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Nutritive Value Broccoli is a good source of calcium, potassium, folate and fiber, and vitamin A and C (Mayo Clinic, 2006). The best way to cook broccoli.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutritive Value Broccoli is a good source of calcium, potassium, folate and fiber, and vitamin A and C (Mayo Clinic, 2006). The best way to cook broccoli."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutritive Value Broccoli is a good source of calcium, potassium, folate and fiber, and vitamin A and C (Mayo Clinic, 2006). The best way to cook broccoli is to steam, cook in the microwave or stir-fry with a little broth or water. These methods are better than boiling for the reason that some of the vitamin and mineral content are lost from the vegetable when boiled, ending up in the boiled water. Cooked broccoli should remain bright green in color and crispy, but tender enough to pierce with a sharp object (CDC, 2007). Acknowledgments I would like to thank Dr. Betty Larson, Linda James, and Ellen Johnson for their dedication in providing an excellent education in the program of Food/Nutrition/Dietetics at Concordia College. Introduction Health Benefits “Dietary advice to prevent cancer has emphasized fruit and vegetable intake, giving highest priority to consuming plant-based diets. Recent evidence indicates that plant-based diets prevent 20% to 50% of all cases of cancer” (Nestle, 1997). Broccoli contains many phytochemicals and antioxidants, some which protect against carcinogens. Chemical compounds, in particular sulforaphane, help with the reduction of lung, breast, colon, rectum, and prostate cancers. This is most often evident with individuals that have a functional glutathione S-transferase M1 allele, opposed to the depletion of GSTM1 gene (Casper et al., 2005). Crucifers are rich in phase 2 enzyme inducers, which protect cells against mutagenesis and neoplasia (malignancy). Isothiocynates, including sulforaphane, are synthesized and stored in plants as relatively stable precursors, known as glucosinolates. Conclusion Broccoli is a Super Food Providing Health and Nutritional Benefits Holly Kiehl Department of Family and Nutrition Sciences, Concordia College, Moorhead, MN References CDC (2007, November 28). Vegetable of the Month: Broccoli. Retrieved December 1, 2007, from Eat a Variety of Fruits & Vegetables Every Day Web site: Fahey, J., Zhang, Y., & Talalay, P. (1997). Broccoli Sprouts: An Exceptionally Rich Source of Inducers of Enzymes that Protect Against Chemical Carcinogens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, Finley, J., Keck, A., Robbins, R., & Hintze K. (2005). Selenium Enrichment of Broccoli: Interactions between Selenium and Secondary Plant Compounds. The Journal of Nutrition, 135, Gasper, A., Al-janobi, A., Smith, J., Bacon, J., Fortun, P., Atherton, C., Taylor, M., Hawkey, C., Barrett, D., & Mithen, R. (2005). Glutathione S-Transferase M1 Polymorphism and Metabolism of Sulforaphane from Standard and High-Glucosinolate Broccoli, 82(6), Lyi, S., Heller. L., Rutzke, M., Welch, R., Kochian, L., & Li, L. (2005). Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of the Selenocysteine Se-Methyltransferase Gene and Se-Methylselenosysteine Synthesis in Broccoli. Plant Physiology, 138, Mateljan, G (2006). The World's Healthiest Foods, Essential Guide to the Healthiest Way of Eating. Seattle, Washington: George Mateljan Foundation. Mayo Clinic (2006, February 22). Food & Nutrition. Retrieved December 1, 2007, from Tools for a Healthier Life Web site: Nestle, M. (1997). Broccoli Sprouts as Inducers of Carcinogen-Detoxifying Enzyme Systems: Clinical, Dietary, and Policy Implications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, Whitney, E. & Rolfes, S. (2005). Understanding Nutrition (10 th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.. Supporting Evidence: Fahey, J., Zhang, Y., & Talalay, P. (1997). Broccoli Sprouts: An Exceptionally Rich Source of Inducers of Enzymes that Protect Against Chemical Carcinogens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, Objective- The study was conducted to compare high concentrations of phase 2 enzyme inducer activity of young broccoli sprouts with matured-frozen broccoli from a local supermarket to demonstrate their ability to protect against experimental mammary tumors. Design- Sprouts were produced from seeds under extremely regulated conditions. Phase 2 enzyme inducers were extracted from the young sprouts (three-day old) and frozen broccoli. Mammary glands were produced in female rats and then were administrated five dosages of 1.0 ml of the extracted glucosinolate or isothiocyanate preparations. Results- The comparison between fresh and frozen broccoli indicated that the activities of the frozen samples ranged from 9,000 to 15,000 units/g, whereas the fresh samples revealed an almost 8-fold range of potencies from 11,000 to 83,300 units/g. This ultimately indicated that fresh young broccoli contains more inducer enzymes than matured-frozen broccoli. The administration of sulforaphane in the rats reduced the incidence, multiplicity, and weight of the mammary tumors that were chemically induced. Conclusion- Potent 2-phase enzyme inducers such as sulforaphane protect against carcinogens. A diet containing small quantities of young fresh crucifer sprouts (three-day old) conceal as much inducer activity as times larger quantities than matured-frozen broccoli. Supporting Evidence: Gasper, A., Al-janobi, A., Smith, J., Bacon, J., Fortun, P., Atherton, C., Taylor, M., Hawkey, C., Barrett, D., & Mithen, R. (2005). Glutathione S-Transferase M1 Polymorphism and Metabolism of Sulforaphane from Standard and High-Glucosinolate Broccoli, 82(6), Objective- The study was conducted to compare sulforaphane metabolism in GSTM1-positive and GSTM1-null subjects after the consumption of standard broccoli and super broccoli (high-glucosinolate). Design- Sixteen subjects were placed in a randomized trial that contained standard broccoli, super broccoli, or water; where the subjects consumed a 150 ml test meal. The super broccoli contained 3.4-fold greater amount of sulforaphane than the standard broccoli. Blood samples were collected 14 times within consistent intervals before and after consumption. Urine samples were collected four times over a 24 hour period. Results- GSTM1-null subjects had slightly higher sulforaphane metabolite concentrations in plasma, a greater rate of urinary excretion of sulforaphane 6 hours after broccoli consumption, and a higher percentage of sulforaphane excretion 24 hours after ingestion than GSTM1-positive subjects. Super broccoli led to a 3-fold greater increase providing the maximum concentrations of sulforaphane metabolites in plasma, a greater rate of urinary excretion 6 hours after consumption, and a lower percentage of urinary excretion 24 hour after ingestion than did standard broccoli. Conclusion- GSTM1 genotypes have a significant effect on the metabolism of sulforaphane derived from either types of broccoli, thus indicating the greater protection from carcinogens that GSTM1–positive persons gain from consuming broccoli. The type of broccoli had little effect on GSTM1-null and GSTM1- positive subjects. Raw Broccoli Serving size 1/2 cup raw (36g) Amounts Per Serving % Daily Value Calories 10 Calories from Fat 0 Total Fat 0g0% Cholesterol 0mg0% Sodium 10mg0% Total Carbohydrate 2g1% Dietary Fiber 1g4% Sugars 1g Protein 1g Vitamin A20% Vitamin C60% Calcium2% Iron2% Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Cooked Broccoli Serving Size ½ cup cooked (78g) Amounts Per Serving % Daily Value Calories 25 Calories from Fat 5 Total Fat 0g0% Cholesterol 0mg0% Sodium 30 mg1% Total Carbohydrate 6 g2% Dietary Fiber 3g11% Sugars 1g Proteins 2g Vitamin A30% Vitamin C80% Calcium4% Iron2% * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Safety Broccoli is an intestinal gas producer (Mateljan, 2006). To help alleviate gas production eat broccoli with ginger or garlic Individuals with thyroid problems should avoid broccoli for the reason that broccoli contains goitrogens, naturally occurring substances, that can interfere with the functioning of the thyroid gland. Goitrogens are foods which suppress thyroid function and stimulate the growth of the thyroid-goiter (Mateljan, 2006). Marketing Claims Educational programs are available to help individuals reach their daily recommendations of fruits and vegetables; thus allowing an increase in consumption. Eat 5 a day National Educational Campaign Increase fruit and vegetable consumption to 5 to 9 daily servings Eat a variety from of five colors. Fruits and Veggies More Matters Offers personal results based on age, gender, and physical activity Further Health Benefits Selenium is a mineral that contains cancer preventative agents, in which Se-methylselenosysteine (SeMSC) is the most effective chemopreventative compounds due to the conversion of this compound into methyl selenol; which is an active anticancer agent. Broccoli is known for its ability to accumulate high levels of Se with the majority of the selenoamino acids in the form of Se-methylselenocysteine (Lyi et al., 2005). Selenium contains many health benefits beyond prevention of cancer. Improving male fertility Improving immune function Reducing viral infection (Lyi et al., 2005) Broccoli can naturally accumulate Selenium from the soil and Se has been demonstrated to reduce the risk of cancer. A study in 2005 was conducted to determine whether enhancement of broccoli with Se would produce a plant with superior health benefits. Supporting Evidence: Finley, J., Keck, A., Robbins, R., & Hintze K. (2005). Selenium Enrichment of Broccoli: Interactions between Selenium and Secondary Plant Compounds. The Journal of Nutrition, 135, Objective- The study was conducted in laboratory to attempt to maximize the amount of Selenium within broccoli to determine if it could provide an even further health benefit, greatly reducing the chance of developing cancer. Design- The concentration of Se in fertilizer increased from 800 µg/g. Results- When Se was increased, it inhibited the present of colon cancer in rats; however it also reduced the sulforaphane content by >80% and inhibited production of most phenolic acids. Conclusion- Selenium enhancement of broccoli affects the accumulation of the multiple secondary bioactive components, especially sulforaphane and phenolic acid. This indicates that it may not be possible to maximize the concentration of multiple bioactive ingredients in a single food. (CDC, 2007) Broccoli is an Italian name meaning “Cabbage Sprout” Scientific Name: Brassica oleracea var. italica Member of Cruciferous family (Brassicaceae) Includes cabbage, kale, cauliflower, mustard, and brussel sprouts Broccoli is a dark-green vegetable with small, tight heads (curds) mounted on stem-like buds. One of the most popular vegetables Originated in Italy- region of Calabria Grown in the United States for over 200 years 95% of broccoli grown in California- also grown in Arizona, Washington, Maine, Wisconsin, Ohio, Colorado, Oregon, Texas, and Florida (Mateljan, 2006) Cool season crop-spring or fall One of the least costly vegetables to grow May eat raw or lightly cook Green buds and immature flower stalks eaten Today 900% more broccoli is consumed than 20 years ago (Mateljan, 2006). Broccoli is a dark-green vegetable that is one of the most popular vegetables. Broccoli is a good source of vitamin A and C, calcium, potassium, folate, and fiber. Broccoli contains multiple phytonutrients, bioactive compounds, that significantly reduce the risk of certain cancers. Sulforaphane Phenolic Acid Selenium


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