2 Nicola Tesla"If you wish to understand the secrets of the Universe, think of energy, frequency, and vibration."Born in 1856, died in 1943, he was an inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer, electrical engineer, and futurist. Tesla's patents and theoretical work formed the basis of wireless communication and the radio.
3 Agenda Smart Grid vs Smart Meter How smart meters work How the mesh network worksElectroMagnetic SpectrumNaturally occurring EMFHealth effect studiesWhy they are called “safe”What the FCC does and doesn't regulateWhat it all means
4 Smart Grid vs. Smart Meter: What’s the Difference?
5 Smart Grid Functions Deliver electricity where and when needed Manage power qualityImprove grid reliabilityImprove operational efficiencyIntegrate renewable energy into gridPlatform for “new products & services” (?)
7 Coming CapabilitiesQualcomm chipsets “enable more real-time exchange of information to a new wave of smart devices” and “constant connectivity to ensure an ultra-fast, always on connection on any device”Grid Net “the state of all managed devices is known at all times” and “connected in a more or less real-time network talking to a central controller”Smart meters will be always transmitting !“All managed devices”: smart meter, thermostat, appliances, car charger
8 Electric Wireless Smart Meter Photo of Electric Smart Meter which emits RF Radiation into the home and neighborhood with each transmission
9 WHAT UTILITIES USUALLY TELL THE PUBLIC Smart Meters are low power, therefore, not harmfulSmart Meters emit less RF Radiation than cell phonesSmart Meter emissions are a fraction of FCC GuidelinesSmart Meters transmit 4-6 times a day for secondsSmart Meters only record total usage like analog metersSmart Meters do not cause fires or “fry” electronicsSmart Meter RF Radiation does not pose a health riskSmart Meter studies show no evidence of harm to healthSmart Meters are safe to install on homes and schools: WHO 2B Carcinogenic label only applies to cell phones
10 Functions of a Smart Meter Essentially a billing deviceTwo-way communication (wireless relay)Meter can react to commandsChange parameters remotelyRemotely load new softwareMore information collected (4 channels)Data collected in tiny snapshots of time (increments of 5-15 mins, sent 4-6 times/day)Also, send network messages every few seconds.
11 Switching Mode Power Supply Translates the 240v alternating current (AC) to the 2-10 volts direct current (DC) requiredGenerates spikes of high frequency transients or electromagnetic interference (EMI), which travel along building wiring, radiating outward; can also back up all the way to the utility, infecting every energy customer in betweenResults in interference with electronic equipment, and also causes havoc with biological systemsThe ‘opt-out’ arrangement, of (digital) smart meter without RF transmitting function, would not eliminate transients (True ‘opt out’ is analog meter)
13 Pattern of Smart Meter Emissions The gray boxes in the middle are the meter and the mounting box. The red and orange globe is the pattern of microwave emissions. Darker color means more intense exposure. Notice there ARE emissions behind the meter.(from Dec 2010 EPRI Report)
14 Neighborhood Collector The meters pass data from one house to another, and can take many different paths.
15 Neighborhood Collector The globe of radiation emitted spreads in all directions. Where the globes overlap, there is a “hot spot” of higher-than-expected radiation.
16 Neighborhood Collector Simultaneous transmissions overlap, creating a cloud of radiation, sometimes called ‘electrosmog’. The houses closest to the collector are relaying almost constantly, generating the most radiation.
17 Mesh Network DiagramThe collector in each neighborhood is connected to the other collectors in another mesh network to carry the data back to the utility (backhaul).
18 Peak smart meter transmissions Taken from Dec EPRI ReportPPPeak smart meter transmissionsThe intensity of the emissions is so much stronger than what the utilities admit. The actual peak (the stars) is 10,000 times the average measurement that the utitlity reports (the green spikes).
19 Pulsed versus Continuous Wave While these two signals are very different, and impact the body differently, because of how the FCC measures RF (with averages), the FCC would consider these two signals identical.Bodies react to actual exposure, not averages!
20 How many times a PG&E smart meter transmits in 24 hours Depending on where in the network a house is located (how close to a collector) will affect how often the meter transmits. Those closest in a large network will experience transmissions near the max; those further away will be more average. The point is, while a meter sends its OWN data six times per day, it is sending SOMETHING 10,000 times or more per day.TOTAL TRANSMISSIONS ,396
21 PG&E Transmits & Duty Cycle Avg. Smart Meter - transmits every secs. [86,400 (secs/day) / 9981 msgs.]Each is short duration (< 50 millisecs) so total Xmit time is only 45.3 secs ( duty cycle) (45.3 secs./86,400 secs/day)Max. Sm mtr - every 1/2 second (twice/sec.) ( (86,400 /190,396 max. msgs.)Max. transmits duty cycle (<15 mins) (875 total secs./86,400)What percentage of the day a meter is transmitting, expressed either as a % or a decimal, is called the ‘duty cycle’. The fact that a smart meter is only transmitting for a short time per day (low duty cycle) is more than offset by the fact that the transmissions occur every few seconds day and night.
22 Non-Ionizing Radiation Ionizing Radiation The microwaves (circled) are the frequency ranges used for communication. Non-ionizing radiation causes damage in a different way than ionizing. Ionizing has the power to knock an electron out of an atom. Non-ionizing doesn’t have that power, but it disrupts cellular communication and “unzips” DNA strands.Non-Ionizing RadiationIonizing RadiationTaken from “Public Health SOS” by Camilla Reese and Magda Havas
23 Spectrum Characteristics The higher the frequency (right side of chart), the deeper the penetration (i.e. Xrays)At very high frequencies (Xrays), the waves have the power to knock an electron out of an atom, creating ions (thus, ionizing radiation)The lower the frequency, the further it travels (i.e., fog horns) [Note: human cells use ELF]A stronger signal often will interfere with or override a weaker signalSince the body uses very low, weak signals, the higher frequencies, which are more powerful, override or interfere with the body’s communication.
24 Naturally Occurring EMF (ElectroMagnetic Frequencies) Schumann Resonance, earth’s own EMF, is 7.86 HzHuman heartbeat is 1-2 HzSleeping brainwaves are 2-4 HzAwake brain is 8-13 HzOverall, human cells vibrate at rate between 0-22 hertzThese are ELF, Continuous Waves (CW)Visible light is trillion Hz (CW)Naturally occurring EMF is usually Continuous Wave, whereas man-made EMF is usually a pulsed signal.
25 How Much MW Radiation Today? 1980 Background Microwave was uW/cm2Now in cities it is 0.4 to 100 uW/cm2Background RFR has increased 20,000 times!!Smart Meter Mesh Networks will add to thisPotential Chronic Health Effects could add to health care costsPREVENTION is key (Precautionary Principle)Source: Dr. Karl Maret youtube video, “The Truth about Smart Meters”
26 Traits of Microwave Radiation Intensity of emission (called power density) drops off sharply with increased distance (equation)The waves bounce (called reflection) off smooth, hard surfaces (like glass, concrete, polished metal, granite countertops, etc.)The emissions are additive. When two (or more) waves intersect, the exposure is the sum of the two (or more).Multiple RF sources and/or reflection cause intersections, i.e. higher than expected pwr. densityDamage done by RF is cumulative over time
27 Sunlight is a form of RFR as are microwaves. Where Rays IntersectSunlight is a form of RFR as are microwaves.When microwaves intersect, the effect is similar to sunlight concentrated through a magnifying glass.The curvature of a skull adds to the effect of “hot spots” in the brain
28 5 year old 10 year old Adult These are Cell Phone Studies but Smart Meters use same Frequencies Research of Dr. Om Ghandi, University of Utah
29 When smart meters are installed, many people immediately get sick When smart meters are installed, many people immediately get sick. This is because the RF microwaves are overriding or interfering with the body’s signals.
30 Known Biological Effects of HF EMF’s Can affect Electroencephalogram & Blood Brain FlowDisruption of cell communications—Ca+ ionsDamage to genes and DNA (breakage) found in extensive REFLEX Study 2004Long-term Increased Cancer riskThe flow of calcium ions (Ca+) is an essential component of cellular communication.
31 REFLEX Study 2004 FindingsDNA strand breaks occur at only 1/40th (2.5%) of guideline limitsSignificant increase in single and double strand DNA breaksChromosomal aberrations in fibroblastsChanges in many proteins, including heat shock protein, the cell stress responseThis is solid evidence: Mobile phone radiation damages the genetic material and may increase the risk of developing cancer.
32 (from PhD Martin Blank's presentation at the Commonwealth Club of CA 11/18/10) `
33 Effects of Pulsed Microwaves Breech the protective Blood Brain BarrierAffect the NeurotransmittersAffect Testosterone Hormone LevelsCan Decrease Sperm Production in MenAffect the natural Rhythm of BrainCan affect Heart Rate and Heart Rate VariabilityEEG Changes—also in sleep, reduction of learning, memory problemsLowers Hormones: Melatonin—affects sleep & testosterone in male rats
35 The pulsed microwaves are impacting the brain, scrambling the neuro communication, affecting the brain’s function. RF suppresses melatonin production.
36 This is Not New Information! May 1975, Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab – “…variability in the waveform (pulsed vs CW) could compromise the validity of conclusions”1984 USAF 5 yr pulsed RF/MW study, Dr Bill Guy found increase in tumorsRFIAWG 1999 Letter to IEEE—14 issues w/RF limits—“Studies continue to be published describing biological responses to nonthermal ELF-modulated and pulse-modulated RF radiation exposures that are not produced by CW (unmodulated) RF radiation.”The Salzburg Resolution of 2000 – Scientists set a target of 0.1 μW/cm2 (or V/m) for public exposure to pulsed radiofrequency (FCC limit is 600 uW/cm2)“description of the field in terms of the average power is not adequate…”
37 EMF & RFR Research 1950s-1990’sRobert Kane, BSEE, MSEE in electromagnetics, Ph.D. in EE, esp. electromagneticsFormer Motorola prod. design engr., research scientist, developer of cell phones and microwave telecommunications/04/17/robert-c-kane-cellular- telephone-russian-roulette/“Tissue destruction in one’s brain may be occurring w/o the slightest indication that anything is happening. And the damage may be repeated, over and over again, each time the energy exposure takes place.”
38 Health Effect StudiesInternational Agency for Research on Cancer, at WHO states possible carcinogen based on Interphone studyDr. Magda Havas: Cordless phones (2.4 GHz, same as HAN and WiFi) affect heart rate at 0.5% of guidelinesREFLEX Study, 2 hrs of 60 Hz breaks DNAMutates DNA which can lead to cancerChildren’s cells multiply much faster (duplicating mutations)Blood brain barrier leaks after 2 hrs GSM exposure (pulsed)Pulsed signal causes heat shock (stress) cell proteinsDr. Carlo said 2.4 GHz affects cognitive ability and memory"Windows" of effects at lower frequenciesHAN is the Home Area Network, which is the ZigBee radio in the smart meter that communicates with home appliances. GSM is a pulsed cellular communication, typical in Europe.
39 RFR Damages DNA, Fertility Peer reviewed, published research shows damage to ovaries and testesBarrie Trower, British scientist, former naval weapons expert, specializing in microwave “stealth” warfareLow level microwaves can damage the ovaries in girls (they have all their eggs at birth)That girl could have a genetically deformed child, and that could be carried through generations.You are risking the future generations of your children with genetic disorders.RFR is radio frequency radiation.
40 RF Effects on Children Children’s bodies affected more by RF Smaller, thinner bonesHigher water contentCells rapidly multiplying (mutations are multiplied)Asphalt playgrounds reflect (intensify) RFThe earlier exposure starts, the higher the health risks
41 Radio Frequency Guidelines and Effects RFTestingPower density is a unit of measurement to measure how much RF a person is receiving.
42 So Many Studies, Why No Action? Thousands of RFR studies find bioeffects. Industry says, “No effect has been found.”Actually, every assertion of risk has a counter assertion of no risk.For every study showing damage to DNA and memory, there is an opposite study.How is it scientifically possible for 50 percent of all studies to get an opposite result?H. Lai split 326 studies in 2006 by funder (industry vs private); 70% of privately funded show bio effect, only 30% of industry funded did.Industry is “buying” the conclusion they want. Either the study is structured to insure the desired result, or the data is “interpreted” selectively.
43 Key Resolutions/Appeals re: EMF/EMR Health Effects Helsinki Appeal (2005) – Drs. & researchersICEM’s Benevento Resolution, Italy (2006) - Scientists (International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety)Venice Resolution (2008) - ScientistsFreiburger Appeal (2008) - DoctorsPorto Alegre Resolution, Brazil (2009) – Scientists & Drs.Seletun Scientific Statement (2010) - ScientistsParliamentary Assembly Council of Europe –(2011)Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (2011)
44 Why (falsely) claimed to be "safe" RF is well below FCC limits (but effects at < 3% of limit)Emissions (claimed to be) less than a cell phone (which is itself a possible carcinogen)Emits only a "little tiny bit" of radiation (based upon averaging out the peaks)Only transmitting 1-2% of time (as often as twice per second)
45 FCC Guidelines FCC guidelines protect: Emission averaged over 30 mins The guideline is for EXPOSURE, not for EMISSIONS (but not enforced)FCC guidelines protect:6 ft 200 lb man from thermal effects (heating)Emission averaged over 30 minsProtection from one device aloneSingle exposure (acute)The guideline says a 200 lb man can be exposed to a certain amount of radiation (600 uW/cm2) at a certain distance (8 in.) averaged over 30 mins. It is tested in a ‘sound proof room’ with no other devices and no ‘hot spots’. This assumes after that 30 min. exposure, you are never exposed again.
46 FCC Compliance is not safety (it’s just legal) From 1993 internal FDA memo:“available data ‘strongly suggest’ that microwaves can ‘accelerate the development of cancer’.”From 2002 EPA letter:“The FCC’s exposure guideline is considered protective of effects arising from a thermal mechanism but not from all possible mechanisms.Therefore, the generalization by many that the guidelines protect human beings from harm by any or all mechanisms is not justified.”
47 Guideline Deficits No protection from: No provisions for: Non-thermal, bio-effectsPulsed signal vs. continuous wave (no distinction)Momentary peak emission (no cap)Emissions from other simultaneous devices (whether smart meters, WiFi, cell phones, etc)Daily, annual accumulationNo provisions for:The vulnerable (children, elderly, pregnant women)Nighttime period for cells to recover
48 What does it all mean?FCC regulations do NOT protect against all effectsThe low RFR frequency mimics/interferes with cell communicationResidents’ exposure is much higher than admitted by utilitiesRFR is a 'toxic accumulant', i.e. the effects of exposure build up over timeWireless microwave communication is NOT acceptable for the smart grid
52 Smart Grid TraitsCommunication uses Wireless Radio Frequency Radiation (RFR, also called microwaves)Uses pulsed waves (as much as 2 times per second) not Continuous Waves (28 times worse than CW)Each brief transmission reaches high intensity peaksThe peaks are averaged over 30 minutes and whole body exposure, hiding the peakMultiple transmitters (ZigBee, neighbors’ meters, apt. bldgs., collectors, backhaul to utility)Background radiation (cell twrs, WiFi, cell phones, cordless phones, microwave ovens, etc.)
53 Neighborhood Collector Each house sends its data to the collector. The different colors designate which house originated the signal.
54 Peak Pulse Intensity vs Avg. Exposure Short pulse (<50 milliseconds) with ~1 watt (10,000 uW) peak pulses can average to Power of 9 uW/cm (Tell Report)The body feels actual peak pulse, not average! Consider the Biological Effects of high power pulsing.The physical max of a meter would be 72,000 pulses transmitted in an hour72,000 is 20 (<50 millisecond) transmissions per second, times 60 seconds per minute, times 60 minutes per hour.
55 DNA functions like an antenna DNA functions like an antenna. Each size of coil attracts a different RF frequency. So every cell is reacting to multiple frequencies.(from Martin Blank's presentation at the Commonwealth Club of California 11/18/10)
56 Cell Phone vs. Smart Meter Why the comparison?Same/similar frequencyMost people have cell phones--reluctant to give them up (inclined to ignore/discount reports of health effects)Claim smart meter emission is much less than cell phoneHoweverDaniel Hirsch, nuclear policy expert: corrected duty cycle and measurement unit, smart meter emits 100 X’s moreWHO announced (May 2011) cell phones (and all wireless devices) are possible carcinogens
58 DNA has an instruction set for more than just replicating the cell DNA has an instruction set for more than just replicating the cell. DNA is coiled like a phone handset cord; that coil is coiled and the resulting coil is coiled again.(from Martin Blank's presentation at the Commonwealth Club of California11/18/10.)
59 Are there Really Safe Levels? “The actual exposure levels at which these genetic effects are shown are about 0.5 to 1.2 uW/cm2. These are not safe levels, they are just experimental levels that show, that at extremely low experimental levels, genotoxic responses occur cell-by-cell. There is no safe threshold.” Dr. Neil Cherry, New Zealand EMF Researcher Studied Health Effects of SF Sutro Tower