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Developing a National E-Waste Policy Maria Farrell, Task Manager for infoDev on E-Waste Brazil.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing a National E-Waste Policy Maria Farrell, Task Manager for infoDev on E-Waste Brazil."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing a National E-Waste Policy Maria Farrell, Task Manager for infoDev on E-Waste Brazil

2 Presentation to Caribbean Regional Workshop on ICT in Education Policy 27 July, 2011

3 Structure of this presentation 1.What is e-waste? 2.Why develop an e-waste strategy? 3.What are the challenges for developing countries? 4.What are other emerging economies doing? 5.How to get started! 6.Online resources 7.Contact me

4 1.1 What is e-waste? Electronic and electrical equipment waste, 'e-waste', is generated by a large variety of appliances, from large household appliances (washing machines, refrigerators, televisions) to small electronic devices such as cell phones, computers and consumer electronics. Globally, 20 to 50 million tons of electronic waste each year E-waste is growing faster than any other waste stream E-waste is both a critical environmental issue and an economic opportunity

5 1.2 E-Waste: Environmental Issue

6 1.3 What’s in E-Waste (the small print) Lead Potential damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems, blood systems, kidney and reproductive system in humans. Negative effect on children’s brain development. TV & Monitors (especially CRT monitors); Small household appliances, IT equipment (circuit boards). Cadmium Toxic, with a possible risk of irreversible effects on human body. TV & Monitors (CRT monitors) ; Small household appliances, IT equipment (circuit boards). Mercury Damage to various organs, including the brain and kidneys, as well as the fetus. Small household appliances, IT equipment (circuit boards, cell phones, etc.), fluorescent lamps including LCD backlights. Hexavalent Chromium / Chromium VI Damage to DNA and extremely toxic in the environment. Large household appliances (steel). Plastics (including PVC) Dioxins can be formed when PVC is burned within a certain temperature range. Small household appliances, IT equipment (computers, cell phones, consumer electronic, …) ; TV & Monitors (CRT monitors), cables. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) Impacts on neurobehavioral development. Small household appliances, IT equipment (circuit boards) ; TV & Monitors (CRT monitors), plastics housings. Barium Short-term exposure to barium can cause brain swelling, muscle weakness, damage to the heart, liver, and spleen. Small household appliances, IT equipment (computers) ; TV & Monitors (CRT monitors). Beryllium Classified as a human carcinogen as exposure to it can cause lung cancer. Small household appliances, IT equipment (computers). Toners The black and color toners within the plastic printer cartridge may be carcinogen (esp. carbon black used). Small household appliances (computer peripherals). Phosphor and additives Toxic to human health if touched. TV & Monitors (CRT monitors).

7 1.4 E-Waste: Environmental Issue Inappropriate end-of-life management of e- waste can create toxic environmental impacts: – Manual dismantling: people dismantling electronic and electrical equipment manually may suffer health impacts – Landfill: toxic substances in e-waste can contaminate water sources and ground soil with cadmium, mercury & lead, and release CFCs – Incineration of e-waste plastics generates harmful dioxins and furans

8 1.4 E-Waste: Economic Opportunity

9 1.5 E-Waste: Economic Opportunity The growing e-waste economic opportunity is driven by: – Valuable components and materials contained in electronic waste (e.g. gold, copper, silver, palladium, indium) – Regulatory approaches such as Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) schemes that ensure additional financing for collection and recycling activities.

10 1.6 The E- Waste Life Cycle

11 1.7 Follow the Money Not all parts of the cycle are individually economically sustainable – even with lots of feedstock Precious metal extraction can be profitable, but requires huge investment & expertise Collection is difficult and expensive Regulatory action can allocate costs through the product life cycle AND the recycling chain

12 2.1 Why develop an e-waste strategy? A national strategy implemented by regulation may have the objective to: – Determine the basis on which the market is organized – and make it profitable to enter the market – Mitigate health and environmental risks from toxic substances in e-waste, though in China it is driven by the need to – Reduce pressure on primary commodities in a world with dwindling resources. Beware! E-Waste policy creates winners and losers.

13 2.2 Three Approaches to E-Waste Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) – European WEEE Directive Consumer Pays – Japan Mixed Model – US

14 2.3 Extended Producer Responsibility Producers and importers are responsible for their products European E-waste Directive aimed to: Reduce landfill Improve product design Achieve targets for recovery, reuse and recycling Establish collection systems Advantages: New industry created in collection, dismantling & processing of e-waste Better design of products to reduce compliance costs Progressive targets encourage high and growing collection rates Disadvantages: Higher product costs born by consumers Enforcement costs

15 2.4 Consumer Pays Japan: Retailers are responsible for collecting end-of-life products. But consumers pay at the time of disposal, between $20 - $80 Advantages: Strong and achievable targets, including focus on harmful wastes (CFCs) Up-front payment by user ensures finances recycling Disadvantages: Weak producer incentive to improve product design Weak monitoring and frequent violations by retailers Illegal dumping by consumers to avoid paying the fee

16 2.5 Mixed Model The US: No consensus of industry & government on financing, therefore no federal regulations: – Patchwork of state regulations, mostly based on limited or full Extended Producer Responsibility Advantages: Low cost to manufacturers & distributors & space for different approaches to flourish Disadvantages: Low and patchy e-waste recycling Patchwork of regulations hinders industry development nationally No national awareness of e-waste issues

17 3 What are the challenges for developing countries? Importing & lack of control over producers ‘Donations’ and dumping Size of economy and e-waste feedstock Transport infrastructure Informal sector competes for feedstock Smelting & processing is highly capital- intensive Enforcement, Enforcement, Enforcement

18 4.1 What are other emerging economies doing? Some emerging economies are going for ‘first- mover’ advantage: – India – South Africa

19 4.2 India Still working on draft law to: – Introduce extended producer responsibility – Define and include stakeholders – Ban the import of used electrical and electronic equipment for charity in the country. – Formalize the very large informal sector

20 4.3 South Africa 2009 Waste Act makes manufacturers and importers must define an Industrial Waste Management Plan (IWMP) before they can sell products in South Africa Producers and importers gathered in the e-Waste Association of South Africa (eWASA) to implement their IWMP Consumer Protection Act forces retailers to accept take-back from consumers buying a new product

21 5.1 How to get started! Objective: whichever approach is chosen, the national strategy should aim to: Set out roles and responsibilities among e- waste actors Definition implementation mechanisms and institutional support, as well as enforcement measures

22 5.2 Essential Ingredients National strategy should include: Discussion with all stakeholders: producers, importers, retailers, consumers, refurbishers, recyclers, dismantlers, scavengers, NGOs, academics, environment & other enforcement agencies Financial scheme that allocates costs of collection & treatment Reasonable and progressive targets to keep the momentum going Public awareness-raising Enforcement measures

23 5.3 Set Targets Ambitious but achievable targets will: Boost political will and stakeholder accountability Create action and momentum Set government expectations and national ambition Establish a performance barometer to analyze short, medium, and long-term outcomes

24 It can be done…

25 6 Online Resources UNEP Report ‘RECYCLING – FROM E-WASTE TO RESOURCES’, July 2009: Waste_publication_screen_FINALVERSION- sml.pdf Waste_publication_screen_FINALVERSION- sml.pdf Regional Platform on Personal Computers Electronic-Waste in Latin America and the Caribbean: DO_TOPIC.html DO_TOPIC.html

26 7 Contact us Project lead at infoDev: – Stig Trommer Task Manager: – Maria Farrell

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