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Requirements and guidelines ISO 14045:2012 Environmental management – Eco-efficiency assessment -- Principles and requirements ISO 14045:2012 Environmental management – Eco-efficiency assessment -- Principles and requirements ISO/TR 14047:2012 Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Illustrative examples on how to apply ISO to impact assessment situations ISO/TR 14047:2012 Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Illustrative examples on how to apply ISO to impact assessment situations ISO/TS 14048:2002 Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Data documentation format ISO/TS 14048:2002 Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Data documentation format ISO/TR 14049:2012 Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Illustrative examples on how to apply ISO to goal and scope definition and inventory analysis ISO/TR 14049:2012 Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Illustrative examples on how to apply ISO to goal and scope definition and inventory analysis ISO/CD Water footprint -- Requirements and guidelines ISO/CD Water footprint -- Requirements and guidelines

7 7

8 8 Category Indicators in LCIA

9 9 An Example of LCA: Diapers Life-Cycle Analysis of Disposable and Reusable Diapers (based on weekly diaper needs) Resource Category Disposable Diaper Reusable Diaper Raw Materials Consumption (lbs) Energy Consumption (Btu)23, , Water Consumption (gal) Atmospheric Emissions (lbs) Waste Water Effluents (lbs) Process Solid Waste (lbs) Post-Consumer Waste (lbs) Total Costs ($/week) World Resources Institute, Disposable and Reusable Diapers. A Life-Cycle Analysis

10 10 Health Risk Assessment

11 11 HRA and EIA  Health Risk Assessment Technical Standards Announced by Taiwan EPA on April 9, 2010 (revised on 20 July, 2011) Announced by Taiwan EPA on April 9, 2010 (revised on 20 July, 2011) …developers … should follow the standards regarding hazardous chemicals that may be in use during the operation stage, and conduct an assessment on the incremental risks to the health of residents living in the sphere of influence of development activities. …developers … should follow the standards regarding hazardous chemicals that may be in use during the operation stage, and conduct an assessment on the incremental risks to the health of residents living in the sphere of influence of development activities.  The EPA analyzed implementation methods and content of other health risk assessments for chemical substances that could potentially create environmental pollution, as well as the framework, procedures and strategies of other health risk assessment systems.

12 12 HRA Procedure in an EIA The Project Conducting EIA Species ToxicitySource Pathway Release Amount of Release Multi-Media Transport Simulation Air Water FoodSoil Sediment

13 13 HI > 1 (?) Scenarios Receptors Parameters Exposure Carcinogen Acute Toxcin

14 14 To “…encourage productive and enjoyable harmony between man and his environment; to promote efforts which will prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere and stimulate the health and welfare of man; to enrich the understanding of the ecological systems and natural resources important to the Nation....” (U.S. National Environmental Policy Act Section 2) (NEPA, enacted in 1969) What is EIA?

15 15 What is EIA  Environmental impact assessment means an environmental management plan based on scientific, objective and comprehensive surveys, forecasting, analyses and evaluations conducted prior to project implementation in order to determine the degree and scope of the potential impact of development activity or government policy on the environment, economy, culture and ecology, and the public explanation and review of such a plan. (Taiwan Environmental Impact Assessment Act: Article 4, Paragraph 2) (Enacted in the end of 1994) Environmental Impact Assessment Act (Taiwan EPA)

16 16 “To implement a strategy of sustainable development, prevent adverse impact on the environment after the implementation of plans and construction projects, and promote coordinated development of the economy, society, and environment.” (China Environmental Impact Assessment Law) (Enact in 2003) What is the purpose of EIA

17 17 “LOOK before you LEAP!”  EIA is now a required process in more than 100 nations.  The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) is a global network with 1,600 members from more than 120 countries. What is the purpose of EIA? (http://www.iaia.org) Smythe, R.B. (EIA: A way for NGOs to be Effective)

18 18 What Changes can EIA Bring? Before introduction of EIA:  Government planning and decision-making: “D-A-D” -- “Decide, Announce, Defend”  Role of NGOs, citizens: “Critics” “Objectors” “Protestors”  Environmental conditions: Steadily deteriorating Smythe, R.B. (EIA: A way for NGOs to be Effective)

19 19 After Implementing EIA:  Government planning and decision-making: “D-D-D” -- “Discuss, Decide, Deliver”  Role of NGOs, citizens: “Stakeholders” “Contributors” “Participants”  Environmental conditions: Deterioration slows; some areas improving Source: Hui, Y.M. (Simon), Environmental Protection Dept., HKSAR What Changes can EIA Bring? Smythe, R.B. (EIA: A way for NGOs to be Effective)

20 20 Key Elements of EIA 1.EIA must be undertaken EARLY in the development of proposed projects, plans, and programs, and must be completed BEFORE a decision to proceed is made. 2.EIA must be an OBJECTIVE, IMPARTIAL analytical process, not a way of promoting or “selling” a proposal to decision-makers—it must use accepted scientific principles and methods. 3.EIA must analyze all REASONABLY FORESEEABLE environmental impacts or effects of a proposed action— effects may be short-term, long-term, direct, or indirect. Smythe, R.B. (EIA: A way for NGOs to be Effective)

21 21 4.The process of EIA must be OPEN – to government officials at all levels, to potential stakeholders (those with direct interests in the proposed action), and to the PUBLIC. 5.There must be an early, public SCOPING stage in EIA to consider ALTERNATIVES and to help focus subsequent analysis on the MORE SIGNIFICANT potential impacts – rather than studying all possible environmental effects – the GOAL is to reach a decision. 6.Government officials responsible for implementing EIA must ENCOURAGE (not just tolerate) PUBLIC PARTICIPATION in the process from the scoping stage forward. Key Elements of EIA Smythe, R.B. (EIA: A way for NGOs to be Effective)

22 22 7.In all EIA processes, effective MITIGATION MEASURES must be identified and included – to avoid, minimize, or reduce the adverse effects of all potentially significant impacts. 8.EIA reports must include an ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS) or Action Plan to MONITOR the implementation phase of the project, plan, or program and provide for CORRECTIVE actions – such action plans must have assured FUNDING and be legally enforceable. Key Elements of EIA Smythe, R.B. (EIA: A way for NGOs to be Effective)

23 23 Content of EIA Analysis Physical components:  Land  Air  Water  Energy Bio-Cultural components:  Nature  Culture  People  Access Smythe, R.B. (EIA: A way for NGOs to be Effective)

24 24 EIA Impact Analysis Summary Table PHASE: Construction Operation Termination Physical:  Land  Air  Water  Energy _______________________________________________Bio-Cultural:  Nature  Culture  People  Access Smythe, R.B. (EIA: A way for NGOs to be Effective)

25 25 EIA Procedure Major steps in the EIA process are:  Screening  Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)  Scoping  Full-Scale Assessment  EIA Review and Decision Making  Monitoring and Follow-Up D - EIA Procedures and Decision Making/ Operational/Slides/powerpoint/Lesson 02 - Overview.ppt Mekong River Commission Environmental Training Kit

26 26 Generic EIA Procedure Screening Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) EIA Not Required EIA Required Monitoring EIA Audit and Evaluation IEE Review Scoping/ Terms of Reference Full-Scale EIA Evaluate Options EIA Not Approved EIA Review Decision Making EIA Approved Mekong River Commission Environmental Training Kit

27 27 Hong Kong EIA Process

28 28 Taiwan EIA Process  EIA Act Article 4: Environmental impact assessment work includes such procedures as phase I and phase II environmental impact assessments, reviews and follow-up evaluations  Two Phases Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Assessment Report Environmental Impact Assessment Report Concern of significant impacts on the environment Concern of significant impacts on the environment  Three Roles: Developer and Authorities Developer and Consulting Firm: Preparation of EIS Developer and Consulting Firm: Preparation of EIS Industry Competent Authority: Approval of Project Industry Competent Authority: Approval of Project Environment Competent Authority: Review of EIA Environment Competent Authority: Review of EIA

29 29 Significant Impact on the Environment 1.Those circumstances in which the development activity has a significant adverse conflict with and is incompatible with a nearby related plan 2.Those circumstances in which the development activity has a significant adverse impact on environmental resources and special environmental characteristics 3.Those circumstances in which the development activity has a significant adverse impact on the habitat or survival of protected or rare animals or plants 4.Those circumstances in which the development activity causes local environmental conditions to exceed environmental standards or the carrying capacity of the local environment

30 30 Significant Impact on the Environment 5.Those circumstances in which the development activity has a significant adverse impact on the movement or rights of local residents or the traditional ways of living of minority ethnic groups 6.Those circumstances in which the development activity has a significant adverse impact on public health or safety 7.Those circumstances in which the development activity has a significant adverse impact on the environment of another country 8.Other situations as recognized by the competent authority

31 31 Taiwan EIA Review Process Industry Competent Authority EPA Developer Forum or Conference Submission of EIS “Divert” the EIS Reviewing Concerns of significant impacts Pass Reject Alternative or Option Public Conference Phase II

32 32 Taiwan EIA Review Process Detailed Scoping EIAR Draft Site Visit Public Hearing Divert EIAR Reviewing

33 33 Strategic Environmental Assessment  Strategic environmental assessment (SEA): is a system of incorporating environmental considerations into policies, plans, and programmes. Strategic environmental impact assessment Strategic environmental impact assessment Originated from regional development / land use planning Originated from regional development / land use planning 2003: Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment. 2003: Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment. European SEA Directive 2001/42/EC European SEA Directive 2001/42/EC  Relationship with EIA: An SEA is conducted before a corresponding EIA is undertaken

34 34 Structure of SEA  Screening: investigation of whether the plan or programme falls under the SEA legislation  Scoping: defining the boundaries of investigation, assessment and assumptions required  Documentation of the state of the environment: effectively a baseline on which to base judgments  Determination of the likely environmental impacts: usually in terms of Direction of Change rather than firm figures  Informing and consulting the public  Influencing Decision taking based on the assessment  Monitoring of the effects of plans and programmes after their implementation.

35 35 Policies should conduct SEA (Taiwan)  Industrial policies  Mining industry development policies  Water resources development policies  Land use policies  Energy policies  Livestock policies  Transportation policies  Waste disposal policies  Policies on radioactive nuclear waste storage  Other policies Regulations Governing Government Policies on Environmental Impact Assessment (Taiwan EPA)

36 36 Specific Policy Items Requiring SEA Policy NamePolicy Item 1. Industrial policies The establishment of an industrial zone. Industrial policies on energy density base 2. Mining industry development policies Sand and gravel development and supply. 3. Water resources development policies Water resources development plan for the Taiwan area. 4. Land use policies The establishment of a golf course. Major transformations for non-agricultural purposes of agricultural or conservation land. Changes in scope of tap water quality and water volume protection area. Changes in scope of drinking water quality and water volume protection area Newly determined or expanded urban planning programs (using land area of 10 hectares or more) Specific Policy Items Requiring the Conduct of an Environmental Impact Assessment (Taiwan EPA)

37 37 Specific Policy Items Requiring SEA Policy NamePolicy Item 5. Energy policiesEnergy quotas. 6. Livestock policiesPig farming. 7. Transportation policies Major highway or railway construction. 8. Waste disposal policies Garbage disposal. 9. Policies on radioactive nuclear waste storage The disposal of spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants. Specific Policy Items Requiring the Conduct of an Environmental Impact Assessment (Taiwan EPA)

38 38 Concern of impact on the environment  The ability to handle environmental impact at the local level is exceeded.  There is damage to a natural ecological system.  Public health or safety is endangered.  The reasonable exploitation of natural resources is jeopardized.  Water resource systems are altered, affecting water quality and hindering the use of water bodies.  The harmony of the natural scenery is impaired.  Other situations involving violations of international environmental standards or which impede the sustainable development of the environment and ecology. Regulations Governing Government Policies on Environmental Impact Assessment (Taiwan EPA)

39 39 Extended Materials Mekong River Commission Environmental Training Kit Course D - EIA Procedures and Decision Making   Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment PowerPoint * PowerPoint*   Overview of the Environmental Impact Assessment Process PowerPoint ** PowerPoint**   Social Assessment and Public Participation in the EIA Process PowerPoint *** PowerPoint***   Environmental economics in the EIA Process PowerPoint **** PowerPoint****

40 40 Conclusion  Environmental Assessment: EIA, HRA, LCA  EIA: A Priori and Scientific Assessment  EIA of Project and Strategy => SEA  EIA Phases and Types of Report/Statement  Stakeholders and Public Participation  Assessment Reporting and Reviewing  Decision Maker vs. Tools for Decision Making  Review Conclusion vs. Approval of Project  Follow-up Evaluation (Monitoring)


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