Presentation on theme: "Causes of Cancer Defective cellular growth"— Presentation transcript:
1Causes of Cancer Defective cellular growth Stem cellsGeneration timeContact InhibitorDefective cellular differentiationExposure to carcinogensMoves to less mature formLeads to invasion and metastasis
2Characteristics of Normal Cells Limited Cell DivisionSpecific MorphologySmall Nuclear-Cytoplasmic RatioPerform Specific Differentiated FunctionsAdhere tightly together…Are nonmigratoryGrow in an orderly and well differentiated mannerAre contact inhibited
3Characteristics of Early Embryonic Cells Demonstrate rapid and continuous cell divisionShow anaplastic morphologyHave a large nuclear-cytoplasmic ratioPerform no differentiated functionsAdhere loosely togetherAre able to migrateAre not contact inhibited.
4Characteristics of Benign Cells Demonstrate continuous or inappropriate cell growth.Show specific morphologyHave a small nuclear-cytoplasmic ratioPerform differentiated functionsAdhere tightly togetherAre nonmigratoryGrow in an orderly and well regulated fashion.
5Characteristics of Malignant Cells Demonstrate rapid or continuous cellular division.Show anaplastic morphologyHave a large nuclear-cytoplasmic ratioLose some or all differentiated functionsAdhere loosely togetherAre able to migrateGrow by invasionAre not contact-inhibited
8Stages of Carcinogenesis (Oncogenesis) InitiationPromotionProgressionMetastasis
9Common Steps in Metastasis Extension into Surrounding TissuesPenetration into Blood VesselsRelease of Tumor CellsInvasion of Tissue at the Site of Arrest
10Immune Response Attempts to destroy abnormal cells Surface Antigens Used as tracers to indicate success of treatmentCEA (carcinoembrionic antigen) - GI tractAFP (alphafetoprotein) - liverCA ovarianPSA – prostate
11Cancer Grade and StageGrading; Classifies cellular aspects of a cancer.Staging; Classifies clinical aspects of the cancer.
12Histologic Class I - Well differentiated II - Moderate differentiation III - Poor differentiationIV - Immature & Undifferentiated
13Clinical Staging O - Ca in situ I (A) - Localized growth II (B) - Limited local growthIII (C) - Extensive local and regional growthIV (D) - Metastasis
14TNM Classification Tis No Mo T4 N3 M1 T - Primary tumor N - Regional lymph nodesM - Distant metastasisTis No MoT4 N3 M1
21bone marrow suppression Side EffectsCluster the common ones:bone marrow suppressionalopecianausea and vomitingAdriamycin - CardiacCisplatin – Renal
22Complications Pain Control Bone Marrow Suppression Infarction Infection - NeutropeniaHemorrhageAnemiaInfarctionSuperior Vena Cava SyndromeSpinal Cord CompressionTumor Lysis Syndrome
23Common Problems/Complications Associated With Cancer Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS);Destruction of cells (lysis)Release of Purine and Potassium (K+) into BloodstreamPurines converted to uric acid (in liver) K+ into BloodstreamHyperuricemia HyperkalemiaObstruction of Kidney TubulesARF
24Paraneoplastic Syndromes Secretion of InsulinSecretion of ACTHHypercalcemiaSIADH
26Leukemia AML - Acute Myelogenous ALL - Acute Lymphocytic Age of Onset (15-39 yrs), usually affects adultsPrognosis is generally poor, best with bone marrow transplantMost common type of leukemiaEqual incidence in males and femalesALL - Acute LymphocyticAge of Onset (<15 yrs), usually affects children, accounts for approx 10% of adult leukemia'sPrognosis is poorer for adults than for childrenFever & BleedingIncreased incidence in males
27Leukemia CML - Chronic Myelogenous CLL - Chronic Lymphocytic Age of Onset (>50 yrs)Involves liver & spleenBlastic CrisisCLL - Chronic LymphocyticOlder patients – over 50Lymph node involvement
28Lymphoma Lymph system Lymphocytes & histiocytes (macrophages) Hodgkins 15-35 and over 50 yrs.Non-HodgkinsOutside of lymph nodesWide spread before DxMultiple MyelomaInfiltrates marrowdestroys bone
29Breast Early detection - Education Treatment options Mastectomy care Referrals