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Tobacco and Your Patient Tobacco Use and Your Patient Donald Shell, M.D., MA Interim Director Center for Health Promotion Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Tobacco and Your Patient Tobacco Use and Your Patient Donald Shell, M.D., MA Interim Director Center for Health Promotion Education."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Tobacco and Your Patient

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12 Tobacco Use and Your Patient
Donald Shell, M.D., MA Interim Director Center for Health Promotion Education And Tobacco Use Prevention Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

13 Tobacco Use and Your Patient
Multiple Surgeon General’s reports (2004, 2006, 2010) have established long list of health consequences and diseases caused by tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke This presentation will: Review the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may underlie the pathogenicity of tobacco smoke Review the health consequences caused by exposure to tobacco smoke Not review evidence on the mechanism of how smokeless tobacco causes disease (future webinar)

14 Quitting Will Save Your Patients’ Lives
Tobacco Use Remains the leading preventable cause of death and disease in the United States. Recent studies show that brief advice from a clinician about smoking cessation yielded a 66% increase in successful quit rates. Tell your patient that quitting smoking is the most important step they can take to improve their health. They will listen to you.

15 Tobacco Use - Single Largest Preventable Cause of Death and Disease in the US
Health consequences of tobacco use Heart disease Multiple types of cancer Pulmonary disease Adverse reproductive effect Chronic health conditions 443,000 Americans die each year Smoking costs US $193 billion in medical expenses & lost productivity

16 Health Consequences Causally Linked to Smoking
Chronic Diseases Stroke Blindness, cataracts Periodontitis Aortic aneurysm Coronary heart disease Pneumonia Atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and other respiratory effects Hip fractures Reproductive effects in women (including reduced fertility)

17 Health Consequences Causally Linked to Smoking
Cancers Oropharynx Larynx Esophagus Trachea, bronchus, and lung Acute myeloid leukemia Stomach, Pancreas, Kidney and ureter Cervix, Bladder

18 Health Consequences Causally Linked to Exposure to Secondhand Smoke
Children Middle ear disease Respiratory symptoms, impaired lung function Lower respiratory illness Sudden infant death syndrome Adults Nasal irritation Lung cancer Coronary heart disease Reproductive effects in women: low birth weight

19 Tobacco Mechanisms of Disease Production
There is no risk free level of exposure to tobacco smoke Inhalation of tobacco smokes complex chemical mixture of combustion compounds causes adverse health outcomes through: DNA damage Inflammation Oxidative stress Risk and severity directly related to duration and level of exposure

20 Tobacco Mechanisms of Disease Production
Insufficient evidence that product modification strategies to lower toxicant emissions in tobacco: Reduce risk for major adverse health outcomes Sustained use and long term exposure to tobacco smoke: Mediated by diverse actions of nicotine at multiple nicotinic receptors in the brain Powerfully addictive

21 Tobacco and Cancer Mechanisms of Disease Production
Carcinogen exposure and resultant DNA damage in smokers direct result of numerous cytogenetic changes present in lung cancer Mutations in TP53 and KRAS in lung cancer Promoter methylation of key tumor suppressor genes such as P16 in smoking-caused cancers Nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone activate signal transduction Receptor mediated events Allow survival of damaged epithelial cells that would normally die

22 Tobacco and Cancer Mechanisms of Disease Production
Metabolic activation of cigarette smoke carcinogens by cytochrome P-450 enzymes has a direct effect on the formation of DNA adducts Consistent evidence for an inherited susceptibility of lung cancer Some less common genotypes are unrelated to familial clustering of smoking behaviors Smoking cessation is the only proven strategy to reduce the pathogenic process leading to cancer

23 Tobacco and Cardiovascular Mechanisms of Disease Production
Nonlinear dose response between tobacco smoke exposure and cardiovascular risk Sharp increase at low levels of exposure Infrequent smoking or 2nd hand smoke exposure Cigarette smoking: Leads to coronary and peripheral artery endothelial dysfunction resulting from Oxidizing chemicals and nicotine in tobacco smoke

24 Implicated in acute cardiovascular events and thrombosis
Low levels of exposure (including 2nd hand smoke) lead to a rapid and sharp increase in endothelial dysfunction and inflammation Implicated in acute cardiovascular events and thrombosis

25 Tobacco and Cardiovascular Mechanisms of Disease Production
Cigarette smoking produces: Chronic inflammation Contributes to atherogenic disease processes Elevates levels of biomarkers of inflammation Predictors of cardiovascular events Atherogenic lipid profile Primarily due to an increase in triglycerides and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol Insulin resistance and chronic inflammation Accelerates macrovascular and microvascular complications including nephropathy

26 Tobacco and Cardiovascular Mechanisms of Disease Production
Smoking Reduction: Smoking fewer cigarettes per day does not reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease Smoking cessation: Reduces the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality for smokers with or without coronary heart disease Facilitated by the use of nicotine or other medications in patients with known cardiovascular disease Produces far less cardiovascular risk that the risk of continued smoking

27 Tobacco and Pulmonary Mechanisms of Disease Production
COPD Oxidative stress from tobacco smoke exposure has a role in the pathogenic process Inherited genetic variations in genes such as SER-PINA3 is involved in pathogenesis Protease-antiprotease imbalance has a role in the pathogenesis of emphysema Smoking cessation is the only proven strategy for reducing the pathogenic process leading to COPD

28 Tobacco Reproductive and Developmental Mechanisms of Disease Production
Consistent Evidence: Smoking in men linked to chromosome changes or DNA damage in sperm (germ cells) Affecting male fertility, pregnancy viability, offspring anomalies Association of periconceptional smoking to cleft lip with or without cleft palate Genetic polymorphisms (i.e. transforming growth factor-alpha) modify risk of oral clefting Smoking in women: Increased FSH and decreased estrogen and progesterone levels (nicotine endocrine effects) Diminished oviductal functioning (impaired fertility)

29 Tobacco Reproductive and Developmental Mechanisms of Disease Production
Consistent Evidence That Maternal Smoking: Transiently increases maternal heart rate, BP (diastolic) by norepinephrine and epinephrine release Interferes with physiological transformation of spiral arteries and thickening of the villous membrane in the forming placenta Fetal loss, preterm delivery, low birth weight

30 Tobacco Reproductive and Developmental Mechanisms of Disease Production
Consistent Evidence That Maternal Smoking: Histopathologic changes in the fetus Primarily in the brain and lung Adverse impact on a variety of reproductive endpoints from polycystic aromatic hydrocarbons Immunosuppressive (dysregulated inflammatory response) Lead to miscarriage and preterm delivery

31 Tobacco Reproductive and Developmental Mechanisms of Disease Production
Consistent Evidence Links: Carbon monoxide to birth weight and neurological (cognitive and neurobehavioral endpoint) deficits Prenatal smoke exposure and genetic variation in metabolizing enzymes such as GSTT1 with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes lowered birth weight and reduced gestation

32 Summary Tobacco Mechanisms of Disease
Smoking cessation: The only proven strategy to reduce the pathogenic process leading to cancer reduces the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality for smokers with or without coronary heart disease the only proven strategy for reducing the pathogenic process leading to COPD Use of nicotine or other medications in patients with known cardiovascular disease produces far less cardiovascular risk than continued smoking

33 Tobacco Use and Your Patient
Donald Shell, M.D., MA Interim Director Center for Health Promotion, Education And Tobacco Use Prevention Department of Health and Mental Hygiene 300 W. Preston Street, Suite 410 Baltimore, MD 21201 (410)

34 Brief Intervention and the 5 A’s:
Helping Patients Quit Tobacco Dr. Carlo DiClemente Director, MDQuit Resource Center Sponsored by Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and University of Maryland Baltimore County

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36 Brief Intervention and the 5 A’s:
Helping Patients Quit Tobacco Dr. Carlo DiClemente Director, MDQuit Resource Center Sponsored by Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and University of Maryland Baltimore County

37 What is ? Resource center for tobacco use cessation and prevention for the State of Maryland. Funded by the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DHMH). Located on the campus of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). Dedicated to assisting providers and programs in reducing tobacco use among citizens across the state utilizing best practices strategies.

38 The Big Picture – 2007 There are 90.7 million ever smokers in the U.S.
Over 52% of these are now former smokers Prevalence has dropped from 42% in 1965 to 19.8% in 2007 43.4 million people are still smoking the U.S. (19.8% of adults) 77.8 % of smokers smoke every day 38.4% stopped smoking for one day in the past year because they were trying to quit An ever smoker is one that has had 100 or more cigarettes in their lifetime. 20% smoke some days 38 38

39 The Smoker’s Journey Social pressure Policy Products & Services Price
Support Smoking In Network Promotion Long Term Success Tobacco Advertising Satisfied Dependent or Casual Smoker Choosing A Method NRT, TX, Cold Turkey, Quitline Dissatisfied but ambivalent Decided to Make a Quit Attempt Quit Attempt Short Term Success Personal Concerns Special Events Relapse And Recycling Psychiatric Conditions And Other Life Problems Quitting History Beliefs & Myths

40 Stages of Change for Smoking Cessation: 2008 MATS
Precontemplation: Current smokers who are not planning on quitting smoking in the next 6 months Contemplation: Current smokers who are planning on quitting smoking in the next 6 months but have not made a quit attempt in the past year Preparation: Current smokers who are definitely planning to quit within next 30 days and have made a quit attempt in the past year Action: Individuals who are not currently smoking and have stopped smoking within the past 6 months Maintenance: Individuals who are not currently smoking and have stopped smoking for longer than 6 months but less than 5 years DiClemente, 2003 40

41 Changes with 2008 Note: includes ever-smokers (100+ cigarettes in lifetime) who are current smokers or former smokers (including those who have quit for 5+ years)

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44 Physician Brief Intervention is a Best Practice
“All physicians should strongly advise every patient who smokes to quit because evidence shows that physician advice to quit smoking increases abstinence rates.” “Minimal interventions lasting less than 3 minutes increase overall tobacco abstinence rates.” “Every tobacco user should be offered at least a minimal intervention, whether or not he or she is referred to intensive intervention.” Recommendations with Strength of Evidence = A Fiore et al. (2008). Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: Clinical Practice Guideline 2008 Update.

45 Doctors Helping Smokers: Myths and Realities
Thought of as… But actually… Patient an individual lacking in knowledge about the harmful effects of smoking who would quit if he or she were aware of these facts knows about the harms probably would like to quit has a 40-percent probability of trying to quit in a given year is unlikely to remain abstinent after any single attempt Provider an autonomous individual who would try to convince the smoker to quit if he or she were aware of the harmful effects of smoking aware of the harmful effects has misconceptions about how to help smokers quit lacks the resources to identify the smokers who want to quit and provide them with help experiences intense competition for time Setting designed to help the physician meet the demands of the patient for acute care offers little support to the physician who would like to help patients stop smoking Doctors Helping Smokers was designed to be an interdisciplinary clinic-based program that sought to help at each level: Patient: (1) identified all smokers but focused on providing help to the smokers who wanted to quit smoking, were trying to quit smoking, or who had recently quit smoking. Provider: (2) conceived of the physician as an individual who is highly dependent on office staff for support and, therefore, involved the entire office staff in the effort to identify smokers, advise them to quit, and provide them with the help they might want or need in the smoking cessation effort. Setting: (3) provided a clinic environment that cued the staff to act and reinforced them when they did act. Through the program, they found that in a group of nonvolunteer clinics, that at least some clinics can be recruited to adopt the program described above and that this adoption, even at incomplete levels, results in significant increases in the rates at which smokers are identified, advised to quit, and reinforced in their quit attempts. This type of process does not need to be done as an entire program, however… Kottke et al., 1994 (NCI) 45

46 Brief Intervention for Tobacco: Goals
Focus on supporting quit attempts based on the extent to which a patient is: Ready Willing Able Provide the patient with feedback and assistance that meets his/her current needs. Abilities Willingness Readiness x

47 Treating Tobacco Using the 5 A’s
Current User No Current Use Ready to Quit Yes No

48 The “5 A’s” For Brief Intervention
ASK about tobacco use (<1 minute) Identify and document tobacco use for EVERY patient at EVERY visit. ADVISE to quit smoking (< 30 seconds) In a clear, strong, personalized manner, urge EVERY user to quit. ASSESS willingness to make a quit attempt (<1-2 minutes) Is the tobacco user willing to make a quit attempt at this time? ASSIST in quit attempt (<1-3 minutes) Give all patients a brochure. For the patient willing to make a quit attempt, provide pharmacotherapy and counseling if possible. ARRANGE follow-up Schedule follow-up contact, preferably within first week after the quit date. 48

49 1. ASK: about tobacco use every time
Implement a standard system to ensure that for every patient at every visit, tobacco use is queried and documented. Some settings expand the vital signs to include tobacco use, viewing it as equally important as taking a patient’s blood pressure or asking about current symptoms. Ask patients: Have you smoked a cigarette, even a puff, in the past 30 days? On average, how many cigarettes do you smoke per day? How long have you been smoking at that rate? A person’s smoking status and readiness to make a quit attempt can change across visits.

50 2. ADVISE: Urge ALL tobacco users to quit
Provide Clear, Concise, Strong and Personalized Advice: As your physician, I recommend that you quit using tobacco. The clinic staff and I will help you. As your smoking has increased, your breathing has worsened. Right now, quitting smoking is the best thing you can do for your health. Expect ambivalence. Be willing to listen non-judgmentally to patient concerns. Ask: What do you make of this advice?

51 3. ASSESS: Current willingness to make a quit attempt
Talk to each tobacco user about his/her readiness to make a quit attempt. A ‘Readiness Ruler’ is a helpful tool that allows you to emphasize the patient’s existing motivation to quit. Ask: On a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being very ready, how ready are you to quit smoking? What makes you a [4] and not a lower number? For the Less Ready The 5 R’s: Relevance Risks Rewards Roadblocks Repetition For patients with low readiness, additional strategies help to enhance motivation, including the use of open-ended questions, expressing empathy, discuss the 5 R’s and managing resistance through reflective listening. With practice, these skills improve. For patients with low readiness, discussion of the 5 R’s can help address concerns and enhance motivation. 51

52 Readiness Ruler I don’t want to quit. Tobacco is not a problem for me.
1 3 4 5 2 7 6 8 10 9 Low Readiness Moderate Readiness High Readiness I don’t want to quit. Tobacco is not a problem for me. Trying to quit would be a waste of my time. I am thinking about quitting. I know that quitting would be good for my health. I am interested in hearing about ways to quit. I am ready to quit using tobacco. I would like help to quit using tobacco. Another way to think about readiness is on a scale of 1-10. Use this ruler to think about how ready you are to quit. Take a moment now to rate yourself on this scale of 1-10. Some of the thoughts that go along with these numbers are below the ruler…. This ruler is available for download at: mdquit.org/fax-to-assist/module-2 52

53 4. ASSIST: Provide help for a successful quit attempt
Offer an array of effective treatment options: Free telephone counseling through the Maryland Quitline Smoking cessation groups Local health department resources Pharmacotherapy and NRT (when medically advisable - consider pregnancy, other medications, allergies, etc.) Help the client set a personal quit date.

54 5. ARRANGE: Schedule follow-up contact
Follow-up contact (in-person or by phone) is most helpful within the first few weeks of the quit date and again at the next appointment. Congratulate successes and address challenges. Treat continued tobacco use as a chronic illness. Repeat follow-up supports change. Consider referrals to more intensive treatment, especially for special populations like pregnant women and individuals with mental illness.

55 Pharmacotherapy for Smoking Cessation
All patients attempting to quit should be encouraged to use pharmacotherapy with special attention to smokers who may: Medical contraindications Smoking fewer than 10 cigarettes/day Pregnant/breastfeeding women Adolescents Many patients will be unsure about using medications/NRT. Keep the option for medication/NRT use open and have these tools available if and when a patient is willing to try them. 55

56 Pharmacotherapy Options
Nicotine replacement OTC: Nicorette, nicotine gum, Commit Lozenge, Habitrol, Nicoderm CQ, Nicotrol, Nicotine Transdermal System Prescription: Nicotrol Inhaler, Nicotrol NS Nasal Spray Bupropion SR (Zyban): works through dopamine as an agonist (same formula as Wellbutrin) Varenicline (Chantix): partial agonist at the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; may relieve nicotine withdrawal and cigarette craving, and block nicotine’s reinforcing effects 56

57 The Maryland Tobacco Quitline
Service provided by Free & Clear Inc. Free reactive and proactive phone counseling services Quit CoachesTM - Trained specialists Provides individually-tailored quit plans Referral to local county resources – cessation classes, in-person counseling and free medication Operational seven days a week - 8:00am to 3:00 am Free NRT (the patch or gum) 4 week supply Free & Clear is a nationally recognized leader in the field of tobacco cessation. Their program is consistently recognized by the CDC and Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as a model tobacco cessation program. They have over 225 clients, 28 of which are state health depts. Some corporate clients include Campbell’s and Whirlpool. Free reactive and proactive phone counseling services are available for all Marylanders. Provide individually-tailored quit plans. Quit Coaches are Master-level and trained in cessation treatment Professionals in Psychology, Counseling, Other healthcare fields - Many are ex-smokers Provide referrals to local resources for more information and for NRT (also referred to insurers for NRT) Quitline hours of operation: Seven days a week, 8am – 3am Spanish speaking Quit Coaches are available during hours of operation. 57

58 Fax Referral Program “Fax to Assist”- launched Dec. 2006 by
On-line training & certification for HIPAA-covered entities Providers can refer their patients or clients (who wish to quit, preferably within 30 days) to the Maryland Tobacco Quitline Tobacco users will sign the Fax Referral enrollment form during a face-to-face intervention with a provider (e.g., at a doctor's office, hospital, dentist's office, clinic or agency site) The provider will then fax the form to the Quitline Within 48 hours, a Quit Coach™ makes the initial call to the tobacco user to begin the coaching process

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60 Fax to Assist Provider Kits
When you complete the certification quiz, MDQuit will send you: Training CD-Rom with all 4 Modules 5A’s Clipboard 5A’s Mousepad MDQuit ink pen

61 Quitline Satisfaction and Quit Rates Year 4 Evaluation

62 Cyclical Model for Intervention
Most smokers will recycle through multiple quit attempts and multiple interventions. However, successful cessation occurs for large numbers of smokers over time. Keys to successful recycling Persistent efforts Repeated contacts Helping the smoker take the next step Bolster self-efficacy and motivation Match strategy to patient stage of change 62

63 Brief Intervention for Tobacco: Private Payer Benefits
HCPCS/CPT Codes: 99406: Smoking and tobacco-use cessation counseling visit; intermediate, greater than 3 minutes up to 10 minutes. Short descriptor: Smoke/Tobacco counseling 3-10 : Preventive medicine services : Health & Behavior Assessment/Intervention (Non-physician only) Private payer benefits are subject to specific plan policies. Before providing service, benefit eligibility and payer coding requirements should be verified. AAFP, 2011

64 Brief Intervention for Tobacco: Cost-effectiveness
Tobacco interventions from brief clinician advice to specialized treatment are highly cost-effective (Strength of Evidence = A) Evidence-based tobacco use interventions compare well with other prevention and chronic disease interventions. Counseling about smoking cessation was found to be more cost-effective than treatment of moderate hypertension or hypercholesterolemia and as effective as mammography. Cost per year of life saved estimated at $3,539. (TTUD, 2008; Cummings et al., 1989, NCI (1994) monograph, p. 110)

65 Strategies for Increasing Cessation
Know the Smoker Understand the Cessation Journey Treat the Smoker as a Consumer Create a continuum of care Develop collaborations and create synergy Take advantage of opportunities

66 Contact Us MDQuit Resource Center UMBC Psychology
1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (410)

67 References American Academy of Family Physicians (2011). HCPCS, CPT, & ICD-9 Codes Related to Tobacco Cessation Counseling. Retrieved on September 13, 2011 from Cromwell J, Bartosch WJ, Fiore MC, et al. Cost-effectiveness of the clinical practice recommendations in the AHCPR guideline for smoking cessation. JAMA 1997;278: Cummings, S.R.; Rubin, S.M.; Oster, G. The cost-effectiveness of counseling smokers to quit. JAMA, 1989, 261, Fiore, M.C., Jaen, C.R., Baker, T.B., et al. (2008). Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update. Clinical Practice Guideline. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Kottke, T. E., Solberg, L. I., Brekke, M. L., Conn, S. A., Maxwell, C., & Brekke, M. J. (1994). In National Cancer Institute, Tobacco and the clinician: interventions for medical and dental practice. Monograph No. 5. NIH Publication No , pp

68 Tobacco and Your Patient
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