2Welding Fumes Contain a variety of chemicals Depends upon what is being welded onThe makeup of theRodsFluxesShielding gasesConfined SpacesE.G. Welding on stainless steel generates hexavalent chromium
3Welding Fume Health Effects Disorders and Symptoms
4Aluminum Has shown increases in dementia Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis Parkinsons dementiaAlzheimers (speculation)
5BerylliumBerylliosis – scarring of the lungs preventing exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. There is no cureLung cancerMostly inhaled soluble beryllium compounds and dust
6Cadmium Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Released enzymes from damaged cells in lungs results in irreversible damageGreatest exposure from food.
7Cobalt Asthma Cumulative lung changes Dermatitis One of 8 essential minerals.
8Copper Eye nose and throat irritation Metal fume fever Acute lung damage – edemaEye, upper respiratory tract irritation
9Iron Siderosis – fibrosis of the lungs caused by iron oxide exposure Disturbances in lung functionDiabetes mellitusMost overdoses by children with medicines, essential mineral
10Magnesium Metal fume fever – chills, fever, muscle aches Essential mineral
11Manganese Manganism (manganese encephelopathy) similar to Parkinson’s Symptoms are irritability, difficulty in walking, speech disturbancesCompulsive behaviors – running, fighting, singingLiver cirrhosis
12Nickel Respiratory tract carcinogen – lung and nasal cancer Nickel carbonyl - formed by combining nickel fumes and carbon monoxide – is extremely toxic
13LeadPeripheral neuropathy – damage that interrupts communication between the brain and other parts of the body and can impair muscle movement, prevent normal sensation in the extremities, and cause painAlso affects kidney, gastrointestinal, reproductive and skeletal systemsIn adults.
14Vanadium Skin and eye irritant Gastrointestinal distress, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, cardiac palpitation, tremor, nervous depression, and kidney damage.
16Chromium Hexavalent chromium from welding Trivalent from soluble salts New hexavalent chromium standardUlceration of nasal septum, skinNot considered a carcinogen as a fume
17Evaluation of Welding Fume Hazards Review MSDSsConsumables, base metals, coatings, cleanersConduct air monitoringDetermine need for controls or respiratory protectionSelect appropriate controls or respiratory protectionDetermine the effectiveness of controls or respiratory protection
18Hierarchy of Controls Engineering controls Administrative controls Initial design specificationsMethods of substitution, process change, isolation, or ventilationAdministrative controlsReduce work times in contaminated areasOther work rulesPersonal protective equipmentMethod of last resortUsed in conjunction with engineering or other controls
19Engineering Controls for Welding SubstitutionSubstitute a less hazardous material for one that is harmful to healthChange the processAutomationRemove paint/coatings from metalIsolationWorker, process, or work operation
20Engineering Controls for Welding VentilationLocal exhaust ventilation systemsCapture or contain contaminants at sourceSystem consists of one of more hoods, ducts, an air cleaner, and a fanFlexible or movable ventilation systems needed“A must” when welding potentially toxic materialsProper method to control exposure to welding fumes
22Engineering Controls for Welding VentilationGeneral ventilation systemsAdd or remove air from work areasUse natural convection through open doors or windows, roof ventilators, and chimneysAir movement produced by fans or blowersUse in conjunction with local exhaust ventilation
23Administrative Controls for Welding Reduce work times in contaminated areasJob rotationSchedule work to reduce number of employees exposedOther work rulesKeep head out of fumesStand upwind of direction of fumes
24Personal Protective Equipment Respiratory protectionUse in conjunction with engineering and/or administrative controlsUse when engineering and/or administrative controls are not feasibleEmployer must select the appropriate type of respiratorEmployer must implement and maintain a respiratory protection program